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The definition of intertextuality is text which suggests to or
references to another text
Julia Kristeva (1969) is a literacy critic and sociologist and she
defined intertextuality as "The shaping of texts meaning by another
text. and "The use of an intertextual reference in any text is the
absorption and transformation of another."
Certain references used in music videos is vital and iconic and the
audiences can automatically recognise the style used which will
make the audience relate and remember to the original piece which
the video is referencing to.

Firstly, Jackie Brown which is a Quentin Tarantino film which uses an iconic text within the
opening sequence and is also featured dominantly on the movies advertising poster.

Roy Lichtenstein was we an American pop artist and is well known
for his art work during the 1960s, alongside other artists such as
Andy Warhol, he became a dominant leader in the newly found art
movement and his work defined the pop art through parody. In this
scene it looks like Lady Gagas hair and makeup has been done in
the style of a Roy Lichtenstein art piece.

Another example of intertextuality is the reference to the 1991
feminist movie named Thelma and Louise, at the end of the music
video the pair are seen holding hands as they drive off the edge of
cliff which can also be seen in Lady Gagas music video which not
only references the feminist movie, but presents the Lady Gaga and
Beyonc as powerful women, similar to Thelma and Louise.

Another use of intertextuality in this music video is when Lady Gaga
and Beyonc are performing a dance routine in a caf, dressed in
patriotic American colours which makes reference to Captain
America and Wonder woman.


The song's music video, directed by Spike Jonze] is a tribute to, and parody of, 1970s crime
drama shows such as Hawaii Five-O, Baretta, and Starsky and Hutch. The video is presented
as the opening sequence of a fictional 1970s-style police show called Sabotage, with the
band members dressed as the show's heroes. Each band member is introduced as a fictional
actor, and the names of the characters are also given which was conventional of a
stereotypical police drama.