Sei sulla pagina 1di 54

AHU

Air Handling Unit


Fundamentals

Objectives
Review primary components of an AHU
Understand the basic progression and
advantages of advanced AHU control
Understand the basic control sequences
Review key operating concepts

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Why is it important?
AHU operation is fundamental to the Commercial Building
HVAC Control.
Many application problems and questions are easily
resolved if individuals understand the fundamentals of
AHU operation
Understanding the terminology of the business is
necessary to be effective in any position
Increased comfort and operational efficiency may be
achieved through advancing the control of an AHUresulting in more sales, reduced energy costs and
satisfied customers.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

HVAC System in a Building

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

HVAC Air Systems


HVAC air systems are made up of:

AHU - Air handling units


Dampers
Coils and Valves
Fans
Distribution ducts and terminal boxes
Pumps and Plumbing
Control devices and control loops
Unitary equipment: fan coils, perimeter
radiation, unit ventilators, unit heaters,
etc.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU - Components & Terminology

EA

RA

Return From
Space

OA
Filter

Cooling Coil

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

DA
Heating

AHU components
Supply fan

Heating coil
& valve

Mixed Air
sensor

Mixed air
dampers section

Return Air
sensor

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Cooling coil
& valve

Discharge air
sensor

Discharge air
Duct

Return air
Duct

AHU components

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

What are Functions of AHU ?


Function: Condition the air flow.
Heat the air flow
Cool the air flow
Dehumidify the air flow
Humidify the air flow
Clean the air flow
Distribute the conditioned air into the
building space.

Commercial air handling units can


be compared to home furnaces.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Types of Air Handlers


Air Handlers can be categorized
by:
Method of temperature control
Method of volume control
Method of air distribution
Types :
Mixed Air AHU
Treated Fresh Air AHU
100 % Fresh Air AHU
05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Types of Air Handlers


Air Handling Units Mixed Air

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Types of Air Handlers


Air Handling Units Mixed Air

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Distribution Systems


Constant Volume, Variable Temperature (CV)*
Delivered to all room areas regardless of individual
room differences.

Constant Volume, Constant Temperature (CT)


High fan power costs, expensive installation, high
energy consumption

VAV -Variable Air Volume, Constant Temperature


Single Zone or Dual Duct

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

A Single Duct AHU variation


The exhaust air damper is not in this air
handler; the building air is exhausted
elsewhere, but the basic mixed air and other
functions are unchanged.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air handler variations


The building air in the previous example can
be exhausted through wall or roof fan units
remote from the AHU, or through pressure
relief dampers.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Other Air Distribution Systems


Multizone
Supplies several zones from a central system.
Hot and cold deck temperatures are mixed and
supplied to the zone to meet the needs of the
zone

Dual Duct
Supply air is divided at the Central Fan - hot
air & cold air flow through separate ducts to
the zones - mixed to meet requirements at
zone

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Distribution Design-Dual Duct


Hot deck/cold deck AHU with Dual Duct distribution.
Dual ducts run through the building with many sets of zone
dampers for many individual room locations.
Will have many sets
of these dual duct
take offs.

Zoned temperature
control.
Mixes correct
amounts of hot or
cool air into each
room per room
thermostats.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air handler locations


Roof top unit

Air handlers may be located:


In basement mechanical rooms.
In penthouse mechanical rooms.
On roof tops.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


The damper section :

Manually Operated for


Outside Air/Exhaust Air

Motorized Modulating

Motorized On/Off

Fire Dampers Motorized /


Fuse Link Operated

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


The fan section with
access door open.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Filters :
Types of Air Filters

Pre Filters

Fine Filters

HEPA Filters

ULPA Filters

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


PRE-Filters
70-80-% Efficiency .
Can filter particles
of size upto 5-10
microns.
Reusable & Washable

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Fine Filters
90-95 % Efficiency .
Can filter particles of
size upto 1 to 2 microns.
Not Reusable

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA)
99.97-% to 99.99995 %
Efficiency .
Can filter particles of
size upto 0.1 to 0.3
microns.
Used in Clean Room
Applications.
Not Reusable

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


ULPA Filters
PTFE Membrane Filters For State-of-the-Art Clean room
Requirements
PTFE (PolyTetraFluoroEthylene) Membrane combines ultra-high
efficiency with negligible pressure drop
High Resistance to Corrosive Environments (Acid, Alkali and
Organics)
Negligible Off-Gassing Properties (Boron, Sodium, Potassium,
Silicon)
99.99995% Minimum Efficiency.
PTFE membrane filters can meet stringent semiconductor industry
Clean room filtration requirements
05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


The filter section.
Notice the cross stacking of
the filters to increase
surface area.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Temperature Sensor:

Temperature sensors are used for


measurement of temperatur of a
Room, Air Duct, Hot /Cold Water,
Outside Air etc.
Models are available with PT1000,
NTC20K, BALCO500 sensing
elements.

LF20 : AIR DUCT TEMP. SENSOR (NTC 20k)

T7412 : ROOM TEMP. SENSOR (PT1000/NTC 20k)

T7413A : IMMERSION TEMP. SENSOR (PT1000)

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Relative Humidity Sensor:

Relative Humidity sensors are used


for measurement of Relative
humidity of a Room, Air Duct,
Outside Air etc.
Sensor Type : Capacitance
Combined Relative Humidity and
Temperature Sensors are available
with PT1000, NTC20K,
BALCO500 sensing elements.

H7015 : DUCT RELATIVE HUMIDITY SENSOR

H7012 : ROOM RELATIVE HUMIDITY SENSOR

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Differential Pressure
Switch:

Differential Pressure switches are


used for monitoring of Filter, Fan,
Pump, Fire Damper, Water Flow,
Air Flow Status of air handling
systems.
DPS1000 : AIR DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE SWITCH

TDIAP SERIS : AIR FLOW SWITCH

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Differential Pressure
Sensors/Transmitter:

Used for measuring diff. Pressure,


positive pressure and vacuum.

DPT1000 : AIR DIFF. PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

ST 3000 Pressure Transmitter

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


Coils :
Heating Coils
Cooling Coils
Coil Construction

Copper with Aluminium fins,

13 Fins /inch

Number of Rows, I.e 4/6/8


depending on the latent heat
load & Bypass Factor.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Air Handler Components


The coil section of a AHU.

Note:
There may be a wide
variety of actual configurations

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Basic AHU Control Sequences


Damper configurations will employ a
variation of the following damper
sequences of operation:

Fixed amount of outdoor air.


Manually adjustable outdoor air.
Mixing of outdoor and return air.
Mixing with minimum outdoor air.
Economizer override of outdoor air.
Enthalpy controlled economizer function.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Fixed Quantity of Outside Air


Use for
ventilation

OA

100% OA
No Temperature
Control
Control would be
a simple switch to
turn fan on/off

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

DA
Fan

Fixed OA with Damper


Specification
The operation of the OA air damper
shall be two-position the damper should
open when the fan is on and close when
the fan is off
Fan shall be operated from a
1) time clock
2) time schedule from the Building
Management System*

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Typical AHU Damper Sequences


Damper opens via
relay when fan turns
on:
100% outdoor air
W/WO return air
Typical make up air
unit w/o return.
Relay opens damper
when fan starts. Or fan
starts after damper
opens.
05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Basic Mixed Air Control


Specification
Control System will energize
when fan is on
MA controller will modulate
dampers to maintain mixed air
position
Manual positioning
switch/setting determines
minimum OA damper position
OA, EA dampers close and RA
damper opens when fan is shut
off

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Note:for large fan systems care must


be taken to insure ample air is supplied
to fan!
Both OA and RA dampers should not
be closed during fan operation.

Typical AHU Damper Sequences


Manually adjustable
quantity of outdoor
air:
Similar to Fixed, but
with a user adjustment
device for adjusting
damper setting from 0% to
100% outdoor air.
No automatic control.
W/WO exhaust or return
air ducts.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Typical AHU Damper Sequences


Mixed Air Dampers:
Mixes OA and RA to maintain a
mixed air setpoint via direct
acting controller.
Modulates 0% to 100%.
Provides ventilation for IAQ.
Provides free cooling.
Provides proper temperature for
H/C coil operation.
OA and EA dampers close via
relay with fan off.
RA damper opens via relay with
fan off.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Mixed Air Dampers with a Minimum Position Setting


Maintains a minimum
outdoor damper position via a
minimum adjustment device
when building is occupied.
(fan on)
Meets IAQ code
requirements.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Typical AHU Damper Sequences


Enthalpy controlled
override of Mixed Air
control:
Total heat (enthalpy) of
outdoor air is compared to
total heat of return air to
decide which is more
economical for efficient
cooling coil operation.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU coil control

The air handler heating


component is accomplished
with hot water, steam, or
electric heating coils.

The idea is to replace heat


at the same rate that heat is
being lost from the conditioned
space.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU coil control

Typical discharge air control of


a hot water heating coil.

(Hot water is provided by a hot


water boiler located elsewhere
in the mechanical system.)

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU coil control


Outdoor temperature reset
of the discharge air set point;
typical of cold climate air
handler control sequences.
The BTU content of the air
flow will increase automatically
as the BTU loss from the building
increases.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU coil control


The air handler cooling
component is accomplished
via chilled water coils or via
a refrigerant evaporator coil
absorbing heat in the air stream.
Refrigerant (freon) expands
in the coil as it absorbs heat,
thus it is referred to as a direct
expansion (DX) coil.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU coil control

Typical discharge air control of a


chilled water cooling coil.
BTUs are absorbed by the chilled
water as air flows through the coil.
Dehumidification is also provided
by the cooling coil. As the air
temperature is reduced to below the
dew point (saturation point) water
condenses out of the air stream. In
this case, a reheat coil may be
required to bring the air back up to
an acceptable discharge
temperature.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU conditioning control


The humidification
component of an air
handler is accomplished
via a steam spray or a
water spray manifold.
Moisture is added to the
building space to
maintain an acceptable
relative humidity level.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

AHU conditioning control


Typical discharge air
control of a steam
humidifier manifold.

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Practical Example
100%Outside Air AHU :
OA AHU Seq

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Plant

Chiller Plant

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Chiller Plant
Chiller Plant systems are made up of:

Chiller/Condenser Unit
Chilled Water Pumps
Condenser Water Pumps
Cooling Towers
Makeup Water Tank
A/C Expansion Water Tank

TRANE Chiller

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Typical Cooling Tower

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Typical Chiller Plant

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals

Questions ??

05 AHU / Plant Fundamentals