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11.Polar Curves

The luminous intensity or candle power is not

uniform in

all directions, due to its unsymmetrical shape and

design

It is essential to know exactly how the light is distributed

Polar curve is defined as a graph representing the

and is usually given in the form of polar curves

light distribution of a lamp (luminous intensity) in a

horizontal or vertical plane

9EE605A.2

Polar Curves

Lamp and

horizontal plane

Fig.4a

On horizontal

plane

Fig.4b

On vertical

plane

Fig.4c

2

measured in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis, a curve is

plotted between luminous intensity and the angular position as

shown in Fig 4b

Fig.4a

Fig.4

b

Fig.4

b

The drop in luminous intensity along OC at 00 of

horizontal polar curve is due to break in the filament

where the current enters and leaves

If the luminous intensity is measured in a vertical plane at

various angles, a polar curve in a vertical plane is obtained

The drop or depression in luminous intensity at 1800 of

vertical polar curve is due to the position of the lamp holder

5

PRINCIPLES OF PHOTOMETRY

PROBLEMS

PHOTOMETRY

Introduction :

The light emitted or reflected by the objects can be

measured in comparison with a standard source.

The branch of optics which deals with the

measurement of light is known as Photometry.

(Photo

means light and metry

means

measurement).

BASIC DEFINITION :

Luminous Flux (F) :

The amount of light energy radiated from a

source or an illuminating object in all directions per

second is known as luminous flux. It is denoted

by the letter F or and its unit is lumen.

Definition of 1 Lumen :

1 Lumen =

F

4

8

The luminous intensity (or) illuminating power (I)

of a point source in any direction is defined as the

luminous flux emitted or radiated per unit solid angle

in that direction.

If F is the luminous flux radiated by a source

within a solid angle in any particular direction,

then luminous intensity

I=F/

9

unit for I

Lumen

I

or 'Candela '

Steradian

Definition of One Candela :

It is the luminous intensity of one sixtieth

(1/60)th of a square centimetre of platinum at its

fusion point. (1769oC) or one candela is the

luminous intensity of the source if it emits 1 lumen

per steradian.

10

The illumination (or) intensity of illumination

at a point on the surface is defined as the luminous

flux (F) received on an unit area (A) of the surface

surrounding the point.

Its unit is lumen /m2.

F

A

11

Lux : It is equal to 1 lumen per square metre.

It can also be defined as the intensity of illumination

over a surface area of 1m2, placed at a distance of

1m from a point source of 1 Candela.

Phot : It is the intensity of illumination of a

source which receives one lumen per square

centimetre.

1 phot = 104 lux.

12

The intensity of illumination (E) of a surface due to

a light source is directly proportional to the luminous

intensity or illuminating power (I) of the source and

inversely proportional to the square of the distance

between the source and the surface (r2).

E I

E

I

r2

1

r2

(or)

E

KI

r2

13

1

K

4

I

2

4r

Principle of Photometry :

The principle of photometry is based on the

adjustment of the distances of the two light sources

from the measuring point they produce equal

intensity of illumination at the point.

14

two sources S1 and S2 at a surface S, r1 and r2

be the distances of the two sources from the

surface. The inverse

square law of illumination,

I2

I1

E2

E1

2

and

2

r

r

2

1

two sources. By adjusting r1 and r2 , E1 and E2

are made equal.

i.e., E1 = E2

15

(or)

r12

r22

comparison, the luminous intensity of another source

can be determined.

Photometer :

It is an instrument which is used to compare the

luminous intensities of two sources. If the luminous

intensity of one of the source is known, the luminous

intensity of the other one can be measured.

16

This is one of the most accurate photometers used

for comparing the luminous intensities of two sources.

17

Screen S :

screen made of some white diffusing material of

high reflecting power such as plaster of paris or

magnesium carbonate.

The light rays from the two sources are incident

on the two sides of this screen.

18

P1 and P2 are two isosceles right angled prisms

whose angles are 45o, 90o and 45 o.

The light rays scattered from the screen S, fall

normally on one face of the prism, enter into the

prisms without any change in their direction,

undergo total internal reflection and emerge

normally from the other face of these prisms.

19

It consists of two right-angled isosceles prisms

A and B in contact with each other.

The edges of prism A are cut in such a way

that it is slightly curved at the outer edge while flat in

the central part.

The prisms are cemented together at the

central part with Canada Balsam, whose refractive

index is the same as that of the material of the

prisms.

20

other at the central part and enclose an air film

between them at other parts.

Telescope T :

The telescope (T) is used to receive the light

coming from Lummer Brodhun cube. The whole

apparatus is enclosed in a metallic box blackened

from inside.

21

Working :

S1 and S2 are two sources whose luminous

intensities are to be compared.

These sources can be moved along an optical

bench.

They are placed on the opposite side of the

screen S at equal distances and illuminate the

screen normally.

The light rays reflected diffusively from each

side of screen are incident on the prisms P1 and P2.

These light rays undergo total internal reflection

from the prisms and fall on Lummer Brodhun cube.

22

Contd.

The outer rays from the source S1 undergo total

internal reflection at prism A, while the middle ray

passes into the prism B through the point of contact

of the prisms A and B without any deviation.

reflection at B, while the middle ray passes into the

prism A through the point of contact without any

deviation.

23

Contd.

In this way, middle ray from source S1 and outer

rays from source S2 enter into the telescope.

Since the luminous intensities of the two sources

are different, the field of view of the eyepiece of the

telescope consists of a central part illuminated by light

from S1 and an outer part illuminated by light from S2

of different brightness.

Now the distances of S1 and S2 are adjusted in

such a way that the field of view appears equally

24

bright.

When the two sources are of different

intensities

When the sources are having equal intensities.

25

sources :

When the distances of S1 and S2 are so adjusted

that the illuminations on the two sides of S are

equal, the whole field of view appears uniformly bright

and the boundary dividing the two fields disappears.

Let I1 and I 2 be the luminous intensities of S1 and

S2 and r1 and r2 are their respective distances from S

, then according to inverse square law of illumination,

26

(or)

compared.

If I1 is known, I2 can be calculated from the relation,

(or) Thus the luminous intensities of the two sources can

be compared.

I 2 I 1

r2

r1

27

comparison of luminous intensities of two light

sources producing same colour.

If the sources produce different colour the

readings are unreliable, and flicker photometer is

used.

28

8 candle power respectively are placed 2 metres apart. A

screen is placed between them. Where should the

screen be placed in order that it may be equally

illuminated by the lamps on both sides ?

I2 = 8 candle power

r1+ r2 = 2m

29

Formula :

I1 I 2

2

2

r1

r2

placed to get equal illumination on the screen. Then

r1 = x

32

8

2

2

x (2 x)

30

32(4+x2-4x)

= 8x2

24x2 128x + 128 = 0

3x2 16x + 16

=0

3x2 4x 12x + 16 = 0

r1(3x-4)-4(3x-4) = 0

(x-4) (3x-4)

=0

Hence x can be either 4 or 4/3 Since the separation

between the two lamps in 2m, x cannot be 4 m.

Here x = 4/3m. i.e. when the screen is placed at a

distance of 4/3m from the lamp of 32 candle power, the

screen is illuminated equally by the lamps on both sides.

31

c.p. respectively are placed 2 meters apart.

Where should a screen be placed in order that it

may be equally illuminated by the lamps ?

There are two possible positions of the

screen.

(i) Both the sources lie on the same side of the

screen. Let the distance of the first lamp (8 c.p.)

from the screen be x as shown. When the screen is

equally illuminated by the two lamps, then

32

33

8

32

2

(x )

( 200 x ) 2

or

( 200 x ) 2

32

4

2

(x )

8

(200 x )

2

x

or

200 x 2x

x = 200 cm.

cm from the lamp L1(8 c.p.) and 400 cm from the

second lamp L2 (32 c.p.)

34

screen is equally illuminated by the two lamps

..

8

32

(x ) 2

( 200 x ) 2

( 200 x ) 2

32

4

2

(x )

8

( 200 x )

2

8

200 3x

x = 66.67 cm.

Thus the screen should be placed at a distance of 66.67 cm

from the first lamp L1 (8 c.p.) and 133.33 cm from the second

lamp L2 (32 c.p.)

or

35

distance of 60 cm from each other. Where must a screen

be placed in between them so that one side of the screen

may be illuminated four times greater than the other

Let the screen be placed at a distance xcm from first

source. Now the distance of the second source will be

(60-x) cm. If the illumination of one side is E, then the

illumination of the other side should be 4E. Let both the

sources have illuminating power I. Then

I

E

(x ) 2

and

I

4E

(64 x ) 2

36

x2

4

(60 x) 2

x

or 2

(60 x)

Case. (i)

120-2x = x or x = 40 cm.

Case. (ii) Considering ve sign

120 2x = - x or x = 120 cm.

which is impossible because it is greater than

60cm. Thus the distance of the screen must be 40

cm from one source and 20cm from the other source.

37

power and 10 candle power are placed A metre

apart. A screen is placed such that both the

lamps are on the same side of the screen and

line joining the lamps is perpendicular to the

screen. At what distance the screen has to be

placed so that it may be equally illuminated by

the lamps placed on the same side.

At a distance of 9.655m from the lamp of 10

candle power.

38

Thank u

39

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