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Organization Development and Change

Chapter Nine:
Designing Interventions

Thomas G. Cummings
Christopher G. Worley

Learning Objectives
for Chapter Nine
To discuss criteria for effective
interventions
To discuss issues, considerations,
constraints, ingredients, and processes
associated with intervention design
To give an overview of the various
interventions used in the book
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Definition of Interventions
An intervention is a set of sequenced and
planned actions or events intended to help the
organization increase its effectiveness.
Interventions purposely disrupt
the status quo.
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Characteristics of
Effective Interventions
1. Is it relevant to the needs of the
organization?
Valid information- accurate diagnosis
Free and Informed Choice- members are
actively involved in making decisions
Internal Commitment- members accept
ownership of the intervention

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Characteristics of
Effective Interventions
2. Is it based on causal knowledge of intended
outcomes?

Based on valid knowledge that those outcomes


actually can be produced.
Knowledge of intervention effects in in
developmental stage
Few research focus on the examination of the
comparative effects of different OD techniques.
More attempt to assess the strengths and weaknesses
of OD interventions.
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Characteristics of
Effective Interventions
3. Does it transfer competence to manage
change to organization members?
The extent to which it enhances the
organizations capacity to manage change.
Organization members should be better able to
carry out planned change activities on their
own.

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The Design of
Effective Interventions
Contingencies Related to the
Change Situation
intervention
:
individual difference (need for autonomy)
Organizational factors (management style)
dimensions of the change process itself (need top
management support or not)
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The Design of
Effective Interventions
Contingencies Related to the
Change Situation
intervention

Readiness for Change


Capability to Change
Cultural Context
Capabilities of the Change Agent
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The Design of
Effective Interventions
Contingencies Related to the Target of Change

intervention
Two key contingencies related to change targets that can
affect intervention success
1. Organizational issues that the intervention is intended
to resolve.
2. Organizational level of organizational system at which
the intervention is expected to have a primary impact.
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The Design of
Effective Interventions
Contingencies Related to the Target of Change
Organizational issues
Strategic Issues
Technology and structure issues
Human resources issues
Human process issues
See Fig. 9.1

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The Design of
Effective Interventions
Contingencies Related to the Target of Change
Organizational Level
Individual
Group
Organization
Transorganization
See Table 9.1
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Intervention Overview
Human Process Interventions
Technostructural Interventions
Human Resources Management
Interventions
Strategic Interventions
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Human Process Interventions

Coaching
Training and Development
Process Consultation and Team Building
Third-party Interventions (Conflict
Resolution)
Organization Confrontation Meeting
Intergroup Relationships
Large-group Interventions
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Technostructural Interventions
Structural Design
Downsizing
Reengineering
Employee Involvement
Work Design
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Human Resources
Management Interventions
Goal Setting
Performance Appraisal
Reward Systems
Career Planning and Development
Managing Work Force Diversity
Employee Stress and Wellness
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Strategic Interventions
Integrated Strategic Change
Mergers and Acquisitions
Alliances and Networks
Culture Change
Self-designing Organizations
Organization Learning and Knowledge
Management
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