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P ra c t ic e ( BMP ) in

Bra c k is h w a t e r
Aq u a c u lt u re o n
En v iro n m e n t a l
P ro b le m s :
A Ca s e S t u d y in
In d o
Environmental n e s ia
Characteristics of
Aquaculture Farms: Chemical, Biological
and Physical Conditions

Lilik Teguh Pambudi


201056912
Department of Fisheries Biology
Global Fisheries
Production
160
Millions of tonnes
Aquaculture
140
Catch
120

100

80

60

40

20

0
FAO, 2005
1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 200
Indonesian Fisheries Policy

GENERAL POLICY:
n Controlling production from
capture
n Increase prod. from
aquaculture
n Develop product processing
n Expand world market &
Improve marketing
intelligent
MOMAF, 2007
Aquaculture Programs

1.Increase in aquaculture
production for export
2.Increase in aquaculture
production for domestic
consumption
3.Protection and
rehabilitation of
aquaculture resources

MOMAF, 2008
Program

Program on increment of
aquaculture production
Projected Production
2010-2014
MOMAF, 2008
Metric Ton
Increment
No. Items 2009* 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 (%)
2009-2014
Total 4.780.100 5.376.200 6.847.500 9.415.700 13.020.800 16.891.000 353
12 27 38 38 30
1 Seaweeds 2.574.000 2.672.800 3.504.200 5.100.000 7.500.000 10.000.000 392
2 Catfish 332.600 495.600 749.000 1.146.000 1.777.000 2.783.000 836
- Hypopthalmus 132.600 225.000 383.000 651.000 1.107.000 1.883.000 1420
- Walking catfish 200.000 270.600 366.000 495.000 670.000 900.000 450
3 Tilapia 378.300 491.800 639.300 850.000 1.105.000 1.242.900 329
4 Milkfish 291.300 349.600 419.000 503.400 604.000 700.000 240
5 Shrimps 348.100 400.300 460.000 529.000 608.000 699.000 200
- Monodon 123.100 125.300 130.000 139.000 158.000 199.000 161
- Vanamei 225.000 275.000 330.000 390.000 450.000 500.000 222
6 Carp 254.400 267.100 280.400 300.000 325.000 350.000 138
7 Gourame 38.500 40.300 42.300 44.400 46.600 48.900 127
8 Barramundi 4.600 5.000 5.500 6.500 7.500 8.500 185
9 Grouper 5.300 7.000 9.000 11.000 15.000 20.000 377
10 Others 553.000 646.700 738.800 925.400 1.032.700 1.038.700 287
4.780.100 5.376.200 6.847.500 9.415.700 13.020.800 16.891.000
Trend of Milkfish Production, 1998 2014 (MT)
Countries Philippines Indonesia Taiwan Singapore Guam Sri Lanka Kiribati Palau Tuvalu

1998 162.458 158.666 58.349 148 25 4


1999 180.771 209.758 50.824 378 28 13
2000 209.994 217.208 39.730 676 30 14
2001 225.337 209.525 59.355 656 30 18
2002 232.162 222.317 72.434 956 80 14
2003 246.504 226.114 77.899 1.492 9 5
2004 273.592 241.438 56.853 1.839 9 1
2005 289.153 254.067 50.050 1.500 12 1
2006 315.074 212.932 56.135 1.183 40 12 1
2007 349.741 263.139 53.245 1.303 40 30 5 4 1
2008* 381.000 277.471 54.000 1.800 43 32 6 4 1
2009* 415.000 291.300 55.000 2.400 45 33 7 4 1
2010* 452.000 349.600 55.000 3.300 48 35 9 5 1
2011* 493.000 419.000 56.000 4.500 51 36 10 5 1
2012* 537.000 503.000 57.000 6.000 54 38 12 5 1
2013* 585.000 604.000 58.000 8.000 58 40 15 5 1
2014* 637.000 700.000 59.000 11.000 62 42 18 6 1
Increment (%) 8,94 15,19 1,48 35,64 6,38 5,00 19,81 5,00 2,00

Source : FAO Fishstat 2007


Trend of Tilapia Production, 1998 2014 (MT)
Negara China Egypt Indonesia Thailand Philippines Honduras Ecuador Laos Costa Rica Uganda
People's
Dem. Rep.

1998 471.813 52.755 26.807 73.427 60.655 1.020 1.730 9.549 5.252 100
1999 494.357 103.988 31.217 76.460 69.788 1.600 4.400 13.662 6.338 200
2000 548.261 157.425 40.836 82.363 77.642 1.900 9.201 18.928 7.700 400
2001 582.402 152.515 50.876 84.480 89.507 2.500 10.318 22.499 8.000 1.350
2002 611.165 167.735 60.437 83.780 104.361 4.400 12.036 26.872 12.490 1.797
2003 696.169 199.557 71.790 98.336 111.328 7.020 16.958 29.205 14.090 2.000
2004 774.662 199.038 98.102 160.241 118.095 9.000 18.153 29.205 17.989 1.660
2005 844.210 217.019 151.363 203.737 126.563 28.376 19.142 19.590 16.493 4.221
2006 958.983 258.925 179.934 205.326 160.482 28.400 19.368 19.590 11.677 11.365
2007 1.133.611 265.862 206.904 190.075 180.064 28.356 20.000 19.590 17.687 16.763
2008* 1.250.517 326.448 291.307 214.239 203.495 38.040 27.779 21.673 20.765 20.476
2009* 1.379.479 400.841 378.300 241.475 229.976 51.030 38.585 23.977 24.379 25.011
2010* 1.521.740 492.187 491.800 272.173 259.902 68.457 53.593 26.526 28.621 30.551
2011* 1.678.673 604.350 638.300 306.774 293.723 91.835 74.439 29.346 33.602 37.319
2012* 1.851.789 742.073 850.000 345.774 331.944 123.196 103.393 32.465 39.450 45.585
2013* 2.042.758 911.181 1.105.000 389.732 375.140 165.268 143.610 35.917 46.315 55.682
2014* 2.253.422 1.118.827 1.242.900 439.278 423.956 221.707 199.470 39.735 54.375 68.015
Increment (%) 10,31 22,79 26,03 12,71 13,01 34,15 38,90 10,63 17,40 22,15

Source : FAO Fishstat 2007


Trend of Tiger Shrimp Production, 1998 2014 (MT)
Negara Viet Nam Indonesia India China Myanmar Philippines Malaysia Thailand Madagascar Sri Lanka

1998 38.977 74.824 76.900 2.392 36.859 9.685 247.458 2.492 6.520
1999 41.176 92.726 73.700 4.936 37.913 11.733 271.019 3.486 3.820
2000 67.486 90.483 90.975 4.964 40.467 15.540 304.988 4.800 4.360
2001 111.095 103.603 97.100 5.473 40.698 26.352 274.330 5.399 3.540
2002 126.416 112.840 108.990 6.550 35.493 24.739 200.574 7.313 2.560
2003 150.000 132.761 108.680 44.723 19.181 34.998 25.376 194.909 7.007 3.360
2004 185.569 131.399 127.802 53.004 30.000 35.917 25.721 106.884 6.243 2.380
2005 177.200 134.682 142.070 66.243 48.640 37.721 21.866 26.056 6.726 1.570
2006 150.000 147.867 142.967 69.296 49.126 38.209 16.374 10.200 8.463 2.480
2007 170.000 134.930 101.165 61.617 48.303 39.825 11.435 10.600 8.457 3.580
2008* 205.000 134.930 105.000 90.000 72.000 40.000 12.000 9.500 9.800 3.600
2009* 247.000 123.100 110.000 131.000 108.000 40.600 12.800 8.600 11.400 3.500
2010* 297.000 125.300 115.000 190.000 162.000 41.000 13.500 7.700 13.200 3.400
2011* 357.000 130.000 120.000 277.000 243.000 41.400 14.200 7.000 15.300 3.300
2012* 430.000 139.000 124.000 404.000 363.000 41.900 15.000 6.200 17.800 3.200
2013* 518.000 158.000 130.000 589.000 544.000 42.300 16.000 5.600 20.600 3.100
2014* 624.000 199.000 135.000 858.000 815.000 42.700 17.000 5.000 24.000 3.000
Increment (%) 20,41 6,19 4,21 45,68 49,73 1,00 5,83 -10,18 16,07 -2,49
Source : FAO Fishstat 2007
Shrimp CultureGuidance
1. Aquaculture zoning
n Farms should be sited
according to national &
Provincial planning and
legal frame works in
environmentally suitable
locations, making efficient
use of land and water
resources and in ways that
conserve biodiversity,
ecologically sensitive
habitats & ecosystem
functions, & recognize
other resources (land &
water) use
2. Farm design
n Farm should be
designed and
constructed in
ways that
minimize
environmental
damage, promote
biodiversity, &
facilitate worker
health and safety
3. Water use and management
n The impact of
water use on
water resources
should be
minimized
4. Broodstock & Seeds
nTh e u s e o f h ig h
h e a lt h h a t c h e ry
re a re d s e e d s s h o u ld
b e e n c o u ra g e s t o
re d u c e d is e a s e s
o u t b re a k & in c re a s e
5. Feed management
n Feeds and feed
management
practices should
be use that
make efficient
use of available
feed resources,
optimize fish
health and
growth,
6. Health
minimize management
discharge
nMinwaste.
im iz e t h e
ris k s o f d is e a s e s
a ffe c t in g b o t h
t h e c u lt u re d &
w ild s t o c k s &
7. Food Safety MOMAF, 2008

n Food safety and the No antibiotics used


quality of fish/
Shrimp products
should be ensured,
whilst reducing the
risks to ecosystems &
human health. No
chemicals &
8.Social responsibility
antibiotic use

nFarms should be developed and


operated in social manner that
benefits the farm, the local
communities and the country &
that contributes effectively to
rural development & particularly
poverty alleviation in coastal
areas
Policies Needed

n Zoning of coastal areas for different


activities based on the potential benefits
and possible impacts
n Adjustment of expansion of brackish water
pond areas to meet the carrying capacity
of the environment
n Conservation of mangrove areas as green-
belts of shrimp pond culture areas & as
component of coastal ecosystem
n Adoption of BMP, assessment of the
impact of the shrimp and fish culture to
the environment
Sustainable Aquaculture
Best Management Practices
n Sustainable Technology
n Low water exchange
system
n Closed pond system
n Zero water exchange
(Heterotrophic
-bacteria floc)
system
n Environmental Friendly
n Reservoirs
n Sedimentations
n No chemicals or anti-
biotics
n Mangrove
conservation
n Strict Bio-security
Shrimp Pond Culture
Fa rm in g Te c h n o lo g y :
1.Traditional/Extensive
2.Semi Intensive/Traditional plus
3.Intensive
4.Polyculture (shrimp, milkfish, seaweeds)
Shrimp Pond Culture
in Estuarine Area
Bottom Soil Characteristics
in Shrimp Pond
pond need
to be
managed
for
polycultur
e
Zoning Problem
Industrial
complex versus
Aquaculture
ponds

Pollution

Low
environmental
quality

Many idle
ponds
(Pambudi, 2009)
Acid Sulfate Soil(Sammut, 2009)
pH < 4 to
5 .5

Avoid using Quick


Limes or Slake Limes
Problems in Acid Sulfate
Soil
qHigh acidity(Low pH)
qP, Ca, Mg and Mo are not many
available
qHighly Fe and Mn concentration,
toxic into the shrimp/fish
qHighly Al solubility, blocking
(Sammut, 2009)
phosphorous amount
n
South Sulawesi

(Callinan, 2009)
446'15"

446'15"
11930'5"E 11930'10"E 11930'15"E 11930'20"E

Legend
1 Pond
Canal
Soil Characteristics
3 Road
Dyke
446'20"S

446'20"S
2 Barrent land/ backyardetc.
Farmer'shouse
5
4
7
6
8
10
9

12
23 14
13
446'25"S

446'25"S
24 11
22

21 15
19 16
17

18

35 20

25
446'30"S

446'30"S
26
36
34
31
27

37 28

33
32
38
30
446'35"S

446'35"S
39 29

40
41 42
47

46
45
0 15 30 60 90 120 44 43
Meters

11930'5"E 11930'10"E 11930'15"E 11930'20"E


446'15"S

446'15"S
1
1930'5"E 1
193
0 '10"E 1
1930'15"E 1
1930'20"E

Sand Content (%) L


L
e
a
g
n
en
du
d
se/cover
Canal
Road
Barrenland
Dyke
446'20"S

446'20"S
Farmer'sHouse

Sand
V
alue
High:83.8

Low:65.9
446'25"S

446'25"S
446'30"S

446'30"S
446'35"S

446'35"S
0 15 30 60 90 120
Meters

1
1930'5"E 1
1930'10"E 1
193
0 '15"E 1
1930'20"E
446'15"S

446'15"S
1
1930'5"E 1
1930'10"E 1
1930'15"E 1
1930'20"E

Legend
Landuse/cover
Clay Content (%) C
R
anal
oad
Barrenland
Dyke
446'20"S

446'20"S
Farmer'sHouse

Clay
V
alue
High: 24.9

Low: 6.2
446'25"S

446'25"S
446'30"S

446'30"S
446'35"S

446'35"S
0 15 30 60 90 120
Meters

1
1930'5"E 1
1930'10"E 1
1930'15"E 1
1930'20"E
446'15"S

446'15"S
1
1930'5"E 1
1930'10"E 1
1930'15"E 1
1930'20"E

Legend
Landuse/cover
Canal
Silt Content (%) Road
Barrenland
Dyke
446'20"S

Farmer'sHouse

446'20"S
Silt
Value
High: 17.7

Low: 6.1
446'25"S

446'25"S
446'30"S

446'30"S
446'35"S

446'35"S
0 15 30 60 90 120
Meters

1
1930'5"E 1
1930'10"E 1
1930'15"E 1
1930'20"E
Water Velocity (m/s)
11937'45"E 11938'0"E 11938'15"E 11938'30"E
Pond dyke
Mangrove

0.00000 - 0.00116
0.00116 - 0.01211
0.01211 - 0.02305
0.02305 - 0.03400

420'45"S
0.03400 - 0.04494
0.04494 - 0.05863
0.05863 - 0.07231
0.07231 - 0.08325
0.08325 - 0.09420
0.09420 - 0.10515
0.10515 - 0.11609
0.11609 - 0.12704
0.127042 - 0.13798
0.13798 - 0.14893
0.14893 - 0.16261

421'0"S
0.16261 - 0.17629
0.17629 - 0.18998
0.18998 - 0.20366
0.20366 - 0.21460
Kilometers 0.21460 - 0.22555

0 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.22555 - 0.23376


0.23376 - 0.24197
11937'45"E 11938'0"E 11938'15"E 11938'30"E
0.24197 - 0.25291
0.25291 - 0.27207
0.27207 - 0.29396
0.29396 - 0.31312
0.31312 - 0.37058
0.37058 - 0.67159
Hig h
Mo rt a lit y

IMN V
WSS V
TS V
BMP Model Application
Sedimentation pond

Biofilter Culturing pond Culturing pond


Constructed
pond wetland

Treatment reservoir

Green Belt

Water sources
Drying and up-
down dredging
soil to oxidized
the bottom soil
Dredging Organic Soil
Organic
bottom
soil
moved
into dike
Calcification (Liming)
pH of bottom soil Needed Lime (kg/ha CaCO3)
Clay Clay Sandy Sandy

(Sammut, 2009)
Inlet Water Management

Wa t e r is n o t
g o in g t o
s h rim p p o n d
d ire c t ly, b u t
f irs t o n
t re a t m e n t
re s e rv o ir
Bio filt e r p o n d :
a . S m a ll f is h p re d a t o r
b . He rb iv o ro u s f ilt e r f e e d e r ( m ilk fis h )
c . Wa t e r p la n t ( s e a g ra s s , s e a w e e d )
Bio f ilt e rs
Milkfish Tilapia

Macroalgae

Seaweed
Scallop

Grouper
Bio f ilt e r p o n d w it h s e a w e e d
( Gra c ila ria s p )

n Total Organic Matter decrease from


129 ppm into 85 ppm within 3
days

BBPAP, 2009
Treatment pond with macroalgae

n Total Organic Matter decrease from


157 ppm into 67 ppm within 8 days

BBPAP, 2009
Inlet Filtration System
Post Larvae
Transportatio
n
Acclimation of Post
Larvae
Maintaining Dissolved
Oxygen
Fis h
S h ri
pond
mp
pond

Fis h
pond

Ap p lic a t io n
p o n d in
Bire u n Ac e h
Ap p lic a t io n p o n d in
N o rt h Ac e h

S h rim p
pond

Bio f ilt e r
pond

S h rim p
pond
Jeumpa Cluster-1 (Aceh)
Jeumpa Cluster-2 (Aceh)
Simpang Mamplam
Cluster
(Aceh)
Samalanga
Cluster
(Aceh)
Plimbang Cluster (Aceh)
Another Case Study of BMP
Model
in Serangan, Central Java

Firs t S t u d y Fa ile d ; Se cond Study


1 w e e k a f t e r d is e a s e Succe e d;
o u t b re a k o n s u rro u n d in g h a rv e s t in g o n 1 0 5 th day
p o n d (Supito and Taslihan, 2009) whereas surrounding ponds
failed
Another Case Study of BMP
Model in Sidorejo, Central Java

Location Spot Model

(Supito and Taslihan, 2009)

Cluster Model
Disease Outbreak

(Supito and Taslihan, 2009)


Conclusion

n Best Management Practice (BMP)


face the problems, especially
related to zoning and
environmental cases
n BMP has been evaluated depends
on the particular areas and
problems
n BMP increase the shrimp production
in some certain areas and must be
plotted as highly recommended
n Revitalization &
rehabilitation of
infrastructure for the
existing traditional
shrimp ponds (aces
road, irrigations,
electric power supply)
n Subsidy/price lower for
seeds (SPF)
n Make this business
bankable MOMAF, 2009
Thank You
References
n BBPBAP, 2009. Guidance of Best Management Practice in
Shrimp Culture. Brackishwater Aquaculture Research
Center. Jepara. Indonesia
n Callinan, R. 2009. Determinants for WSD outbreaks in
Indonesian smallholder shrimp ponds. ACIAR. Sydney.
Australia.
n FAO, 2005. World Fisheries Statistic. Rome. Italy.
n FAO, 2007. World Fisheries Statistic. Fishstat. Rome. Italy
n MOMAF, 2007. Indonesian Fisheries Policy. Ministry of
Marine and Fisheries of Indonesia. Jakarta.
n MOMAF, 2008. Indonesian Aquaculture Program. General
Directorate of Aquaculture. MOMAF. Jakarta.
n MOMAF, 2008. Indonesian Fisheries Statistic. Jakarta.
Indonesia.
n Pambudi, L.T. 2009. Analysis of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Status in Semarang Area. Institute of Regional
Development. Indonesia