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Handover Control and

Adjacencies
CHAPTER 6

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Module Objectives
Explain the motivation for handover
Indicate the different types of handover and multi layer network
Describe the principle steps to be executed for handover (averaging,
triggering, adjacent cell ranking, target cell selection, timer)
Discuss the handover algorithms applied to interference, RX quality and RX
level handover
Discuss the handover algorithms applied to power budget and umbrella
handover, and the impact of the MS speed
Describe the different kinds of imperative handovers, especially the role of
rapid field drop
Explain the use of handover for traffic control

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Synchronized Handover Signalling

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

MS

NETWORK
ACTIVE CALL
HANDO CMD
HANDO
HANDO
HANDO
HANDO

ACC
ACC
ACC
ACC

Old Channel, Old Cell

New Channel, New Cell

HANDO COM
ACTIVE CALL

Original and target cells controlled by same BCF


No timing advanced information required for MS
Inter cell handover from one sector to another of
same BTS
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Non Synchronized Handover


Signalling

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies
MS

NETWORK
ACTIVE CALL
Old Channel, Old Cell
HANDO CMD
HANDO ACC
.
HANDO ACC

Timer
320
ms

PHYS INFO
PHYS INFO

New Channel, New Cell

maxNumberOfRepetition
5..35

HANDO COM
ACTIVE CALL

Original and target cells controlled by different BCF


Timing advanced information required for MS
Inter cell handover from one BTS to another
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover Failure Signalling

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

MS

NETWORK

ACTIVE CALL
HANDOVER CMD
Timer expiry or
Radio link failure
HANDOVER FAIL
ACTIVE CALL

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Old Channel, Old Cell

New Channel, New Cell

Old Channel, Old Cell

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Multi Layer Network Types


Normal
frequency

Super reuse
frequency

Macro cells
Micro cells

Intelligent Coverage Enhancement


High power + low power TRx
Intelligent Underlay Overlay
Different frequencies for high / low power
TRx

GSM 900 cell

Coverage Layer: Gives access to the network


Capacity Layer: Optimises traffic distribution
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

GSM 1800 cell

Handover Strategy
Triggering

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Nx samples
Less than Px samples exceed th
No handover triggered
Actual average samples

threshold
Signal interference thresholds
hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL -110..-47 dBm
Signal quality thresholds
hoThresholdsQualDL/UL

0..7

Target cell selection

Signal level thresholds


hoThresholdLevelDL/UL
hoThresholdRapidLevelUL

-110..-47 dBm
-110..-47 dBm

MS speed thresholds
upper/lowerSpeedLimit

0..255 (unit = 2km/h)

Number of average samples


Nx
1..32
Px
1..32
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Nx samples
Px samples exceed threshold
handover triggered

Handover Strategy
(Handover Reasons)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Uplink Quality

AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO

Downlink Quality

AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO

Uplink Level

AV_RXLEV_UL_HO

Downlink
Level
MS Speed

AV_RXLEV_DL_HO

Timing
Advance

AV_RANGE_HO

INTERFERENCE &
QUALITY
LEVEL

THRESHOLD
COMPARISON

MS SPEED

AV_MS_SPEED
DISTANCE
RAPID FIELD DROP

Adjacent Cells

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)
CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION

Others causes (NO TRESHOLD COMPARISON)

IMPERATIVE
HO

DIRECTED RETRY

- Intelligent Underlay/Overlay (IUO)


- Traffic Reason Handover (TRHO)
- Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (DADL/B)

POWER BUDGET
UMBRELLA

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

PERIODIC
RX LEVEL
CHECK

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Handover Strategy
(Priorities)

More than one handover criterion fulfilled -> process of higher


priority performed
Handover and power control criteria fulfilled -> handover
1) performed
Interference (uplink or downlink)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)

NonBCCHLayerExit
Uplink quality
e.g downlink
quality & slow
Downlink quality
moving MS
AMR unpacking due to UL Lev HO Threshold and UL Qual HO *)
criterion
Uplink level
AMR unpacking due to DL Lev HO Threshold and DL Qual HO **)
-> HO due to
Downlink level
downlink quality
Distance between MS and BTS
Turn around corner MS (special case of rapid field drop)
Any other rapid field drop
Fast / slow moving MS (special case of umbrella handover)
Better cell (Power Budget HO/Umbrella HO)
Load based HO in Common BCCH from BCCH/non-BCCH layer to non-BCCH layer
AMR packing
AMR unpacking

*) Unpacking is started instead of UL level based HO if both UL level and UL quality for unpacking trigger.
**) Unpacking is started instead of DL level based HO if both DL level and DL quality for unpacking trigger.
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Handover Strategy
(Standard Target Cell Ranking)
Adjacent Cell Load Threshold (BLT : 70%)
Can be checked only for cells belonging to the same BSC as the
serving one
btsLoadThreshold
0..100 %
Adjacent Cell Priority (PRI : 3)
hoPriorityLevel
0..7
Overloaded Cell -> Reduction of Priority (OF : 1)
hoLoadFactor
0..7
Ranking (not for imperative and traffic reason handover)
1) Corrected priority
2)
Cells with same priority
-> RX
Cell
a
b level c

NOKIA

Overloaded?
Priority
hoLoadFactor
Corrected priority
Rx level

N/Y
4
2
4/2
-75

No cell overloaded
A overloaded

-> priorities 4,3,3 -> cell list a,b,c


-> priorities 2,3,3 -> cell list b,c,a

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

N
3
1
3
-80

N
3
1
3
-83

Handover Strategy
(Decision due to RX level)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Any kind of handover (except umbrella)


AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0,
msTxPwrMax(n) P)
P depends on MS power class
msTxPwrMax(n): max power MS is allowed to transmit with
Umbrella(pmax1/pmax2)
handover

1a

1b

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > hoLevelUmbrella(n) (AUCL)

Minimum allowed signal level for target cell


rxLevMinCell
hoLevelUmbrella

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

-110..-47 dBm
-110..-47 dBm

any handover (except umbrella)


umbrella handover

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Handover Strategy
(Decision due to Power Budget)
General case

PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n)


2a PBGT = (msTxPwrMax - msTxPwrMax(n))
(AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)
PMAX1 (serving cell)

pmax1(neighbor cell)

Handover due to RX level, RX quality, distance and umbrella


handover
2b PBGT > hoMarginLev/Qual(n)
PBGT = (AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO) (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)
Power budget margin to prevent repeated handovers between adjacent
cells
hoMarginPBGT (PMRG:6)
-24..63 dB
general case
RX level and RX quality margins to prevent repeated handovers between adjacent cells
hoMarginQual(LMRG:3)
-24..24 dB
handover due to signal quality
hoMarginLevel(QMRG:0)
-24..24 dB
handover due to signal level
EnableHOMarginLevQual
Y/N
required to enable margins
(MRGS : Y)

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Handover Strategy
(Target Cell Ranking with C/I)

Estimation of C/I
For each adjacent cell: reference cells (indicated by LAC and cell
identification)
ciEstMethod
1:AVE -> C/I averaged over all reference cells
(CI METH :0)
2:MAX -> C/I taken from worst reference cell
ciEstWeight
(W1..W5: -)

0 -> reference cell not used


1..10 -> individual weight for average C/I

levelAdjustment
-63..63 dB -> signal difference adjacent reference cell
(L1L5 :0)
Comparison with user defined interference band
lowerCLimit
-128..127 dB
(L1L6:30,25,20,17,13,9)
Correction of priority
priorityAdjStep
-8 -> cell removed from target candidate list
-7..7 -> priority decreased/increased in dependence on C/I
(P1..P7:3,1,0,-1,-2,-5,-8)

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Handover Strategy
(Target Cell Ranking with C/I)
Interference band
1
2
3
4
5
6

lowerCILimit
30
25
20
17
13
9

priorityAdjStep
3
1
0
-1
-2
-5

Cell
Overloaded?
Priority
hoLoadFactor
Corrected priority
C/I
C/I band
priorityAdjStep
Corrected priority
Rx level

a
Y
4
2
2
28
1
3
5
-75

c
N
3
1
3
22
3
0
3
-83

b
N
3
1
3
18
4
-1
2
-80

Without C/I correction -> priorities 2,3,3 -> cell list b,c,a
With C/I correction -> priorities 5,2,3 -> cell list a,c,b
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Basic Handover Timers

Minimum time between consecutive handovers related to same


connection
minIntBetweenHOReq (MIH:5s)
0..31 s
Minimum time between consecutive handover attempts after
failure
minIntBetweenUnsuccHOAttempt (MIU:3s)
0..31s
Time interval between consecutive RX level estimations of the adjacent cells
for power budget and umbrella handover
hoPeriodPBGT (HPP :6)
0..63 SACCH periods
hoPeriodUmbrella(HPU:6)
0..63 SACCH periods
Basic timers do not stop averaging and threshold comparison

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

NOKIA

Basic Handover Timers

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

NOKIA

Guard Handover Timers

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Interference Handover
(Parameters)

Thresholds
hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL
(IDR/IUR)
hoThresholdsQualDL/UL
(QDR/QUR)

-110..-47 dBm
0..7

Intra / inter cell handover


hoPreferenceOrderInterDL/UL
(HDL)
enableIntraHOInterDL/UL
(EIC/EIH)

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

INTRA
INTER
Y/N

for network without frequency hopping


for network with frequency hopping
required to enable intra cell handover

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Interference Handover
(Execution)
AvRX level hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL
AND
AvRX quality value hoThresholdsQualDL/UL
Ranking of adjacent cells

enableHOMarginLevQual = Y

enableHOMarginLevQual = N

Check of adjacent cells with


conditions 1a and 2b

Check of adjacent cells with


conditions 1a and 2a

Suitable adjacent cell ?


Yes
Inter cell handover
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

No
If enabled
Intra cell handover

Otherwise
Handover failure

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Interference Handover
(Example)

hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL
= INTER
enableHandoverMarginLevQual
=Y
Adjacentcells
cells
BTS outputAdjacent
power
evaluation
= Maximum evaluation
Conditions
Conditions1a
1aand
and
2b:
2b:
AV_RXLEV_NCELL
AV_RXLEV_NCELL
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO
AV_RXLEV_DL_HO>>
hoMarginQual
hoMarginQual
fulfilled
fulfilled Adjacent cell(n
Serving cell
IfIfno
noadjacent
adjacent->
->
Intra
HO
Intra HO

hoThresholdQualDL
=4
/Px:4,
Nx:6
hoThresholdInterferenceDL
= -85 dBm
/Px:1, Nx:1
hoMarginQual
= 0 dB
BOTH
BOTHthe
theQuality
Qualityand
andInterference
InterferenceThreshold
Thresholdisis
exceeded
exceeded(bad_RxQuality/good_RxLevel)
(bad_RxQuality/good_RxLevel)
INTERFERENCE
INTERFERENCEHO
HO
Adjacent cell(n)RX Level
RX Quality
2
Serving cell
3

-80

hoThresholdQualDL
-85

hoThresholdInterferenceD

5
HO
HO

6
NOKIA

1
2
BSSPAR
/ 11.2004 V3

-90

t1

t2

Suitable
SuitableHO
HO
target
cell:
target cell:
RxLev(n)
RxLev(n)
RxLev
RxLev

RX Quality Handover
(Execution)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Thresholds
hoThresholdsQualDL/UL

0..7

AvRX quality value hoThresholdsQualDL/UL


Ranking of adjacent cells

enableHOMarginLevQual = Y

enableHOMarginLevQual = N

Check of adjacent cells with


conditions 1a and 2b

Check of adjacent cells with


conditions 1a and 2a

Suitable adjacent cell ?


Yes
Inter cell handover
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

No
Handover failure

RX Level Handover
(Execution)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Thresholds
hoThresholdsLevDL/UL

-110..-47 dBm

AvRX level hoThresholdsLevDL/UL


Ranking of adjacent cells

enableHOMarginLevQual = Y

enableHOMarginLevQual = N

Check of adjacent cells with


conditions 1a and 2b

Check of adjacent cells with


conditions 1a and 2a

Suitable adjacent cell ?


Yes
Inter cell handover
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

No
Handover failure

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Power Budget Handover


(Execution)
Must be enabled with
enablePwrBudgetHandover

Y/N

Serving cell measurements need not exceed a


threshold
Periodic check of RX levels of adjacent cells
hoPeriodPBGT
0..63 SACCH periods
Estimation of RX levels of adjacent cells
Ranking of adjacent cells
Check of adjacent cells with
conditions 1a and 2a
Adjacent cell with sufficient RX level / power budget
Yes
Inter cell handover
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

No
No handover

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Umbrella Handover
(Parameters)

Must be enabled with


enableUmbrellaHandover (EUM)

Y/N

Serving cell measurements need not exceed a threshold


hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL : ADJC, -47.-110, -47)
Periodic check of RX levels of adjacent cells
hoPeriodUmbrella(HPU: HOC,6)

0..63 SACCH periods

Thresholds to determine layers of adjacent cells


gsmMacrocellThreshold(GMAC:-35)
5..43 dBm
dcsMacrocellThreshold(DMAC:-26)
0..36/32 dBm
gsmMicrocellThreshold(GMIC:33)
5..43 dBm
dcsMicrocellThreshold(DMIC:24)
0..36/32 dBm

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

for GSM 900 / 800


for GSM 1800 / 1900
for GSM 900 / 800
for GSM 1800 / 1900

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Umbrella Handover
(Adjacent Cell Classification)

Maximum MS output power allowed on TCH: PTCH -> defined for every
adjacent cell
Maximum MS output capability
: PMAX -> defined by
power class

Cell classification criteria: consider


PTCH

PTCH >= Macrocell Threshold


-> adjacent cell = macro cell
Microcell Threshold < PTCH < Macrocell Threshold -> adjacent cell = middle size
cell PTCH <= MicrocellThreshold
-> adjacent cell = micro cell

Handover criteria: consider

PMAX
PMAX >= Macrocell Threshold
-> only
handover to macro cell
Microcell Threshold < PMAX <
Macrocell Threshold
-> only handover to middle size cell PMAX <=
MicrocellThreshold
cell

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

-> only handover to micro

Umbrella Handover
(Execution)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Estimation of RX levels and PTCH check of adjacent cells


Ranking and layer classification of adjacent cells
Check of adjacent cells with
condition 1b
Adjacent cell with sufficient RX level and of correct layer
Yes
Inter cell handover

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

No
No handover

Umbrella Handover
(Example)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

= 15 dBm -> micro cell


hoLevelUmbrella
= -85msTxPwrMax(n)
dBm
PMAX
= 15 dBm -> handover to micro ce
gsmMacrocellThreshold = 30 dBm
gsmMicrocellThreshold = 20 dBm
hoThresholdLevelDL
= -95 dBm
1800 Macro

1800 Micro

Threshold umbrella
handover 85 dBm
Threshold RX
level
handover 95
dBm

B
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Umbrella
Umbrella
handover
handoverto
to
micro cell

RX
RXlevel
levelhandover
handover
back
backto
tomacro
macrocell
cell

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(Overview)
enablePowerBudgetHo(EPB) = Yes &
enableUmbrellaHo(EUM) = Yes
Power budget handover to cells of the same layer
Umbrella handover to cells of different layer
UMB
RR
PBGT

umbrella HO
radio reason HO
power budget HO

macrocells

PBGT,RR
UMB,RR

UMB,RR
PBGT,RR
microcells

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(Adjacent Cell Classification)

Predefinition of layer possible by adjCellLayer( ACL:N/SAME/UPPER/LOWER


Three layers visible relative to serving cell
Used for target cell evaluation
Combined umbrella and power budget
Handover based on MS speed
Fast moving MS handling in macro cell

UPPER layer (macro)

SAME layer (serving


layer)
LOWER layer
(micro)

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

N (no
predefinition)

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
Mobile distribution in multi layer networks based on speed
(Impact of MS Speed)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Slow moving MS -> lower layer (micro) cells -> optimum capacity
use
Fast moving MS -> upper layer (macro) cells -> reduction of
signalling traffic

Two proprietary Nokia features


Fast Moving Mobile Support (FMMS)
Estimation of MS speed based on number of measurement
reports from
adjacent micro cells
used to move MS from UPPER (macro) to LOWER (micro) cell
MSSpeed Detection
Measurement of MS speed by counting fading dips
Used to move slow/fast MS from macro/micro to micro/macro
cell

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(Fast Moving MS Support:FMMS)

Estimation of MS speed based on measurement reports from adjacent micro


cells
MS enters macro cell -> counter is started
rxLevMinCell (SL)

-110..-47 dBm

if micro cell has higher level -> counter +2


otherwise counter 1

fastMovingThreshold 0..255 SACCH frames if exceeded -> handover to micro cell


triggered
(FMT:0)
handover

target cells selected as for umbrella

Micro cell has sufficient RX level


Handover possible

Threshold umbrella
handover 85 dBm

time t
Slow moving MS
handover triggered

Fast moving
threshold 40
Counter
time t
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Macro cell

Micro cell

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(MS Speed Detection)

Measurement of MS speed based on number of fading dips crossing the average


signal level
The algorithm counts the rate at which the signal level crosses the averaged
signal value.
Speed thresholds
upperSpeedLimit(USL)
lowerSpeedLimit (LSL)
Nx (STN)
comparison
Px (STP)
exceed

0..255 units of 2 km/h


0..255 units of 2 km/h
1..32

if exceeded -> handover to upper layer (macro) cell


if exceeded -> handover to lower layer (micro) cell
Number of averaged values taken for

1..32

Number of averaged values which must


threshold

Crossing rate measurements not reliable for


Frequency hopping network
DTX during current or previous SACCH frame
Power control

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(Combined MS Speed Handling)
Macro cell with RF hopping No crossing rate algorithm
because of RF hopping
But fast moving MS support

fast MSs

BTS

BSC

Adjacent cell
measurements
Upper speed threshold Slow MS
exceeded

Handover
algorithm
BTS

slow MSs

Crossing rate algorithm


as no RF hopping
Micro cellswithout RF hopping

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(MS Speed Handling Execution)

MS just entered macro


cell Counter = 0
Check of adjacent cells with
condition 1a
Fulfilled -> counter + 2
Not fulfilled -> counter -1

MS just entered micro


cell

Measurement of MS speed

Counter > fast moving


threshold

MS speed > upper


speed threshold

Yes

No

Yes

No

Slow moving MS
HO to micro cell

Fast moving MS
No HO

Fast moving MS
HO to macro cell

Slow moving MS
No HO

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


HO
(MS Speed Handling Execution)

If MS power control is in progress, the HO & PC algorithm will discard the MS speed indications until the po
control is completed..
The MS speed estimations indicated before the POC start are valid for averaging and threshold compariso

VARIABLE WINDOW SIZE feature is also used along with MS SPEED DETECTION feature.
In principle, high-speed MS should use shorter average window size and low speed MS should use longer a
window size.
PARAMETER:
MsSpeedDetectionState (SDS)(HOC):
0

MS speed info is used to control traffic between separate layers of the multi-layered network usi

1-100

MS speed info is used to scale values of averaging parameters. If value is 80%, it means for a fas
MS, window size is 80% of average window size.

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Directed Retry
(Parameters)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

No TCH available during call set up in serving cell -> handover to TCH of
other cell
Must be enabled with
drInUse

Y/N

Thresholds to be exceeded by target cell according condition (1a)


drMethod
0/1
Defined type of
threshold
rxLevMinCell
-110..-47 dBm
Used if drMethod = 0
drThreshold
-110..-47 dBm
Used if drMethod = 1 and
drThreshold > rxLevMin Cell
Timers (to be counted from TCH assignment)
minTimeLimitDirectedRetry 0..14 s
No target cell evaluation allowed
maxTimeLimitDirectedRetry 1..15 s
Target cell evaluation allowed
TCH
SDCCH
congested

minTimeLimitDR
Assignment
Request

maxTimeLimitDR
DR not allowed
DR allowed

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Time

Directed Retry
(Execution)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

TCH available in serving


cell
Yes

No

Normal call
set up

Estimation of RX levels
of adjacent cells
Ranking of adjacent cells
Check of adjacent cells with
condition 1a
Adjacent cell with sufficient RX level

NOKIA

Yes

No

Directed retry handover

Call set up fails

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Intelligent Directed Retry

Target cell selection including cell and subscriber type


Must be enabled with
idrUsed
Y/N
Cell type classification
cellType
GSM/MCN

GSM = macro cell, MCN = micro cell

Subscriber classification by
Power class
Priority (defined by network administrator)
Directed Retry to external BSS
disableExtDr
Y/N

N possible only, if directed retry supported


by all BSCs and the MSC

macro cell (GSM cell)


congestion

GSM subscriber
Both GSM and MCN cells
allowed as target
NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS
NOKIA
BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

micro cells
(MCN cells)

macro cell (GSM


cell)
micro cells
congestion
(MCN cells)
MCN subscriber
Only MCN cells
allowed as target

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

MS BTS Distance Handover

Target cell selection including cell and subscriber type


Must be enabled with
enableMSDistanceProcess(EMS:HOC)
Distance thresholds
msDistanceHoThresholdParam(MSR) 0..63
Nx
(MSN) 1..32
Px
(MSP) 1..32
threshold

Y/N
63 = maximum allowed distance
Number of averaged values taken for comparison
Number of averaged values which must exceed

Procedures after handover triggering


msDistanceBehaviour(DISB:BSC)
0
Call released immediately
1..60 s Handover attempt within given time
Unsuccessful attempt -> call released
255
Just handover attempt
Unsuccessful attempt -> call still supported by old cell

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Rapid Field Drop Handover


(Parameters)

Normal RX level handover -> triggered by averaged measurements


-> too slowly in case of rapid field drop
Rapid field drop handover -> triggered by raw measurements
-> can react immediately
Thresholds
hoThresholdsRapidLevUL(RPD:-110) -110..-47 dBm
Raw uplink level to be exceeded
hoThresholdsRapidLevUIN(rpd(px))
0..32
1..32 = number of consecutive measurements
which must exceed RX level threshold
0 = rapid field drop handover disabled
Target cell selection
chainedAdjacentCell (CHAIN)

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Y/N

Cell must be defined as chained cell

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

NOKIA

Rapid Field Drop Handover


(Execution)

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Rapid Field Drop Handover


(Example)

Chained
Cell

hoThresholdRapidLevUL
= -93 dBm
hoThresholdRapidLevUlN
=2
chainedAdjacentCell
=Y

Serving
Cell

Serving cell

Threshold rapid field drop


handover 93 dBm

1st
2nd

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
triggered

Enhanced Rapid Field Drop Handover


(Scenarios)

Signal Level

Signal Level

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

MS moves away from cell site, the


signal is dropping gradually

MS moves away from cell site,


the signal is dropping gradually
MS turns a corner, the signal drops
faster than moving in straight line

MS turns a corner, the


signal drops rapidly

Time

Fast moving
MS

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Time

Slow moving
MS

Enhanced Rapid Field Drop Handover


(Parameters)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Mast be enabled with


erfdEnabled(ERFD)
DIS,UL,DL,UDL
DIS = disabled
UL/DL = rapid field drop based on only downlink/uplink
considered
UDL = rapid field drop based on both considered
Thresholds
ddeThresholdsLev(ERT:10)
Nx
(ERN:2)
comparison
Px
(ERP:3)
exceed

0..63 dB
1..32

Field drop suffered by signal to be exceeded


Number of single values taken for

1..32

Number of single values which must


threshold

Deep drop edge Monitoring window


ddeWindow (ERMW:2)
1..32

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Field drop is determined by comparing current


measurement n with measurement n - ddeWindow

Enhanced Rapid Field Drop Handover


Handover
(Field Drop Detection)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

ddeWindow
frames

= 2 SACCH

Handover triggered

ddeThresholdsLev = 20 dB
px

=2

nx

=3

Field drop
threshold 20
dB

Serving cell
Adjacent cell

ddeWindow
-60 -60 -61 -63 -83 -87

Field drop

22

24

nx

px

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

-89 -91

-94 -89 -89

Enhanced Rapid Field Drop Handover


Handover
(Handover Speed Up)

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Handover triggered
Handover executed

Field drop
detection -> 5
SACCH frames
Handover
execution -> 2
SACCH frames

Field drop
threshold 20
dB
Serving cell

Total ->
7 SACCH frames

Adjacent cell
ddeWindow
-60 -60 -61 -63 -83 -87

ErfdOver

-89 -91

-94 -89 -89

averagingWindowSizeAdjCell = 4
modifiedAveWinNcell = 2
Handover triggered -> modified averaging parameters for adjacent cell RX
levels
modifiedAveWinNcell(ERAW: 2) 1..32 SACCH frames
modified NOZ
(ENOZ:1) 1..32
erfdOver
(ERD:10)
0..64 s
NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Shorter averaging window


Modified number of allowed zero results
New parameters valid until timer expires

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Traffic Reason Handover(MSC Initiated)

TRHO (N,-47...-109) (ADJC) : If value is N traffic reason handover is


disabled

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Traffic Reason Handover


(BSC Initiated)
Serving cell with load >
amhUpperLoadThreshold

Must not be used together


with
MSC initiated handover

Ranking of adjacent cells


only according RX level

Deactivation
amhTrhoPbgtMargin = N

If Adjacent cell with sufficient RX level /


power budget thenload <
amhMaxLoadOfTgtCell
Yes

NOKIA

No

Power budget
< hoMarginPGBT

Power budget
>=hoMarginPGBT

Traffic reason
handover

Power budget
handover

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover failure

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Traffic Reason Handover


(BSC Initiated)

PARAMETERS
AmhUpperLoadThreshold (AUT) (BSC) (N...0 TO 100)
AmhTRHOPbgtMargin (ATPM) (HOC) (N.... -24 to 24dB)
AmhMaxLoadOfTgtCell (AML) (SEG) (N... 0 to 100)
TrhoGuardTime (TGT) (BTS) (N....0 to 120s)
HO back to the original cell is prevented during TGT period.

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Handover
Control &
Adjacencies

Multi Layer / IUO


Network Load Control

Mast be enabled with


amhTrafficControlIUO
amhTrafficControlMCN
band
Thresholds
amhLowerLoadThreshold

NOKIA

BSSPAR / 11.2004 V3

Y/N
Y/N

Acts for IUO network


Acts both for macro / micro cell and dual
network

0..100 %

If there is little traffic in serving cell, the following


handovers are not allowed
IUO handover / direct access to super reuse
TRX (for IUO network)
Fast moving MS support / MS speed detection /
umbrella handover (for MCN or dual band
network)
-> MS is kept in coverage layer