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Measuring complex achievement

Performance based assessment

Chapter 11

Linn, R. L., & Gronlund, N.E. (2003).

Measurement and Assessment in Teaching (9 th


ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Measuring complex achievement


Performance based assessment
Attached file & presentation

Essay tests ( previous presentations)


Example of one type of performance-based
assessment.
Many other types including
artistic productions,
experiments in science,
oral presentations, and
the use of mathematics to solve real-world
problems.
The

emphases are on doing, not merely


knowingon process as well as product.

Performance assessments provide a basis for

teachers
to evaluate both the effectiveness of the process

or procedure used and the product resulting from


performance of a task.
Hands-on performance tasks that require students

to manipulate objects, measure outcomes, and


observe results of experimental manipulations are
sometimes essential to capture the full array of
skills needed to perform "authentic" tasks.

Performance assessments can either be


a restricted format or an extended format.

Performance assessments possess a number of

advantages and limitations.

The

development
of
high-quality
performance
assessments that effectively measure complex
learning outcomes requires attention to
the task development and
the ways in which performances are scored.

Criteria to be used in judging student performance are

critical for reliable, fair, and valid assessment


The specification of the criteria should begin at the
time the tasks are being selected or developed.
Both the teacher and the student need to understand
the criteria that will be used to judge performance.

Performance assessment
Performance assessment are sometimes referred to as

authentic assessment or alternative assessment


Alternative assessment highlights the contrast with

traditional paper-and-pencil tests.


Authentic

assessment emphasize the


application of the tasks in real-world settings.

practical

Performance assessment is preferable

It is mainly used to measure the learning outcomes

that cannot be measured well by objective test items.

Restricted Response Performance tasks


Narrow in definition
Instructions are more focused
Limitations on the types of performance expected

are likely to be indicated


Focus on one specific skills ( e.g. reading a
passage aloud)
Sometimes they start wit MCQ or short answer
questions, and then are extended by asking for
explanation
E.g. (pp.262-263)

Extended Performance Tasks


Require students seek more information form

different sources
(use the library; make
observation; collect and analyze data; conduct a
survey; use a computer; etc.)
Process / procedures
Product ( such as construction and presentation

of graphs and tables; use of photographs and


drawings; construction of physical models; etc)
(e.g. 265)

Advantages
Clearly communicate instructional goals that

involve complex
performances
in natural
settings in and outside schools
Encourage
development
of
complex
understanding and skills.
Measure complex learning outcomes
Provide a means of assessing process/ procedure
as well as product
Apply methods suggested by modern learning
theory (students as active participants)

Limitations
Like essay questions
Unreliability of ratings
Time consuming in nature

Suggestions

for

constructing

performance

tasks
1.Focus on learning outcomes that require complex

cognitive skills and students performances.


2. Select or develop tasks that represent both the

content and skills that are central to important


learning outcomes
3.Minimize the dependence of task performance on

skills that are irrelevant to the intended purpose of


the assessment task. (e.g. requiring reading ability)

Suggestions

for

constructing

performance

tasks
4. Provide the necessary scaffolding for students to be
able to understand the task and what is expected
(prior knowledge)
5. Construct task directions so that the students' task
is clearly indicated
6. Clearly communicate performance expectations in
terms of the scoring rubrics by which the
performances will be judged

Performance criteria
The

criteria to be used in judging student


performance are critical for reliable, fair, and valid
assessment, and the specifications of the criteria
should begin at the time the tasks are selected or
developed.

Two main ways


Scoring rubrics/rating scales
Checklists

Scoring rubrics/rating scales

Scoring rubric is a set of guidelines for application of

performance
criteria
to
the
responses
and
performance of students.
It consists typically of verbal descriptions of
performance or aspects of students responses that
distinguished between advanced, proficient, partially
proficient, and beginning levels of performance
Analytic vs. holistic scoring

Rating scales are limited to quality of judgment (e.g.

excellent, good, fair, or poor) or scaled frequency


judgments (e.g., always, frequently, sometimes, or
never) for each level
E.g., p272

Types of rating scales

(see the attached file)

Numerical rating scales


E.g., 274

Graphic rating scale


E.g., 274

Descriptive graphic rating scale


E.g., 275

Uses of rating scales


Two assessment areas
Process or procedure assessment
E.g., p.277

Product
Judge on the product ( quality of writing, drawings, maps.

Graphs, )

Common errors in rating


Personal bias
Generosity error
Severity error
Central tendency error

Hallo effect ( general impression influences the

ratings)
Logical error

(results when two characteristics


are rated as more alike or less alike than they are
actually are)

Principles of effective ratings


Characteristics should be educationally significant
Identify the learning outcomes that the tasks is

intended to assess
Characteristics should be directly observable
Characteristics and points on the scale should be

clearly defined

Select

the type of scoring rubric that is most


appropriate for the task and the purpose of the
assessment.

Between three and seven rating positions should be

provided
Rate performances of all students on one task before

going on to the next one.


When possible, rate performances without knowledge

of students name
When results from a performance assessment are

likely to have long-term consequences for students,


ratings from several observers should be combined

Checklists
Is similar in appearance and use to the rating scale
They are different in the type of judgment needed
Checklist calls for a simple yes-no judgment ( action

present or absent )
Useful in primary level
E.g., p.282
Useful in assessing those performance skills that
can be divided into a series of specific action
E.g., p.283
Used to assess products
Combination of techniques (e.g., p.284)

Students participation in rating


From an instructional standpoint, it is often useful

to have students rate themselves (or their


products) and then compare the ratings with those
of the teacher.
Discuss !