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MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND

FLIGHT MECHANICS
Overview of Compressible Flows:
Critical Mach Number and Wing Sweep

April 25, 2011


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Florida Institute of Technology
D. R. Kirk

EXAMPLES: INFLUENCE OF COMPRESSIBILITY


M ~ 0.85

M < 1

M > 1

WHEN IS FLOW COMPRESSIBLE?

0
1 2
1
M

2

1
1

WHEN IS FLOW COMPRESSIBLE?

0
1 2
1
M

2

1
1

EXAMPLES: COMPRESSIBLE INTERNAL FLOW

Aexit
A
e* 77
Athroat A

EXAMPLE: H2 VARIABLE SPECIFIC HEAT, CP

COMPRESSIBILITY SENSITIVITY WITH


30

Stagnation to Static Density Ratio

Cp/Cv=1.4
Cp/Cv=1.2
25

20

15

10

0
0

0.5

1.5
Mach Number

2.5

PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, CP

Use non-dimensional description instead of plotting actual values of pressure


Pressure distribution in aerodynamic literature often given as C p

So why do we care?
Distribution of Cp leads to value of cl
Easy to get pressure data in wind tunnel
Shows effect of M on cl

p p
p p
Cp

1
q
V2
2

EXAMPLE: CP CALCULATION

See 4.10

Cp at a point on an airfoil of fixed shape


and fixed angle of attack

COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION:
EFFECT OF M ON CP

C p,0

p p
p p

1
q
V2
2

For M < 0.3, ~ const


Cp = Cp,0 = 0.5 = const

Flight Mach Number, M

COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION:
EFFECT OF M ON CP

Cp

C p ,0
1 M 2

0.5
1 M 2

For M < 0.3, ~ const


Cp = Cp,0 = 0.5 = const

Effect of compressibility
(M > 0.3) is to increase
absolute magnitude of Cp as
M increases
Called: Prandtl-Glauert Rule

M
Prandtl-Glauert rule applies for 0.3 < M < 0.7

EXAMPLE: SUPERSONIC WAVE DRAG

F-104 Starfighter

CRITICAL MACH NUMBER, MCR

As air expands around top surface near leading edge, velocity and M will increase
Local M > M

Flow over airfoil may have


sonic regions even though
freestream M < 1
INCREASED DRAG!

CRITICAL FLOW AND SHOCK WAVES

M CR M Drag Divergence 1.0

MCR

Sharp increase in cd is combined effect of shock waves and flow separation

Freestream Mach number at which cd begins to increase rapidly called DragDivergence Mach number

CRITICAL FLOW AND SHOCK WAVES

bubble of supersonic flow

CRITICAL FLOW AND SHOCK WAVES

MCR

EXAMPLE: IMPACT ON AIRFOIL / WING DRAG

D D friction D pressure Dwave


c d cd , f cd , p cd , w
Profile Drag
Profile Drag
coefficient relatively
constant with M at
subsonic speeds

Only at transonic and


supersonic speeds
Dwave= 0 for subsonic speeds
below Mdrag-divergence

AIRFOIL THICKNESS SUMMARY

Which creates most lift?


Thicker airfoil
Which has higher critical Mach number?
Thinner airfoil
Which is better?
Application dependent!

Note: thickness is relative


to chord in all cases
Ex. NACA 0012 12 %

CAN WE PREDICT MCR?


A

C p, A

2 pA

1
2
M p
pA

pA
p0

p p

p0

1 2
1
M
2

1 2
1
MA
2

Pressure coefficient defined in terms of


Mach number (instead of velocity)
PROVE THIS FOR CONCEPT QUIZ

In an isentropic flow total pressure, p0, is


constant
May be related to freestream pressure, p ,
and static pressure at A, pA

CAN WE PREDICT MCR?

C p, A

1 1 M 2
2
2

M 1
M A2

2

C P ,CR

2
M CR

2
1 1 M CR

1 2

Combined result
Relates local value of CP to local
Mach number
Can think of this as compressible flow
version of Bernoullis equation

Set MA = 1 (onset of supersonic flow)

Relates CP,CR to MCR

HOW DO WE USE THIS?


1. Plot curve of CP,CR vs. M
2. Obtain incompressible value of CP at minimum pressure point on given airfoil
3. Use any compressibility correction (such as P-G) and plot C P vs. M
Intersection of these two curves represents point corresponding to sonic flow at
minimum pressure location on airfoil
Value of M at this intersection is MCR

C P ,CR

2
M CR

2
1 1 M CR

3
2

Cp

C p,0
1 M 2

IMPLICATIONS: AIRFOIL THICKNESS

Note: thickness is relative


to chord in all cases
Ex. NACA 0012 12 %

Thick airfoils have a lower critical Mach number than thin airfoils
Desirable to have MCR as high as possible
Implication for design high speed wings usually design with thin airfoils
Supercritical airfoil is somewhat thicker

THICKNESS-TO-CHORD RATIO TRENDS

Thickness to chord ratio, %

A-10
Root: NACA 6716
TIP: NACA 6713

F-15
Root: NACA 64A(.055)5.9
TIP: NACA 64A203

Flight Mach Number, M

ROOT TO TIP AIRFOIL THICKNESS TRENDS


Boeing 737

Root

Mid-Span

Tip

http://www.nasg.com/afdb/list-airfoil-e.phtml

SWEPT WINGS
All modern high-speed aircraft have swept wings: WHY?

WHY WING SWEEP?

Wing sees component of flow normal to leading edge

WHY WING SWEEP?

V
V,n
V

V,n < V
Wing sees component of flow normal to leading edge

SWEPT WINGS: SUBSONIC FLIGHT

Recall MCR
If M > MCR large
increase in drag

Wing sees component


of flow normal to
leading edge
Can increase M

By sweeping wings of
subsonic aircraft, drag
divergence is delayed
to higher Mach
numbers

SWEPT WINGS: SUBSONIC FLIGHT

Alternate Explanation:
Airfoil has same thickness but longer
effective chord
Effective airfoil section is thinner
Making airfoil thinner increases
critical Mach number
Sweeping wing usually reduces lift for
subsonic flight

SWEPT WINGS: SUPERSONIC FLIGHT

sin
M
1

If leading edge of swept wing is outside Mach cone, component of Mach


number normal to leading edge is supersonic Large Wave Drag
If leading edge of swept wing is inside Mach cone, component of Mach number
normal to leading edge is subsonic Reduced Wave Drag
For supersonic flight, swept wings reduce wave drag

WING SWEEP COMPARISON


F-100D

English Lightning

SWEPT WINGS: SUPERSONIC FLIGHT


M < 1

SU-27

M > 1

(M=1.2) ~ 56
(M=2.2) ~ 27

WING SWEEP DISADVANTAGE

At M ~ 0.6, severely
reduced L/D

Benefit of this design is


at M > 1, to sweep
wings inside Mach
cone

Wing sweep beneficial in that it increases drag-divergences Mach number


Increasing wing sweep reduces the lift coefficient

TRANSONIC AREA RULE

Drag created related to change in cross-sectional area of vehicle from nose to tail
Shape itself is not as critical in creation of drag, but rate of change in shape
Wave drag related to 2nd derivative of volume distribution of vehicle

EXAMPLE: YF-102A vs. F-102A

EXAMPLE: YF-102A vs. F-102A

CURRENT EXAMPLES

No longer as relevant today more


powerful engines

F-5 Fighter

Partial upper deck on 747 tapers off


cross-sectional area of fuselage,
smoothing transition in total crosssectional area as wing starts adding in
Not as effective as true waisting but
does yield some benefit.
Full double-decker does not glean this
wave drag benefit (no different than
any single-deck airliner with a truly
constant cross-section through entire
cabin area)

EXAMPLE OF SUPERSONIC AIRFOILS

http://odin.prohosting.com/~evgenik1/wing.htm

SUPERSONIC AIRFOIL MODELS

Supersonic airfoil modeled as a


flat plate
Combination of oblique shock
waves and expansion fans acting
at leading and trailing edges
R=(p3-p2)c
L=(p3-p2)c(cos
D=(p3-p2)c(sin

Supersonic airfoil modeled as


double diamond
Combination of oblique shock
waves and expansion fans acting
at leading and trailing edge, and
at turning corner
D=(p2-p3)t

APPROXIMATE RELATIONS FOR LIFT AND DRAG


COEFFICIENTS

cl

cd , w

4
M 2 1
4 2
M 2 1

http://www.hasdeu.bz.edu.ro/softuri/fizica/mariana/Mecanica/Supersonic/home.htm

CASE 1: =0

Shock waves

Expansion

CASE 1: =0

CASE 2: =4

Aerodynamic Force Vector

Note large L/D=5.57 at =4

CASE 3: =8

CASE 5: =20

At around =30, a detached shock begins


to form before bottom leading edge

CASE 6: =30

DESIGN OF ASYMMETRIC AIRFOILS

QUESTION 9.14

Consider a diamond-wedge airfoil as shown in Figure 9.36, with half angle =10
Airfoil is at an angle of attack =15 in a Mach 3 flow.
Calculate the lift and wave-drag coefficients for the airfoil.

Compare with your solution

EXAMPLE: MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED


Pitot tubes are used on aircraft as speedometers (point measurement)

Subsonic
M < 0.3

Subsonic
M > 0.3

M < 0.3 and M > 0.3: Flows are qualitatively


similar but quantitatively different

Supersonic
M>1

M < 1 and M > 1: Flows are


qualitatively and quantitatively different

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (M < 0.3)

1
2
p V1 p0
2
Static
pressure

Dynamic
pressure

Total
pressure

2 p0 p
V1

Incompressible Flow

May apply Bernoulli Equation with


relatively small error since compressibility
effects may be neglected
To find velocity all that is needed is
pressure sensed by Pitot tube (total or
stagnation pressure) and static pressure
Comment: What is value of ?
If is measured in actual air around
airplane (difficult to do)
V is called true airspeed, Vtrue
Practically easier to use value at standard
seal-level conditions, s
V is called equivalent airspeed, Ve

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUBSONIC COMRESSIBLE FLOW (0.3 < M < 1.0)
If M > 0.3, flow is compressible (density changes are important)
Need to introduce energy equation and isentropic relations

1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT0
2
2
T0
V1
1
T1
2c pT1
T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2

p0
1 2
1
M1
p1
2

0
1 2
1
M1
1
2

1
1

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUBSONIC COMRESSIBLE FLOW (0.3 < M < 1.0)
How do we use these results to measure airspeed?

M
1
2
1

p0

p1

2 a p0
2


V1
1 p1

2
1

2a p0 p1
2

V1
1
1
p1

Vcal2

M1 = V1/a1
V1 is actual flight speed

2
1

2as2

p0 and p1 give flight Mach number


Instrument called Mach meter

p0 p1

1
ps

Actual flight speed using pressure


difference

What are T1 and a1?


Again use sea-level conditions Ts,
as, ps (a1 = (RT) = 340.3 m/s)
V is called Calibrated Velocity, Vcal

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUPERSONIC FLOW (M > 1)

p02 p02


p1 p2

p2

p1

p02
1 2
1
M2
p2
2

1 2
1
M1
2
M 22
1
M 12
2

p2
2
1
M 12 1
p1
1

p02
1 M

p1 4M 12 2 1

2
1

1 2M 12
1

Rayleigh Pitot Tube Formula

EXAMPLE: SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONIC FLIGHT

Flight at four different speeds, pitot measures p 0 = 1.05, 1.2, 3 and 10 atm

What is flight speed if flying in 1 atm static pressure and T ambient = 288 K (a = 340 m/s)?

Determine which measurements are in subsonic or supersonic flow


p0/p = 1.893 is boundary between subsonic and sonic flows

1.05 atm p0/p = 1.05 subsonic


Use compressible flow form, M = 0.265, V ~ 90 m/s ~ 200 MPH
Could use Bernoulli which will provide small error (~ 1%) and give V directly
Compressible form requires knowledge of speed of sound (temperature)
Apply Bernoulli safely? p0/p < 1.065

1.2 atm p0/p = 1.2 subsonic


M = 0.52, V ~ 177 m/s ~ 396 MPH
Use of compressible subsonic form justified (Bernoulli ~ 3% error)

3 atm p02/p1 = 3 supersonic


M1 = 1.39, V ~ 473 m/s ~ 1057 MPH (Bernoulli ~ 22% error)

10 atm p02/p1 = 10 supersonic


M1 = 2.73, V ~ 928 m/s ~ 2076 MPH (MCO LAX in 1 hour 30 minutes)