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# Definitions

11.Polar Curves
The luminous intensity or candle power is not
uniform in
all directions, due to its unsymmetrical shape and
design
It is essential to know exactly how the light is distributed
Polar curve is defined as a graph representing the
and is usually given in the form of polar curves
light distribution of a lamp (luminous intensity) in a
horizontal or vertical plane
9EE605A.2

Polar Curves

Lamp and
horizontal plane
Fig.4a

On horizontal
plane
Fig.4b

On vertical
plane
Fig.4c
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## Fig 4a shows an incandescent lamp. If the luminous intensity is

measured in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis, a curve is
plotted between luminous intensity and the angular position as
shown in Fig 4b

Fig.4a
Fig.4
b

## Horizontal Polar Curves

Fig.4
b
The drop in luminous intensity along OC at 00 of
horizontal polar curve is due to break in the filament
where the current enters and leaves

## Fig.4c On vertical plane

If the luminous intensity is measured in a vertical plane at
various angles, a polar curve in a vertical plane is obtained
The drop or depression in luminous intensity at 1800 of
vertical polar curve is due to the position of the lamp holder
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PRINCIPLES OF PHOTOMETRY

## LUMMER BRODHUN PHOTOMETER

PROBLEMS

PHOTOMETRY
Introduction :
The light emitted or reflected by the objects can be
measured in comparison with a standard source.
The branch of optics which deals with the
measurement of light is known as Photometry.
(Photo
means light and metry
means
measurement).

BASIC DEFINITION :
Luminous Flux (F) :
The amount of light energy radiated from a
source or an illuminating object in all directions per
second is known as luminous flux. It is denoted
by the letter F or and its unit is lumen.
Definition of 1 Lumen :
1 Lumen =

F
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## Luminous Intensity or Illuminating Power (I) :

The luminous intensity (or) illuminating power (I)
of a point source in any direction is defined as the
luminous flux emitted or radiated per unit solid angle
in that direction.
If F is the luminous flux radiated by a source
within a solid angle in any particular direction,
then luminous intensity
I=F/
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## F is measured in lumen and in steradian , the

unit for I
Lumen
I
or 'Candela '
Definition of One Candela :
It is the luminous intensity of one sixtieth
(1/60)th of a square centimetre of platinum at its
fusion point. (1769oC) or one candela is the
luminous intensity of the source if it emits 1 lumen
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## Illumination (or) Intensity of Illumination (E) :

The illumination (or) intensity of illumination
at a point on the surface is defined as the luminous
flux (F) received on an unit area (A) of the surface
surrounding the point.
Its unit is lumen /m2.

F
A

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## Other units of illumination :

Lux : It is equal to 1 lumen per square metre.
It can also be defined as the intensity of illumination
over a surface area of 1m2, placed at a distance of
1m from a point source of 1 Candela.
Phot : It is the intensity of illumination of a
source which receives one lumen per square
centimetre.
1 phot = 104 lux.
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## Inverse square law of illumination :

The intensity of illumination (E) of a surface due to
a light source is directly proportional to the luminous
intensity or illuminating power (I) of the source and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between the source and the surface (r2).

E I
E

I
r2

1
r2

(or)
E

KI
r2

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1
K
4

I
2
4r

Principle of Photometry :
The principle of photometry is based on the
adjustment of the distances of the two light sources
from the measuring point they produce equal
intensity of illumination at the point.

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## E1 and E2 be the intensity of illumination due to

two sources S1 and S2 at a surface S, r1 and r2
be the distances of the two sources from the
surface. The inverse
square law of illumination,
I2
I1
E2
E1

2
and
2
r
r
2
1

## Where I1 and I 2 are the luminous intensities of the

two sources. By adjusting r1 and r2 , E1 and E2
i.e., E1 = E2
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(or)

r12
r22

## The luminous intensity of one source is known, by

comparison, the luminous intensity of another source
can be determined.

Photometer :
It is an instrument which is used to compare the
luminous intensities of two sources. If the luminous
intensity of one of the source is known, the luminous
intensity of the other one can be measured.
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## LUMMER BRODHUN PHOTOMETER :

This is one of the most accurate photometers used
for comparing the luminous intensities of two sources.

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Screen S :

## This is a specially prepared

screen made of some white diffusing material of
high reflecting power such as plaster of paris or
magnesium carbonate.
The light rays from the two sources are incident
on the two sides of this screen.

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## Totally reflecting prism P1 and P2 :

P1 and P2 are two isosceles right angled prisms
whose angles are 45o, 90o and 45 o.
The light rays scattered from the screen S, fall
normally on one face of the prism, enter into the
prisms without any change in their direction,
undergo total internal reflection and emerge
normally from the other face of these prisms.
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## Lummer Brodhun Cube A and B :

It consists of two right-angled isosceles prisms
A and B in contact with each other.
The edges of prism A are cut in such a way
that it is slightly curved at the outer edge while flat in
the central part.
The prisms are cemented together at the
central part with Canada Balsam, whose refractive
index is the same as that of the material of the
prisms.
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## The two prisms are in optical contact with each

other at the central part and enclose an air film
between them at other parts.

Telescope T :
The telescope (T) is used to receive the light
coming from Lummer Brodhun cube. The whole
apparatus is enclosed in a metallic box blackened
from inside.

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Working :
S1 and S2 are two sources whose luminous
intensities are to be compared.
These sources can be moved along an optical
bench.
They are placed on the opposite side of the
screen S at equal distances and illuminate the
screen normally.
The light rays reflected diffusively from each
side of screen are incident on the prisms P1 and P2.
These light rays undergo total internal reflection
from the prisms and fall on Lummer Brodhun cube.
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Contd.
The outer rays from the source S1 undergo total
internal reflection at prism A, while the middle ray
passes into the prism B through the point of contact
of the prisms A and B without any deviation.

## The outer rays from S2 undergo total internal

reflection at B, while the middle ray passes into the
prism A through the point of contact without any
deviation.
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Contd.
In this way, middle ray from source S1 and outer
rays from source S2 enter into the telescope.
Since the luminous intensities of the two sources
are different, the field of view of the eyepiece of the
telescope consists of a central part illuminated by light
from S1 and an outer part illuminated by light from S2
of different brightness.
Now the distances of S1 and S2 are adjusted in
such a way that the field of view appears equally
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bright.

## Field of view in a Lummer Brodhun Photometer

When the two sources are of different
intensities
When the sources are having equal intensities.
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## Comparison of luminous intensities of two

sources :
When the distances of S1 and S2 are so adjusted
that the illuminations on the two sides of S are
equal, the whole field of view appears uniformly bright
and the boundary dividing the two fields disappears.
Let I1 and I 2 be the luminous intensities of S1 and
S2 and r1 and r2 are their respective distances from S
, then according to inverse square law of illumination,
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(or)

## The luminous intensities of the two sources can be

compared.
If I1 is known, I2 can be calculated from the relation,
(or) Thus the luminous intensities of the two sources can
be compared.

I 2 I 1

r2
r1

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## This photometer is best suited for the

comparison of luminous intensities of two light
sources producing same colour.
If the sources produce different colour the
readings are unreliable, and flicker photometer is
used.

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## Solved Problem (1) : Two lamps of 32 candle power and

8 candle power respectively are placed 2 metres apart. A
screen is placed between them. Where should the
screen be placed in order that it may be equally
illuminated by the lamps on both sides ?

## Given I1 = 32 candle power

I2 = 8 candle power
r1+ r2 = 2m

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Formula :

I1 I 2
2
2
r1
r2

## Let x be the distance from where the screen has to be

placed to get equal illumination on the screen. Then
r1 = x

32
8

2
2
x (2 x)
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32(4+x2-4x)
= 8x2
24x2 128x + 128 = 0
3x2 16x + 16
=0
3x2 4x 12x + 16 = 0
r1(3x-4)-4(3x-4) = 0
(x-4) (3x-4)
=0
Hence x can be either 4 or 4/3 Since the separation
between the two lamps in 2m, x cannot be 4 m.
Here x = 4/3m. i.e. when the screen is placed at a
distance of 4/3m from the lamp of 32 candle power, the
screen is illuminated equally by the lamps on both sides.
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## Solved Problem (2) : Two lamps of 32.c.p. and 8

c.p. respectively are placed 2 meters apart.
Where should a screen be placed in order that it
may be equally illuminated by the lamps ?
There are two possible positions of the
screen.
(i) Both the sources lie on the same side of the
screen. Let the distance of the first lamp (8 c.p.)
from the screen be x as shown. When the screen is
equally illuminated by the two lamps, then
32

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8
32

2
(x )
( 200 x ) 2
or

( 200 x ) 2
32

4
2
(x )
8

(200 x )
2
x

or

200 x 2x

x = 200 cm.

## Thus the screen should be placed at a distance 200

cm from the lamp L1(8 c.p.) and 400 cm from the
second lamp L2 (32 c.p.)
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## (ii) The screen is between two sources. When the

screen is equally illuminated by the two lamps
..

8
32

(x ) 2
( 200 x ) 2
( 200 x ) 2
32

4
2
(x )
8
( 200 x )
2
8

200 3x

x = 66.67 cm.
Thus the screen should be placed at a distance of 66.67 cm
from the first lamp L1 (8 c.p.) and 133.33 cm from the second
lamp L2 (32 c.p.)
or

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## Solved Problem (3) : Two identical sources are at a

distance of 60 cm from each other. Where must a screen
be placed in between them so that one side of the screen
may be illuminated four times greater than the other
Let the screen be placed at a distance xcm from first
source. Now the distance of the second source will be
(60-x) cm. If the illumination of one side is E, then the
illumination of the other side should be 4E. Let both the
sources have illuminating power I. Then
I
E
(x ) 2

and

I
4E
(64 x ) 2
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x2
4
(60 x) 2

x
or 2
(60 x)

Case. (i)

## Considering +ve sign

120-2x = x or x = 40 cm.
Case. (ii) Considering ve sign
120 2x = - x or x = 120 cm.
which is impossible because it is greater than
60cm. Thus the distance of the screen must be 40
cm from one source and 20cm from the other source.
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## Exercise Problem (1) : Two lamps of 20 candle

power and 10 candle power are placed A metre
apart. A screen is placed such that both the
lamps are on the same side of the screen and
line joining the lamps is perpendicular to the
screen. At what distance the screen has to be
placed so that it may be equally illuminated by
the lamps placed on the same side.
At a distance of 9.655m from the lamp of 10
candle power.
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Thank u

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