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BIOTECHNOLOGY

Anithra.S S
Natural Science

Biotechnology
Biotechnology helps to meet
our basic needs.
Food, clothing, shelter,
health and safety

Biotechnology
Improvements by using
science
Science helps in production
plants, animals and other
organisms

Biotechnology
Also used in maintaining
a good environment that
promotes our well being

Definition
Any technique that uses living
organisms or substances from those
organisms to make or modify a
product, to improve plants or
animals.

Cont.
Or to develop
microorganisms for specific
uses.

Modern biotechnology
DNA

RNA
Transcription

Protein
Translation

Genetic code determined for all 20


amino acids by Marshal Nirenberg and
Heinrich Matthaei and Gobind Khorana
Nobel Prize 1968
3 base sequence = codon

Agricultural View
All of the applied science
based operations in
producing food, fiber, shelter,
and related products

Agricultural View
Milk production
New horticultural and
ornamental plants
Wildlife, aquaculture, natural
resources and environmental
management

Multidisciplinary
Involves many disciplines or
branches of learning
Includes all areas of Life
Sciences

Organismic Biotech
Study and use natural genetic
variations
Cloning is an example of
organismic biotech

Cloning
Process of producing a new
organism from cells or tissues
of existing organism.
1996 cloned sheep Dolly
Edinburgh, Scotland

Molecular Biotech
Changing the genetic makeup of an organism
Altering the structure and
parts of cells
Complex!

Molecular Biotech
Uses genetic engineering,
molecular mapping and
similar processes

Transgenic
Results of Gen. Eng. Are said
to be transgenic
Genetic material in an
organism has been altered

Biotech examples
Medicine
Agriculture
Environment
Forestry
Food and beverage processing

Greater Production
Increases yields
bST use in cows to produce
more milk
Higher crop yields from
drought, disease & insect
resistant crops

Health Promoting
Foods

Food with unique traits


Some contain therapeutants
Some designed with nutrient
enrichment

Easy preparation
Flavr-Savr Tomato
Reached the market in early
1990s
Engineered to have a longer
shelf life

Flavr-Savr
No soft spots
No rotten spots
Tomato resists spoilage

What are the applications of biotechnology?


Production of new and improved crops/foods,
industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals and livestock
Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases
Gene therapy
Vaccine development (recombinant vaccines)
Environmental restoration
Protection of endangered species
Conservation biology
Bioremediation
Forensic applications
Food processing (cheese, beer)

Transfer of new
genes into animal
organisms

Diagnostics

Cell
Culture

Monoclonal
Antibodies

Crime solving

Molecular
Biology

DNA
technology

Tracers

Genetic
Engineering

Banks of
DNA, RNA
and proteins
Complete
map of the
human
genome

Anti-cancer drugs

Culture of plants
from single cells

Synthesis
of new
proteins

Mass prodn. of
human proteins
Resource bank
for rare human
chemicals

New types of
plants and
animals
New types
of food

Cloning

New
antibiotics

Synthesis of
specific DNA
probes

Localisation of
genetic disorders

Gene therapy

Biotechnology Timeline
1750 BC

The Sumerians brew beer.

500 BC

Chinese use moldy soybean


curds as an antibiotic to treat
boils

1590

Janssen invents the microscope

1675

Leeuwenhoek discovers cells


(bacteria, red blood cells)

1830

Proteins are discovered

1833

The first enzymes are isolated

1855

The Eschirium coli bacterium


is discovered

Biotechnology Timeline
1859

Charles Darwin publishes On


the Origin of Species

1864

Louis Pasteur shows all living


things are produced by other
living things

1865

The age of genetics begins

1902

Walter Sutton coins the term


gene - proposed that
chromosomes carry genes

Biotechnology Timeline
1910

Chromosomal theory of
inheritance proved

1928

Fleming discovers antibiotic


properties of certain molds

1941

George Beadle and Edward Tatum propose


that one gene makes one protein

1949

Sickle cell anaemia demonstrated to be


molecular disease

Biotechnology Timeline
1952

The Waring Blender


experiment

1953
unravelled

The double helix is

1967

The genetic code is cracked

1973

Recombinant DNA
technology begins

1975

First international conference


on recombinant DNA
technology

Biotechnology Timeline
1975

DNA sequencing discovered

1975

Monoclonal antibody
technology introduced

1978

Genentech Inc. established

1978

Genentech use genetic engineering to produce


human insulin in E.coli - 1980 IPO of $89

1978

Kary Mullis discovers PCR

Biotechnology Timeline
1989

The Human Genome Project begins

1990

First use of gene therapy

1990

First product of recombinant


DNA technology introduced
into US food chain

1993

FDA announces that


transgenic food is safe

1994

The FLAVRSAVR tomato first genetically engineered


whole food

Biotechnology Timeline
1996

First mammal cloned from adult


cells

1990s

First conviction using genetic


fingerprinting

1996

Development of Affymetrix
GeneChip

1997

First artificial chromosome

History of Biotechnology
1998

Human embryonic stem cells


grown

1999

Celera announces completion


of Drosophilia genome
sequence

2000

90% of Human Genome


sequence published on web

2001

Human genome project


complete

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