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# N

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XI -A

## The net effect is that the

molecules at the surface of the
liquid experience an inward force
toward the bulk.
Such a force pulls the
molecules of the interface
together and, as a result,
contracts the surface, resulting in

## This tension in the

surface is the force per unit
length that must be
appliedparallelto the
surface so as to
counterbalance the net
the surface has the units of
inward pull.
dynes/cm.

## The surface tensions of

most liquids decrease
almost linearly with an
increase in temperature,
that is, with an increase in
the kinetic energy of the
molecules.

## In the region of its critical

temperature, the surface
tension of a liquid becomes
zero.
The surface tension of water
at 0C is 75.6, at 20C it is
72.8, and at 75C it is 63.5
dynes/cm.

Tension

## The surface layer of a liquid

compared to the bulk liquid.

## This energy increases when the

surface of the same mass of liquid
increases and is therefore
calledsurface free energy.

## The work W required to

create a unit area of
surface is known as
SURFACE FREE
ENERGY/UNIT AREA
(ergs/cm2)
erg = dyne . cm
Its equivalent to the

## For equilibrium, the surface

free energy
of a system must be at a
minimum.
Thus Liquid droplets tend
to

assume

spherical

## shape since a sphere has

the smallest surface area
per unit volume.

measurements

## 1. Capillary rise method

2. Stallagmometer method
drop weight method

## 3. Wilhelmy plate or ring

method bulk pressure method
. Maximum

## 5. Methods analyzing shape of

the hanging liquid drop or gas
6.bubble.
Dynamic methods.

## 1. Capillary rise method

When a capillary tube is placed
in a liquid contained in a beaker,
the liquid generally rises up the
tube a certain distance.
By measuring this rise in a
capillary, it is possible to
determine the surface tension of
the liquid. It is not possible,
however, to obtain interfacial

## Because of the surface tension, the

liquid continues to rise in the tube, but
because of the weight of the liquid,
the upward movement is just balanced
by the downward force of gravity.

## 2. Drop volume method stalagmometric

method
The stalagmometric method is one of
the most common methods used for the
surface tension determination.
For this purpose the several drops of
the liquid leaked out of the glass capillary
of the stalagmometer are weighed.
If the weight of each drop of the liquid
is known, we can also count the number
of drops which leaked out to determine
the surface tension.

method

## The ring method the tensiometric method (Du

Noy Ring Tensiometer)