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High Pass

Filter

(7) Butterworth Highpass Filters - designed from the


Lowpass prototype
1
Lowpass
prototype

~
Vs
Signal
generator
1

Normalized
highpass

L = 2H

C = 1F

C = 0.5F

~
Vs

R =1

L = 1H

R =1

Signal generator
2

Highpass Filters - designed from an alternative Lowpass


prototype
L = 1H L = 1H
1
Lowpass
prototype

~
Vs
Signal
generator
1

Normalized
highpass

C=1F

~
Vs

R =1

C = 2F

L =0.5H

C=1F
R =1

Signal generator
3

(8)

Chebyshev Filters
G

1 2 C n2

where (<1) is the ripple constant and Cn() is the


Chebyshev polynomial of n degree, defined by

C n cos n cos 1

C n cosh n cosh 1

1
1

(a) Chebyshev Polynomial


To show that Cn() is indeed a polynomial,
let = cos x and for 1

C n ( x) cos nx
C n 1 ( x) cos(n 1) x cos nx cos x sin nx sin x
C n 1 ( x) cos(n 1) x cos nx cos x sin nx sin x
C n 1 ( x) C n 1 ( x) 2 cos nx cos x
Obtain the recursive formula

Cn 1 ( ) 2Cn ( ) Cn 1 ( )
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The recursive formula

Cn 1 ( ) 2Cn ( ) Cn 1 ( )

From the definition

C n ( ) cos n cos
1

n0

C 0 cos 0 1

n 1

C1 ( ) cos(cos 1 )

n2

C 2 ( ) 2C1 ( ) C 0 ( ) 2 2 1

n3

C 3 ( ) 2C 2 ( ) C1 ( ) 4 3 3

n4

C 4 ( ) 2C 3 ( ) C 2 ( ) 8 4 8 2 1

n5

C 5 ( ) 2C 4 ( ) C 3 ( ) 16 5 20 3 5

n6

C 6 ( ) 2C 5 ( ) C 4 ( ) 32 6 48 4 18 2 1
6

6
4
2

32

48

18

1
Calculate 6

C6()

C6()

C6()

C6()

-1.2

20.9

-0.7

-0.06

-1

0.6

0.752

-1.1

7.19

-0.6

0.752

0.1

-0.825

0.7

-0.06

-1.0

-0.5

0.2

-0.355

0.8

-0.752

-0.97

0.097

-0.4

0.782

0.3

0.255

0.9

-0.907

-0.95

-0.328

-0.3

0.255

0.4

0.782

0.95

-0.328

-0.9

-0.907

-0.2

-0.355

0.5

0.97

0.097

-0.8

-0.752

-0.1

-0.825

Plot C6() against


C6

1
-1

-0.5

0.5

-1

(b) Calculate the ripple factor


(i) Passband ripple 1 dB, find

G
2

1
1 2 C n2

1
10 log
1
2
1
1 2 1.2589
0.5088

(ii) Passband ripple 0.5 dB, find

1
10 log
0.5
2
1
1 2 1.122
0.3493
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(c) Calculate Filter Response

C6()

C6()

-1

-1

-1

0.1

-0.825

-0.7

1.2

20.9

-17.4

0.2

-0.355

-0.14

1.5

161

-35.0

0.3

0.255

-0.07

1351

-56.7

0.4

0.782

-0.64

19601

-80.0

0.5

-1

119071

-95.6

0.6

0.752

-0.59

470449

-107

0.7

-0.06

1431431

-117.2

0.8

-0.752

-0.59

8193151

-132.4

0.9

-0.907

-0.84

10

31521799

-144.1

0.95

-0.328

-0.12

20

2.04E+09

-180.33

0.97

0.097

-0.01

40

1.31E+11

-216.47

10 log

1
1 2 C 62 ( )

10 log

1
1 2 C 62 ( )

10

0
20
40
60
80

100

0.1

0.2 0.3

0.5 0.7

4 5 6 7 8 10

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(d) Sketch frequency response of Chebyshev filter

20 log G ( )
0
1

dB

Selectivity: 6n dB/octave =
36 dB/octave

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(e) The location of the poles of a Chebyshev


response may be found and given as follows:

2k 1
k sinh sin
n 2
2k 1
k cosh cos
n 2

k2
k2

1
2
2
sinh cosh

j
s2
s1

s3

which is an ellipse

13

Filter Design using Q


and K values

14

Filter Design Using Q and K


data
Definition: Q
1

jL

Z 1 jL

jC

Y 1 jC

QL

QC

15

Definition K
C1

2
12

2
34

C1 L2
1

C 3 L4

L2

L4

C3

C5

2
23

2
45

L2 C 3

L4 C 5

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Q and K data for Butterworth filters


n

Q1 = Qn

K12

K23

K34

K45

1.4142

0.7071

1.0000

0.7071

0.7071

0.7654

0.8409

0.5412

0.8409

0.6180

1.0000

0.5559

0.5559

1.000

0.5176

1.1688

0.6050

0.5176

0.6050

K56

1.1688

17

L2

1
~

C1

Vs

n3

k12 k 23 0.7071

Y1 1 jC1

RL

C3

Q 1.000

Q C1 1

1
1
k

0.70712 0.5
C1 L2 L2
2
12

L2 2

1
1
k

0.70712 0.5
L2C3 2C3
2
23

Y3

1
jC3
RL

C3 1

Q3 RL C3 RL 1
18

C2

Vs

n3

L3

L1

k12 k 23 0.7071

Z 1 1 jL1

RL

Q 1.000

Q L1 1

1
1
k

0.70712 0.5
L1C 2 C 2
2
12

2
23

1
1

0.70712 0.5
C 2 L 3 2 L3

Z 3 R L jL3

L3
1
Q3

1
RL RL

C2 2
L3 1
RL 1
19

Q and K data for Chebyshev filters with ripple


0.5 dB
n

Q1

K12

K23

K34

K45

K56

1.9497 0.7225

1.8636 0.6474 0.6474

1.8258 0.6482 0.5446 0.6482

1.8068 0.6519 0.5341 0.5341 0.6519

1.7962 0.6547 0.5326 0.5191 0.5326 0.6566


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Example Chebyshev n = 4
N=4

Q = 1.8258

K12 =0.6482 K23 = 0.5446 K34 = 0.6482


L2

RS = 1
VS

C1

L4
C3

RL

1
1
L2 2

1.3036
2
K 12 C1 0.6482 1.8258

C1 Q 1.8258
1

1
C3 2

2.5865
2
K 23 L2 0.5446 1.3036
L4

1
2
34

K L4

0.6482 2.5865
2

0.9202

L4
RL
0.5039
Q
21

R1

L1

L2

1ohm

1.3035H

0.9022H

V1
1V 1000Hz 0Deg

C1

C2

R2

1.8258F

2.5865F

0.5039ohm

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From MultiSim

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