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WORK STUDY, METHOD STUDY,

WORK MEASUREMENT, TIME


STUDY , ERGONOMICS AND
CASE STUDY

BY:
AYUSH GAUTAM
PRERNA KHATRI
SIYA RAIZADA
VARSHA OLATE
VISHWANATH KUMAR SAW

WORK STUDY
Generic term for those techniques which are used in
the examination of human work in all its context, and
which leads systematically to the investigation of all the
factors which affect the efficiency and economy in order
to affect the improvement

Work measurement: application of techniques to establish the time


for a qualified worker to carry out aa specified job at a defined level of
performance

PRODUCTIVITY CONCEPT AND


DEFINITIONS
Operationalized as the ratio of output to input
Productivity measure aims at identifying how efficiently the resources in a
system are used in producing the desired output
Total Productivity: ratio of aggregate output to aggregate input
Partial Productivity: ratio of aggregate output to single input
Productivity measurement objective:
Study performance of a system over time
Relative comparison of different systems for given level
Compare the actual and planned productivity
Aggregation problem: difficulty in arriving at an aggregate input or output
Commonly solved by multiplying the outputs and inputs by their
respective prices

PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT
TECHNIQUES
Basic Work Content: irreducible minimum time theoretically required to
produce one unit of output
Total Work Content: the total sum of basic work content and excess time
taken due to any design defect or inefficient methods
Ineffective time is the time wasted away by the worker or machine or both
due to management or worker shortcomings
Improving productivity by reducing work content
Design and production staff work closely from the beginning to avoid any
non-economical design
Quality standards must be geared to requirements of the company, market
and customers
Improving productivity by reducing ineffective time
Standardisation of components
Skilled workers in case of specialisation
Proper production planning and production control to keep the plan and
workers supplied with jobs
Proper maintenance of machines and plant
Good working environment to keep the workers motivated

METHOD STUDY

DEFINITION
Method Study is the systematic recording
and critical examination of existing and
proposed ways of doing work.
It is useful for developing and applying
easier and most cost effective methods.

OBJECTIVES

Improvement of process and procedures


Improvement in usage of plant equipment
Improvement of plant layout
Improvement in the use of man , machine and
material
Reduction of Human fatigue and increasing
productivity
Method standardisation
Improvement in safety standard
Development of a better working environment

METHOD STUDY PROCEDURE


SELECT the work to be studied
RECORD all relevant facts through charts and diagrams for further
analysisTools for recording involve String diagrams , Flow process chart
( Man/Machine /Material type),Travel chart etc.
EXAMINE those facts critically and in ordered sequence
Primary questions to ask
The
The purpose for which
activities are
The place at which
The sequence in which
undertaken
The person by which
The means by which

METHOD STUDY PROCEDURE


DEVELOP the most practical solution that is economical and
effective by
Eliminating / Combining / Re-arranging / Simplifying the
activity
DEFINE the new method
INSTALL the methods as standard practice1. To gain acceptance of the change by the departmental
supervision.
2. To gain approval of the change by the management.
3. To gain acceptance of the change by the workers.
4.Restrain the workers to operate using only the new
methods.
MAINTAIN the new practice or method

Product Bus Engine


Process Stripping , Degreasing and Cleaning used
Engines
Location Degreasing Shop

Original Method

New Method

WORK MEASUREMENT
Application of techniques designed to establish the
time for a qualified work to carry out a specific job
at a defined level of performance

PURPOSE OF WORK MEASUREMENT

To evaluate a workers performance.


To plan work face needs.
To define available capacity.
To determine price or cost of a product.
To compare work methods.
To facilitate operations scheduling.
To establish wage incentive schemes.

WHERE WORK MEASUREMENT CAN BE


APPLIED??
Widely used in factories where work or atleast some
parts of the work are repetitive.
Three general criteria for measurable jobs:
The work should be identifiable in terms of no. of units
a worker performed.
The work should be performed in a reasonably
consistent manner.
There should be considerable volume of the work to
justify performing a study and keeping counts and
records.

TECHNIQUES OF WORK MEASUREMENT


WORK SAMPLING: Method of finding the percentage occurrence of a
certain activity by statistical sampling and random operation.
TIME STUDY: Time study is work measurement technique for recording
the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried
out under specified conditions.
PRE DETERMINED TIME STANDARDS: Times established for basic
human motions are used to build up the time for a job at a definite level of
performance.
STANDARD DATA: A standard data system is a database of normal time
values, usually organized by work elements that can be used to establish
time standards for tasks composed of work elements similar to those in
the database.

STEPS IN MAKING TIME


STUDY:
1)Select (selecting job for work study)
2)Obtain & record (details regarding methods, operator, job
and working condition)
3)Define (the element, break the job into convenient for
timing) 4)Measure (time duration for each element and
assess the rating)
5)Extend (observed time into normal time {basic time})
6)determined (relaxation and personal allowances)
7) Compute (standard time for the operation for defined job
or operation.)

TYPES OF ELEMENT
A repetitive element is an element which occurs in every work cycle of
the job.
An occasional element - does not occur in each work cycle of the job,
but which may occur at regular or irregular intervals. E.G. Machine setting.
A constant element - the basic time remains constant whenever it is
performed. E.G. Switch the machine on.
A variable element - is an element for which the basic time varies in
relation to some characteristics of the product, equipment or process,
dimensions, weight, quality etc. E.G. Push trolley of parts to next shop.
Manual element - is an element performed by a worker.
Machine element - is automatically performed by a power-driven
machine (or process).
Governing element - occupies a longer time than any of the other
elements which are being performed concurrently. E.G. Boil kettle of
water, while setting out teapot and cups.
Foreign element - is observed during a study which, after analysis, is
not found to be necessary part of the job. E.G. Degreasing a part that has
still to be machined further.

ALLOWANCES
RELAXATION ALLOWANCES
VARIABLE ALLOWANCES
INTERFERENCE
ALLOWANCES
CONTINGENCY ALLOWANCES
POLICY ALLOWANCES

STANDARD TIME IS USED IN:


COSTING THE LABOR COMPONENT OF
PRODUCTS
TRACKING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
SCHEDULING & PLANNING REQUIRED
RESOURCES

SETTING STANDARD TIMES


STEP 1: CHOOSE THE SPECIFIC JOB TO BE
STUDIED
STEP 2: TELL THE WORKER WHOSE JOB YOU
WILL BE STUDYING
STEP 3: BREAK THE JOB INTO EASILY
RECOGNIZABLE UNITS
STEP 4: CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF CYCLES
YOU MUST OBSERVE
STEP 5: TIME EACH ELEMENT, RECORD DATA &
RATE THE WORKERS PERFORMANCE
STEP 6: COMPUTE THE NORMAL TIME
STEP 7: COMPUTE THE STANDARD TIME

ERGONOMICS

ERGONOMICS
Ergonomics: is the application of scientific principles, methods, and
data drawn from a variety of disciplines to the development of
engineering systems in which people play a significant role
The focus is on the interaction between the person and machine and
the design of the interface between the two.
When faced with productivity problems, Engineering or better
machines and personal management might call for better trained
people.
Ergonomics is the science and the art of fitting the job and the
workplace to workers needs.
It is the study of work
It is a way to make jobs/tasks
fit the employees better
It is a way to make work easier

ERGONOMIC STANDARDS
o The ergonomics standards
are the guidelines, rules,
criteria, etc., that are followed
to have uniformity.
o In order that this standards
are worldwide recognized,
three important organization
must approve them:
o 1. ISO: International
Organization for
Standardization
o 2. IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission
o 3. ITU: International
Telecommunications Union

SOME APPLICATIONS
Ergonomics in Motor Vehicle
transportation
Military Ergonomic Standards
Ergonomics Guidelines for
the design, installation and
use of machine tools
Quality Management
standards
Health Planning and
organization standards
Noise Level standards
Eye, head, hearing
protection, air quality, safety
signs etc.

HUMAN MACHINE SYSTEMS


o A system is a set of element, the relation between these element
and boundary around them.
o Most system consist of people and machine and perform a
function to produce some from of output.
o Input are received in the from of Matter, Energy and Information.

A Process
Ergonomics View
of The Work
System

GENERIC TOOLS IN ERGONOMICS


Ergonomics checklists
Task analysis

ERGONOMICS CHECKLISTSJob analysis


Work organization
Workplace design
Physical demands
Mental demands
Human-machine interaction
Work environment

TYPES OF ERGONOMICS
Physical ergonomics is the human bodys responses to physical

and physiological work loads. Repetitive strain injuries from


repetition, vibration, force, and posture fall into this category.
Cognitive ergonomics deals with the mental processes and
capacities of humans when at work. Mental strain from workload,
decision making, human error, and training fall into this category.
Organizational ergonomics deals with the organizational
structures, policies and processes in the work environment, such as
shift work, scheduling, job satisfaction, motivation, supervision,
teamwork, telecommuting, and ethics.

ADVANTAGES
A successful ergonomics program utilizes the skills of many
disciplines, including engineering, psychology, medical, safety,
management and the employees or associates
The benefits of applying ergonomic principles:
- Maximize productivity, efficiency and quality;
- Reduce MSD risk by eliminating or minimizing ergonomic risk
factors;
- Improve employee morale; and
- Cost savings associated with injury-related absenteeism, treatment,
new hire training and WCB claims.
It can help you do work safely
It can make you more comfortable
It can prevent injuries

CONCLUSIONS
It is important to apply the ergonomics standards to
keep a healthy live. Well expend a lot of time at work,
studying, etc.
While Ergonomics is a relative new field of study, it is
acquiring relevance worldwide. More companies are
applying ergonomics policies. Probably some day will
be mandatory
We need to think about how are we working, about our
postures and habits. It is always a good time to learn
and improve.

CASE STUDY: SAMRAT


GEMS PRIVATE LTD.

INTRODUCTION
-Our case study is about Ergonomics in Samrat Gems Private Ltd..
Workers involved in sewing activities, such as manufacturing
garments.
Sewing-related injuries have been documented in the areas of sewing
stations, performing fine work or scissor work, and material handling,
among them.

Workers reach overhead , to the


side, behind, or down into tubs to
pick up or place fabric. This
action can cause stress on the
arms, neck, shoulders, and back.

Minimize overhead reach by:


Lowering the rack ; or
Placing station on platform or
using height-adjustable portable
clothing racks or tables.

Wrong work place design:


Not enough space for
moving: it may injure the
spine
The table doesnt allow
enough room underneath
for the worker's to move
and uncomfortable chair
Solutions:
Provide worker with
Adjustable table, adjustable
chair

Bad design poor hand grip may cause:


Cuts ,strain, blisters stress on fingers
Solutions:
-Using good grips tools.
- Avoid using more force than the job
requires ,use partially automated tools to
reduce force and repetition of pinch grip.
-Use job rotation through tasks that do not
require pinch grips.

Handling materials:
-Awkward postures, Repeated torso
twisting while lifting which may
result in back and shoulder
injuries.
-Lifting objects with arms fully
extended or lifting from floor level
or above shoulder level.
Solutions:
-Design stations to allow most lifts at
waist level
-Use mechanical lifts, ceiling
tracks or carts to transport the
fabric to reduce the risk of injury to
the workers.

THANKYOU!!