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Introduction to Network

and Internet

What is a network?
A computer network is simply two or more
computers connected together so they can
exchange information. A small network can be
as simple as two computers linked together by a
single cable.

What is a network?
A network is a collection of computers
and devices connected together via
communications devices and media
such as modems, cables, telephone
lines, and satellites.

Most networks use hubs to connect computers


together. A large network may connect
thousands of computers and other devices
together.

Computers networked with a


hub
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A wireless network connects computers without a


hub or network cables. Computers use radio
communications to send data between each other.

Wireless network

Types of Network
local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are
geographically close together (that is, in the same building).
wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther
apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.
campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within
a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military
base.
metropolitan-area networks (MANs) : A data network
designed for a town or city.
home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within
a user's home that connects a person's digital devices.

The Client-Server
Architecture
Each computer or process on the network is
either a client or a server.
Servers are powerful computers or processes
dedicated to managing disk drives (file servers),
printers (print servers), or network traffic
(network servers ).
Clients are PCs or workstations on which users
run applications. Clients rely on servers for
resources, such as files, devices, and even
processing power
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What Can I do With a


Simple Network?
Without a network, you can access
resources only on your own computer.
These resources may be devices in your
computer, such as a folder or disk drive, or
they may be connected to your computer,
such as a printer or CDROM drive. These
devices, accessible only to you, are local
resources.
Networking allows you to share resources
among a group of computer users.
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Network Functions

File transfer
Information availability
Resource sharing (printer, files and drive)
Online transactions
Provision of a powerful communication medium among widely separated employees who may use different computer
platforms
Interactive environment
Education and entertainment
Sharing an Internet Connection (Email)

Networking Components
To network computers together, you need to install
networking hardware and software. Every network
includes these three components:
The computers that are connected together.
Computers and similar devices are called nodes when
connected to a network.
The networking hardware that connects the
computers together, including hardware installed in
your computer, network cables, and devices that
connect all the cables together.
Networking software that runs on each computer and
enables it to communicate with other computers on
the network.
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Networking Hardware
Network adapter cards: expansion cards that provide the
physical connection between each computer and the
network. The card installs into a slot on your computer, just
like a sound card or modem card. Some newer computers
have a network adapter already built into the system.
Laptop computers often use a card that slides into a PC card
slot.
Network hub: the central connection point for network
cables that connect to computers or other devices on a
network. The hub has several network cable jacks or ports
that you use to connect network cables to computers. The
hub contains circuitry that enables each computer to
communicate with any other computer connected to the
hub.
Network cables: special, unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
cables used to connect each computer to the hub. The cable
you need is Category 5 UTP cable with a square plastic RJ-45
connector on each end.
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network adapter
card

Network cable with


RJ-45 connector

network
hub

All the networking


hardware described here
is known as Ethernet.
Ethernet is the industrywide standard for
computer networks.
Standard Ethernet
networks transmit data at
10 million bits per second
(Mbps).
A newer Ethernet
standard, called Fast
Ethernet, transmits data
at 100 Mbps.
Computer networks often
contain a mixture of 10
Mbps and 100 Mbps

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Networking Hardware
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal
and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or
onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal
can cover longer distances without degradation. In most
twisted pair ethernet configurations, repeaters are
required for cable runs longer than 100 meters.
network bridge connects multiple network segments at
the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges do
not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but
learns which MAC addresses are reachable through
specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an
address, it will send traffic for that address only to that
port. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports except the
one on which the broadcast was received.
Routers are networking devices that forward data
packets between networks using headers and forwarding
tables to determine the best path to forward the packets.
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repeater

router

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Networking Hardware
Cable (which might be twisted pair, coaxial,
fiber-optics, telephone lines, and satellites;
choice depend on distance, amountof data
transfer, frequency of transfer, availability)
Telephone line
Server
Modems. The demodulator converts radio
and analog data to digital data while
modulator converts digital signal to radio
frequency signals.

Networking Software
The information, data or programming
used to make it possible for computers
to communicate or connect to one
another.
Examples:
Windows NT
Windows Server 2003
Unix
Novel Netware
CISCO
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Wireless Networking
Utilize radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain
communication channels between computers. Wireless
networking is a more modern alternative to wired networking
that relies on copper and/or fiber optic cabling between network
devices.
Advantages of wireless include mobility and elimination of
unsightly cables.
Disadvantages of wireless include the potential for radio
interference due to weather, other wireless devices, or
obstructions like walls.
Wireless is rapidly gaining in popularity for both home and
business networking. Wireless technology continues to improve,
and the cost of wireless products continues to decrease. Popular
wireless local area networking (WLAN) products conform to the
802.11 "Wi-Fi" standards.
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Wireless Networking Hardware


The Ethernet standard for wireless networking is the IEEE
802.11b
wireless standard. The 802.11b standard supports wireless
connections at speeds up to 11 Mps, comparable to 10 Mbps
wired Ethernet.
Wireless industry leaders formed the Wireless Ethernet
Compatibility Alliance (WECA) to certify cross-vendor
compatibility with the 802.11b standard.
These products display the WECA "Wireless Fidelity" (Wi-Fi)
logo.

PC card and USB Wireless


Adapters
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Network Security
During the early days, data security
was not a major concern; however
the physical safety of the computer
itself was quite important.
Vacuum tubes were vulnerable to
heat and dirt. Mainframe computer
systems required a closed air
conditioned environment.

Network Security

Password protection can be enough security for more


systems, provided that people give their password proper
handling and respect.

HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability) Act


of 1996, stated that in nursing it is absolutely essential that
all personnel know there is a policy of severe punishment
for disclosing ones password to anyone else and that the
policy is rigidly followed.

The law has made the security of private health records


even more critically important and nurses and nursing
administrators are expected to know their responsibilities.

The standards have been published and are readily


available on the internet through the Centers for Medicate
and Medical Services (2002).

Data Encryption, data is converted into codes.

Network Security

Fingerprint and handprint readers


retinal scanners
biometrics
Use of firewall, a security system
consisting of a combination of
hardware and software that limits the
exposure of a computer or computer
network to attack from crackers.

Internetworking

intranet is a set of interconnected networks, using the Internet


Protocol and uses IP-based tools such as web browsers and ftp tools,
that is under the control of a single administrative entity. That
administrative entity closes the intranet to the rest of the world, and
allows only specific users. Most commonly, an intranet is the internal
network of a company or other enterprise.
extranet is a network that is limited in scope to a single
organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the
networks of one or more other usually, but not necessarily, trusted
organizations or entities (e.g. a company's customers may be given
access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet,
while at the same time the customers may not be considered
'trusted' from a security standpoint).
Internet consist of a worldwide interconnection of governmental,
academic, public, and private networks based upon the Advanced
Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
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The Internet
the Internet is the worlds largest network
It is also called the Net, is a worldwide
collection of networks that links millions
of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals.
Vinton Gray Cerf & Bob Kahn, Fathers
of Internet, co-designers of the TCP/IP
protocols and the architecture of the
Internet.

Uses of Internet
Access a wealth of information, news, and
research material
Communicate with others around the
world
Bank and investment
Shop for goods and services
Download and listen to music or
download and watch movies
Take a course or access other educational
material

Uses of Internet
Access sources of entertainment and
leisure such as online games,
magazines, and vacation planning
guides
Access other computers and exchange
files
Share and edit documents with others
Provide information, photographs, audio
clips, or video clips

History of the Internet


It all started in a networking project by the
Pentagons Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA), an agency of the U.S.
Department of Defense.
ARPAs goals was to build a network that:
allowed scientist at different locations to share
information and work together on military and
scientific projects; and
could function even if part of the network were
disabled or destroyed by a disaster such as a
nuclear attack.

that network, called ARPANET, became


functional in September 1969, linking
scientific and academic researchers in the
United States.
the original ARPANET was a wide area network
(WAN) consisting of four main computers
one each located at the UCLA, UC at Santa
Barbara, the Stanford Research Institute, and
the University of Utah. Each of these
computers served as the networks host
nodes.

In 1984, ARPANET underwent phenomenal


growth, it had more than 1,000 individuals
linked as hosts. Today, more than 100 million
hosts connect to the Internet.
In 1986, the National Science Foundation,
connected its huge network of five
supercomputer centers, called NSFnet, to
ARPANET. This configuration of complex
networks and hosts became known as the
Internet.
In 1995, NSFnet terminated its network on
the Internet and returned its status to a
research network.

How the Internet Works


Service Providers
an Internet service provider (ISP) is a
business that has a permanent Internet
connection and offers temporary
connections to individuals and companies
free or for a fee.
If you use a telephone line to access the
Internet, the telephone number you dial
connects you to an access point on the
Internet, called Point of Presence (POP).

Online Service Provider (OSP)


supplies Internet access, but an OSP also
has many members-only features that
offer a variety of special content and
services such as news, weather, legal
information, financial data, hardware and
software guides, games and travel
guides. Examples are America Online
(AOL) and The Microsoft Network (MSN).

Wireless Service Provider (WSP) is a


company that provides wireless Internet
access to users with wireless modems
(like notebooks) or Web-enabled handheld
computers or devices (like cellular
telephones, two-way pagers, etc).
An antenna on the wireless modem or
Web-enabled device typically sends
signals through the airwaves to
communication with a WSP.

Internet Addresses
The Internet relies on an addressing system
much like the postal service to send data to a
computer at a specific destination.
IP Address, short for Internet Protocol
Address, is a number that uniquely identifies
each computer or device connected to the
Internet.
Domain Name is the text version of an IP
address. Every domain name contains a toplevel domain (TLD) abbreviation that
identifies the type of organization that is
associated with the domain.

IP address

199.95.72.10

Domain name www.scsite.com

Some Top-Level Domain Abbreviations


com
commercial organizations,
businesses, and companies
edu
educational institutions
gov
government agencies
mil
military organizations
net
network provider
org
non-profit organizations

Newer TLD Abbreviations


and their type of domain
museumaccredited museum
biz
business
info
information service
name
individuals or families
pro
credentialed professional such as
doctor or lawyer
aero
air transport company
coop
business cooperative such as
credit
unions, etc.

Uniform Resource Locator


Uniform Resource Locator (URL),
also called a Web address, is a Web
pages unique address.
It tells the browser where to locate
the documents.
A URL consists of a protocol, domain
name, and sometimes the path to a
specific Web page.

http or hypertext transfer


protocol, is the communications
standard that enables pages to
transfer on the Web.
A Web server is a computer that
delivers (serves) Web pages you
request.

Structure of URL
URL:

http://www.intel.com/pressroom/inde
x.asp
Protocol Host computer
address (domain)
name

path, directory,
file

How Data Travels the


Internet
A server is a computer that manages
the resources on a network and
provides a central storage area for
resources such as programs and data.
A client is a computer that can access
the contents of the storage area on a
server.
A backbone are the communications
lines that carry the heaviest amount of
traffic on the Internet.

The software that takes care of the


packets is Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
TCP does the packeting and
reassembling of the message.
The IP part of the protocol handles the
addressing, seeing to it that packets are
routed across multiple computers.

The World Wide Web


The World Wide Web (WWW) or Web
consists of a worldwide collection of
electronic documents.
It is a newer component of the Internet that
emerged in the early 1990s.
The most widely used service on the
Internet.
Tim Berners Lee (TimBL), inventor of
WWW in 1989, founding Director of
WWWConsortium

A Web site is a collection of related


Web pages.
Web page are the electronic
documents on the Web which contain
text, graphics, sound, and video, as
well as built-in connection to other
documents.

Browsing the Web


A Web browser, or browser, is a
software program that allows you to
access and view Web pages.
The more widely used Web browsers for
personal computers are Microsoft
Internet Explorer and Netscape.
A home page, which is the starting
page for a browser, is similar to a book
cover or a table of contents for a Web
site.

Main Elements of a Web


Browser

Web
page
area

Navigating Web Pages


A hyperlink, also called a link, is a
built-in connection to another related
Web page or part of a Web page.
Links allow you to obtain information
in a nonlinear way.
Surfing the Web is the process of
jumping from one Web page to
another.

Searching for Information


on the Web
A search engine is a software program you
can use to find Web sites, Web pages, and
Internet files.
Search text or keywords are word or phrase
that you enter in the search engines text box.
A spider, also called a crawler or bot, is a
program that reads pages on Web sites in
order to create a catalog, or index, of hits.
A hit is any Web page name that lists as the
result of a search.

Widely Used Search


Engines
AltaVista
Excite
Yahoo!
Google
Lycos
HotBot
LookSmart
Overture
WebCrawler

altavista.com
excite.com
Yahoo.com
google.com
lycos.com
hotbot.com
looksmart.com
overture.com
webcrawler.com

Multimedia on the Web


Multimedia refers to any application
that integrates text with one or more
of the following elements: graphics,
sound, video, virtual reality, or other
media elements.
A graphic, or graphical image, is a
digital representation of information
such as a drawing, chart, or
photograph.

Most Common Graphics


Format
JPEG file, which stands for Joint
Photographic Experts Group, is a
graphical image that uses compression
techniques to reduce the file size.
GIF file, which stands Graphics
Interchange Format, also uses
compression techniques to reduce file
sizes. It best works on images with only a
few distinct colors, such as line drawings,
single-color borders or cartoons.

Graphics Formats Used on


the Internet
Acronym Name
File Extension
GIF Graphics Interchange Format
.gif
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group
.jpeg
BMPBit Map
.bmp
PCX PC Paintbrush
.pcx
PNG Portable Network Graphics
.png
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
.tif

A thumbnail is a small version of a


larger graphical image you usually can
click. To display the full-sized image.
Animation is the appearance of motion
created by displaying a series of still
images in rapid sequence.
Animated GIF, is one of the popular
animation and graphics software that
combine several images into a single
GIF file.

E-mail (Electronic Mail)


E-mail is the transmission of messages
and files via a computer network.
It was one of the original services on the
Internet, enabling scientists and
researchers working on governmentsponsored projects to communicate with
colleagues at other locations.
E-mail program is used to create, send,
receive, forward, store, print, and delete
messages.

An e-mail address is a combination of a user


name and a domain name that identifies a user, so
he or she can receive Internet e-mail.
A user name, or user-ID, is a unique combination
of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or
numbers, that identifies you.
An address book contains a list of names and email addresses.
A mailbox is a storage location usually residing on
the computer that connects you to the Internet.
The server that contains the mailboxes often is
called a mail server.

Instant Messaging (IM) is a realtime Internet communications service


that notifies you when one or more
people are online and then allows to
exchange messages or files or join a
private chat room with them.
Instant Messenger is a software
from an instant messaging software
needed to be installed onto the
computer with which to use IM.

Ethics in Internet
Netiquette, which is short for Internet
etiquette, is the code of acceptable
behaviors users should follow while on the
Internet; the conduct expected of
individuals while online.
Netiquette includes rules for all aspects of
the Internet, including the World Wide
Web, e-mail, FTP, newsgroups and
message boards, chat rooms, and instant
messaging.

Types of Web Pages

Portal
Educational
Entertainment
Informational
News
Business/Marketing
Advocacy
Personal

Portal Web Page


Portal - a Web site that offers a variety of Internet
services from a single convenient location.
Free services offered by portals:
search engine and/or subject directory;
news;
sports and weather;
free Web publshing services;
reference tools such as yellow pages, stock quotes,
and maps;
shopping malls and auctions;
and e-mail and other forms of online communications.

Portal Web Page

News Web Page


A Web site that contains newsworthy
material including stories and articles
relating to current events, life,
money, sports, and the weather.
Newspapers, television and radio
stations are some of the media that
maintain news Web sites.

News Web Page

Informational - contains factual


information.

Business / Marketing- contains content


that promotes or sells products or services.

Educational - offers exciting and


challenging avenues for formal and informal
teaching and learning.

Entertainment - offers an interactive and


engaging environment.

Advocacy - contains content that describes


a cause, opinion, or idea.

Personal - a private individual or family


who normally is not associated with any
organization.