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Directional

Drilling

Rakesh Madira-128237
Srikanta Khuntia-128230
Anand Kumar -128230

Ranjith K P -128236
Hemraj

Drilling
Drilling is the art of making a hole in the mother earth to
penetrate to a definite subsurface location. In most of the
cases wells are accomplished by drilling a reasonably straight
or vertical hole.
Types of Wells
Vertical Well :- Maintained with few degrees of the vertical
and no attention is paid to the direction of the deviation.
Straight Hole :- No sharp deviation
Directional Well :- Deviated from the vertical & direction is
controlled to a predetermined location.

Directional Drilling
Directional drilling is defined as an art and science
involving deflection of a well bore in a specified direction
in order to reach a predetermined object below the
surface of the earth.

Definitions

Types of Well Profiles


a. L- type
b. S- type
c. J- type

Type L (Build and


Hold or l Type)

This is the most common and


simplest profile for a
directional well.
The well is drilled down
vertically to KOP, where the
well is deviated to required
inclination and further
maintained to target.
Shallow KOP is selected to
reduce the inclination.
This profile can be applied
where large displacements are
required at relatively shallow
target depths.
Under the normal condition
inclination should be 15 to 55.

TYPE II (BUILD HOLD AND


DROP OR S TYPE)
This profile is similar to type-I up to
tangential section. After that profile
enters in a drop of section where
inclination is reduced and in some
cases becomes vertical as it reaches
the target.
More torque and drag can be
expected due to the additional bend.
Used where target is deep but
horizontal displacement is relatively
small.
It has also application when
completing a well that intersect
multiple producing zones.
Drilling of relief well where it is
necessary to run parallel to wild well.
Lease or target limitations.

TYPE III (DEEP KICK OFF


AND BUILD J TYPE)
Initial deflection is started well

below the surface and angle is


built up to bottom.
It is used in particular
situations like salt dome drilling,
fault drilling and side- tracking or
repositioning of target.
Disadvantages:
Formation may be harder &
less responsive to
deflection.
More tripping time to
change BHA while
deflecting.
BUR is more difficult to
control.

APPLICATIONS OF DIRECTIONAL DRILLING


1. Multiple wells from single location.
2. Inaccessible locations.
3. Drilling to avoid geological problems.
Fault drilling.
Salt dome drilling.
4. Side tracking and straightening.
5. Relief well drilling.
6. ERD well.
7. Horizontal well.
8. Multilateral drilling.

MULTIPLE WELLS FROM SINGLE LOCATION


Optimum number of wells can be drilled from a single
platform or artificial island. This greatly simplifies
gathering systems and production techniques .

INACCESSIBLE LOCATIONS
If reservoir located under river beds, mountains,
cities etc, this technique of directional drilling is
used .

DRILLING TO AVOID GEOLOGICAL PROBLEMS


A. FAULT DRILLING:
This eliminates the hazard of drilling a vertical well through
steeply inclined fault plane which could slip and shear the
casing.

B. SALT DOME DRILLING


To reach the producing formation which often lie underneath
the over hanging cap of the dome, the well is first drilled at
one side of the dome and is then deviated to producing zone
to avoid drilling problems such as large washouts, lost
circulation and corrosion .

SOURCE: T.A.INGLIS

SIDE TRACKING AND STRAIGHTENING


It is used as remedial operation either to side track
obstruction by deviating the well bore away from
obstruction by deviating the well bore back to vertical
by straightening out crooked holes.

RELIEF WELL DRILLING


The technique is applied to the drilling of relief wells so
that mud may be pumped into the reservoir of the
uncontrolled well.

HORIZONTAL WELL
Horizontal well may be defined as an extension of highly deviated wells,
drilled in order to situate a drain of considerable length at a precise depth
in a reservoir with an angle of inclination approaching 90o from vertical.
Advantages:
1.Increasing the drainage area.
2.Prevention of gas coning or water coning problems.
3.Increased penetration of the producing formation.
4.Increasing the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery ( EOR ).
5.Improving productivity in fractured reservoirs by intersecting a numbers
of vertical fractures.

ERD WELL
In these well departure of the well is twice or more of TVD.
This separates it from conventional directional
wells.Advantages:
Increased horizontal displacement from central platform.
1. Increased penetration length of reservoir.
2. Require less number of wells to develop a field.
3. Require less number of platforms to develop a field in
offshore.

Multilateral Drilling
Multilateral well has been defined as a well that has
more than one horizontal or near horizontal laterals
drilled from single site and connected back to a single
well bore.
Applications:
. Greater reservoir exposure.
Drain more than one reservoir.
Exploit irregular reservoirs efficiently.
Speed up reservoir drainage.
Reduction in drilling cost per unit length of the
well bore contacting, the reservoir rock.
Ability to obtain a given length of horizontal well
bore in reservoir where drag would perhaps limit
the length of single horizontal well bore.
Reduction in number of slots and thus the
number of production platforms.

Thank You