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INDIVIDUAL

BEHAVIOUR

PERSONAL FACTORS:
THE INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS

THAT INFLUENCE

ABILITY

refers to capacity or capability of an individual to


perform the various tasks in a job.
Criterion used to determine what a person can do.
Ability.Intellectual ability, Physical ability
Person born with biographical characteristics
Difficult to change or modify
Managers focus on learned characteristics

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
FRAMEWORK
Heredity Genes
Environment
Individual
Characteristics,
,Culture
Race/Ethnicity
,Education
Abilities,Skills,Personality
Gender
Parental Influence Physical
traits, Values
Environment

Work-related Behavior

BEHAVIORAL RANGE
Comfort Zone

Zone of
Discomfort
Values

Zone of
Discomfort

LEARNED CHARACTERISTICS

Personality
Perception
Attitude
Values

PERSONALITY..SET OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS


THAT MAKE EACH PERSON UNIQUE

Role which the person displays to the public.


Is a dynamic concept describing the growth &
development of a persons whole
psychological system.
Personality means how a person affects
others & how he understands & views himself
as well as the pattern of inner & outer
measurable traits and the person-situation
interaction.

DETERMINANTS OF
PERSONALITY

Heredity
Environmental

Employment level, wages,


technological development , political, legal.

Culture
Family
Social
Situational
Organizational Physical facilities, organization
structure & design , leadership , reward system

PERSONALITY TRAITS

Affect work related behaviors.First develop


self-awareness then understand what their
employees wants and needs may be.
Myer-Briggs Type Inventory[MBTI]
Big Five Personality Traits

MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INVENTORY USED


TO ASSESS INDIVIDUALS JUNGIAN PERSONALITY TYPES

Information may be acquired through our senses or


through our intuition
It may be processed through rational processes or
through feelings.
Jungs framework also includes our orientation to the
external world(extroverts) & those oriented towards
internal world(introverts).
Modes of decision making one relying on perception
other judgment.
Sensing focus on specific data & what is
immediately present
Intuitionmore likely to focus on the future, to see
the potential in a situation.

MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INVENTORY


Unconventional
Playful
Excitable
Impulsive
Optimistic

Artisans(SP)-Tend to be
Sensual
Daring
Adaptable

SP=Sensation,Perceiver; SJ=Sensation,judging;
NT=intuitive,thinker; NF=intuitive,feeler

BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS

Researchers have condensed countless


personality traits into a list of 5 major
personality dimensions known as the Big
Five.

THE BIG 5 MODEL OF


PERSONALITY

Conscientiousness
degree to which individuals are hardworking,
controlled, organised, dependable ,responsible ,
forward-looking , persistent
High and Low
Extraversion /introversion
degree to which individuals are outgoing,
talkative , ambitious , assertive, active and
sociable
High and Low
Agreeableness
degree to which individuals are
courteous,likable,goodnatured,flexible,cooperative and warm
High and Low

THE BIG 5 MODEL OF


PERSONALITY
Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
degree to which individuals are insecure,
anxious, depressed and emotional , angry
High and Low
Openness to Experience
degree to which individuals are open to new
ideas, imaginative , broad-minded , seeks new
experiences , change loving, curious and
involved
High and Low

ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT
PERSONALITY TRAITS

Machiavellianism
A

pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player


who believes that ends justify the means
High Machs are manipulative, win more often,
and persuade more than they are persuaded.

Narcissism
An

arrogant, entitled, self-important person


who needs excessive admiration

Core Self-Evaluation
The

degree to which people like or dislike


themselves
Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job
performance

ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT
PERSONALITY TRAITS

Self-Monitoring
The

ability to adjust behavior to meet external,


situational factors.
High monitors conform more and are more likely
to become leaders.

Risk Taking
The

willingness to take chances.


May be best to align propensities with job
requirements.
Risk takers make faster decisions with less
information.
4-16

ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT
PERSONALITY TRAITS

Type A personality
Try

to be fast
Pace at which things generally happens upsets
them
Involve in more than one thing at a time
Unable to cope with leisure time
Measure success in quantitative terms

ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT
PERSONALITY TRAITS

Type B Personality
Do

not experience a sense of urgency


Do not discuss achievements unless the situation
demands
Try to make the best use of their leisure time

ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT
PERSONALITY TRAITS

Proactive Personality
Identifies

opportunities, shows initiative, takes


action, and perseveres to completion
Creates positive change in the environment

TRAITS /FACTORS INFLUENCING


PERSONALITY/OB

Authoritarianism
Bureaucratic Personality
Machiavellianism
Introversion & Extroversion
Problem solving Style
Achievement orientation
Locus of control
Internal locus of control
External locus of control
Self esteem

Self monitoring
Risk Taking
Type A & Type B personality

PERSONALITY THEORIES

Freudian Stages or Psycho-Analytical Theory


Carl Jungs Psycho Analytical Concept
Chris Argyriss Immaturity-maturity Theory
Traits theory
Self theory

FREUDIAN STAGES OR PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL


THEORY

Sigmund Freuds Psychoanalytical theory of


personality has been based primarily on his
concept of unconscious nature of personality.
Man is motivated more by unseen forces than
by conscious & rational thoughts.
Unconscious framework motivates human
being
The framework includes 3 conflicting
psychoanalytic concepts..The Id, The Ego
and The Super Ego

FREUDIAN STAGES OR PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL


THEORY
The ID

FREUDIAN STAGES OR PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL


THEORY

All 3 elements interrelated & should be


balanced
If Super Ego overdeveloped..man will
become impractical & irrational
Underdeveloped Super Ego let the Id urges
loosemake man highly immoral
This approach has made some impact on OB
Some behaviour of employees which is
unconscious in nature can be brought out
with the help of psychoanalytical analysis.

FREUDIAN STAGES OR PSYCHOANALYTICAL THEORY

Such behaviour may include


daydreaming,alchohlism,absenteeism,forgetf
ulness etc

CARL JUNGS PSYCHOANALYTICAL CONCEPT

Jung proposed that there is a collective


unconsciousness that exists in a personality
which is deeper & includes the cumulative
experiences of all past generations.
Some personality traits cannot be explained
rationally.

ERIKSON STAGES
Infancy/Trust Vs mistrust

CHRIS ARGYRISS IMMATURITYMATURITY THEORY

A human personality rather than going


through precise stages, progresses along a
continuum from immaturity as an infant to
maturity as an adult.

CHRIS ARGYRISS IMMATURITYMATURITY THEORY


IMMATURITY CHARACTERISTICS

TRAITS THEORY

An individual may be described in terms of a


constellation of traits such as
affiliation,achievement,anxiety,aggression &
dependency.
Quantitaive & refers to measurement of
psychological characteristics called traits.
Trait is any distinguishing relatively enduring
way in which one individual differs from
another.

FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS
RAISED BY TRAITS THEORY

What are traits which comprise human


personality?
How are these traits to be measured to
ascertain the personality composition & in
turn the behavior pattern of that individual
in an organization?

TRAITS THEORY
D.W.Fiske conducted empirical study of 128
men.
20 individual traits were used to get their
ratings.
Factor analysis of such ratings provided 5 basic
traits:
Social adaptability
Emotional control
Conformity
Inquiring Intellect
Confident Self expression

GORDON ALLPORT TRAIT


THEORY

Gordon Allport
Common

Traits traits which are common among


people of same group
Individual traits

Cardinal Traits a strong part of personality that one


may become identified with. Very dominant in the
personality.
Central Traits not as dominant as cardinal. Eg: He is
also intelligent and honest.
Secondary traits preferences and choices of
individuals.

CATTELL TRAIT THEORY


MAIN

OPPOSITE

Reserved

Outgoing

Less intelligent

More intelligent

Affected by feelings

Emotionally stable

Submissive

Dominant

Serious

Happy go lucky

Expedient

Conscientious

Timid

Venturesome

Tough minded

Sensitive

Practical

Imaginative

Fort right

Shrewd

Self assured

Apprehensive

Conservative

Experimenting

Group dependent

Self sufficient

Uncontrolled

Controlled

Relaxed

Tensed

Trusting

Suspicious

SELF THEORY

Stop thinking about other peoples behavior ,


become conscious of your own feelings ,
attitudes or responsibility of our actions in
relation to oneself & others.
Self Theory.
Clifford T. MorganSelf or self concept is an
organised conceptual gestalt composed of
perceptions of I or Me.
Self as object
Self as process

FACTORS OF SELF CONCEPT

Self Image
Ideal Self
Looking Glass Self
Real Self