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WELCOME

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Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

SUBSTITUTION {PRATINIDHI DRAVYA}


&
ADULTERATION {APAMISHRAN}

Presented by:
Dr. AWANISH PANDEY
MD Scholar
P.G. Departement of Dravyaguna
L.H.S.P.G.AYURVEDA COLLEGE, PILIBHIT, U.P.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Definition of substitution:
The practice of replacing one

prescribed drug with another


that is expected to have the
same clinical or psychological
effect.
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Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind
substitution
With the increasing population, urbanization

has led to the destruction of habitat of various


plant and animal species pushing them to the
verge of extinction.
Many plant species used in Ayurveda
formulations have entered red data book, their
collection and trade have been banned by the
Government of India.
In the current situation use of appropriate
substitute for extinct plant species is the only
option.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind substitution


Gap in the morphological knowledge between

ancient Indian scholars and modern day


scholars has led to inappropriate identification
of classical herbs.
Different plant species being used by the same

name and same plant species by various names


in different parts of country is another big issue
to be addressed.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind substitution


Non- availability of the drug
Uncertain identity
Cost
Geographical distribution
Adverse reactions

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Non- availability of the drug


Substitution for Ashtavarga dravyas
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Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Uncertain identity of the drugs


For the herb Lakshmana different species such

as
Arlia quinquefolia, Ipomea sepiaria etc are
considered .
Lakshmana has been considered as Shwet
kantakari with name Garbhkarini.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Uncertain identity of the drugs

Ipomea sepiaria

(b).
Arlia quinquefolia

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Cost of the drug


Kumkum(Crocus sativus Linn. ) costly herb
Substitute Kusumbha (Schlera oleosa

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Cost of the drug

Kumkum(Crocus sativus Linn.Kusumbha


)
(Schlera oleosa)
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

(d) Geographical distribution


of the drug
Rasna
North India

Pluchia lanceolata C.
B.Clarke
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

South India

Alpinia galanga Willd.

Vasa(Adhatoda vasica Nees) - Rakta-Pittahara


drug
Abortificiant activity, its utility in pregnant women
is limited
Substitute - Laksha, Ashoka(Saraca asoca Roxb.
De Wilde ) etc

Ashoka (Saraca asoca Roxb. De


Wilde )
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY

Vasa(Adhatoda vasica Nees)

,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Criteria for substitution


The pharmacopeial or extra-

pharmacopeial drug should be


assesed on the basic
fundamentals of dravyaguna like
rasa, guna, virya, vipaka, karma
etc. as well as resembalence,
regional substitution on the basis
of synonym, homonym,
pharmacological or clinical trials.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Classical concept of substitution


Concept of substitution for rare drugs evolved for

the first time in Bhavaprakash (Mishra varga) and


then in Yogaratnakar (Abhava varga1.15).
At times substitution may be beneficial if proper
substitute is used in place of original drug.

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Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

In formulations
The pradhana Dravyas i.e. the Major ingredient

should never be substituted.


Eg. while preparing Bharangyaadi Guda, one
should not substitute Bharangi with any other
drug.6
Yoge

yadapradhaanam syattasya pratinidhirmataha,

Yattu pradhaanam tasyapi sadrusham niva grihyate


Bhava Prakasha 16.167

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Criteria for Substitution(a) Similarity in rasa- panchak

Bharangi

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Kantakari

drug
Bharangi (Clerodendron serratum) with Kantakari.

Bharangi - bitter taste; laghu, ruksha guna,


kapha-vatahara properties while Kantakari
(Solanum xanthocarpam) katu vipaka and ushna
virya.
Both the drugs have glycosides verbascoside and
solasonine, solamargin, solasurine respectively.
Both C. serratum and S.xanthocarpam have shown
antihistaminic activity.
Both C. serratum and S. xanthocarpam are
commonly used in the diseases related to the
respiratory system, associated with release of
histamines and other autacoids.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Substitution with different spicies


Two types of Gokshura viz. Tribulus Terrstris

(Zygophylaceae) and Pedalium murex


(Pedaliaceae )
T. terrestris contains chemical constituents like
chlorogenin, diosgenin, rutin, rhamnose and
alkaloids.
P. murex has sitosterol, ursolic acid, vanillin,
flavonoids and alkaloids.
Both the species are proved for their
nephroprotective, lithotriptic, diuretic and
hepatoprotective
Dr.AWANISHactivies.
PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Substitution
with different
spicies
Tribulus terrstris

Pedalium
murex

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Exhibit similar therapeutic


effect
Ativisha (Aconitum
heterophyllum Wall.) with
Musta (Cyprus rotandrus
Linn.)

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Exhibit similar
therapeutic
effect

Cyprus rotandrus Linn.


Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Some important substitutes


Original
S.No. Drug

Botanical Name
Plumbago
1Chitrak
zeylanica
Marsdenia
2Murva
tenacisima
Mimusops
3Bakula
elengi
Valeriana
4Tagar
wallichii
Jatipatra(A Myristica
5 ril)
Fragrans

Puskar
6 mool
Inula racemosa

7Chavya

Dr.AWANISH
PANDEY
Piper
chaba

,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Substitute Botanical Name


Baliospermum
Danti
montanum
Lannea
Jinghini
coromandelica
kamala

Nelumbo mucifera

Kustha

Saussrea lappa
Syzigium
aromaticum
Myritica fragrans

Lavanga
Jatiphala

Kustha
Saussrea lappa
Eranda(roo
t)
ricinus communis
Pipali(root
)
piper longum
Kashmari

Some important substitutes


Common
Sl No. anme

Botanical
Substitute
name
drug
Botanical name
Clerodendrum
Solanum
9Bharangi serratum
Kantakari xanthocarpum
Dhanavay
10 asa
Fagonia cretica Duralabha Alhagi pseudalhagi
Capparia
Manakand
11Ahimsa
sepiaria
a
Alocasia indica
Bakula(ba Minusops
Babul(bar
12 rk)
elengi
k)
Accacia arabica
Ocimum
13Tulasi
sanctum
Nirgundi Vitex negundo
Riddhi
and
Varahikan
14 vriddhi
Hobenaria spp. da
Dioscorea bulbifera
Saccharum
15Ikshu
officinarum
Nala
Arundo donax
Lilium
Asvagand
16Kakoli
polyphyllum
ha
Withania somnifera
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Some important substitutes


Common
Sl No. anme

Substitute
Botanical name drug

Botanical name

Kshiraka
Asvagand Withania
17 koli
Fritillaria roylei ha
somnifera
Nadi
Bhallata Semecarpus
Bhallatak Semecarpus
18 ka
anacardium
a
travancorica
Aconitum
19Ativisha heterophyllum Mustaka Cyperus rotundus
Punica
Vrikshaml
20Dadim granatum
a
Garcinia indica
Cinnamomum
Granthi
Leonotis
21karpua camphora
parna
nepetafolia
Nagapus
padma
22 pa
Mesua ferra
kesar
Nelumbo nucifera
Desmostachya
Saccharum
23Kusha
bipinnata
Kasha
spontaneum
Kutherik Ocimum
Gramya
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
24 a
basilicum
Ocimum sanctum
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT tulasi

Some important substitutes


1. Dhanvayas
Duralabha
2. Tagar
Kushta
3. Murva jhingini
4. Ahimsra Mankanda
5. Laksmana Neelkanthi (Mayurshiksha)
6. Bakul
Rakta kumud
7. jati pushpa - Lavang
8. Pushkar Kushta
9. Langali Kushta
10.Sthouneya _ Kushta
11.Chavika
Pippali mula
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Some important substitutes


12.Gaja pippali
13.Rasanjan
14.Talispatra 15.Bharangi
mula
16.Madhuyashti 17.Amlavetasa
18.Draksha
19.Kashmari phala
20.Kankola
21.Kumkum

Pippali mula
Darvi
Swarntali
Talispatra / Kantakari
Dhataki
Chukra
kashmari (gambhari)
Jaripushpa
Sugandhi musta
Kusmbh

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Some important substitutes

22.Shweta Chandan
Karpur
23.Karpur
Rakta Chandan
24.Ativisha
Musta
25.Shiva (haritaki) Shiva (amalaki)
26.Nagkeshar
Padmakeshar
27.Bhallatak Chitrak
28.Daruharidra
Haridra
29.Saurashtra mruttika Spahtika (alum)
30.Kasturi
kankol
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Some important substitutes

31.Haritaki - Karkkat shrungi


32.Nirgundi Tulsi
33.Shweta punarnava Rakta punarnava
34.Rasna Kulanjan
35.Ardrak Sunthi
36.Atis Nagarmotha
37.Dadim Vrukshamla
38.Afim Khurasani ajvayan
39.Amra haridra Bakuchi
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Some important substitutes

40.Indrayav Kutaj sal / Jayphal


41.Bramhii Mandukparnii
42.Aja Mutra Gomutra
43.Goghrita Aja ghrita
44.Godugdha Aja dugdha

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Abhav Dravya For Aahariya Dravya

Madhu - Puran guda


2. Mishri / sita Shweta khanda
3. Dugdha Mudga yusha /
masura yusha
1.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Adulteration: definition

Any substance that has been mixed with

genuine drug to reduce its quality, efficacy or


may be injurious to health, is said to be
adulterant (Under section 33E of Drugs and
cosmetic act 1940)

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

ADULTERATION (APAMISHRAN)
The

adulteration and substitution of


herbal drugs is the burning problem in
herbal drug industry and it has caused a
major threat in the research on
commercial natural products.
The deforestation and extinction of many
species and incorrect identification of
many plants has resulted in adulteration
and substitution of raw drugs.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

A drug shall be deemed to be


adulterated-(a) if it consists, in whole or in part, of any filthy,
putrid or decomposed substance;
or
(b) if it has been prepared, packed or stored under
insanitary conditions whereby it may have
been contaminated with filth or whereby it may
have been rendered injurious to health;
or
(c) if its container is composed in whole or in part,
of
any poisonous or deleterious substance
which may render the contents injurious to
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
health; or
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Adulterated drugs
d) if it bears or contains, for purposes of
colouring only, a colour other than one which
is prescribed;
or
(e) if it contains any harmful or toxic substance
which may render it injurious to health;
or
(f) if any substance has been mixed therewith
so as to reduce its quality or strength.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind adulteration


Confusion in Vernacular namesIn Ayurveda, parpatta refers to Fumaria parviflora.

In siddha parpadagam refers to Mollugo pentaphylla.


Owing to the similarity in the names in traditional
systems of medicine, these two herbs are often
interchanged or adulterated or substituted.

Fumaria parviflora
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Mollugo
pentaphylla

Reasons behind adulteration


Lack of knowledge about authentic source
Nagaakesar is one of the important drugs in Ayurveda.
The authentic source is Mesua ferrea. However, market
sample are adulterated with flowers of calophyllum
inophyllum.

Mesua
ferrea

Calophyllum
inophyllum
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind adulteration


Similarity in morphology

Mucuma pruriens is adulterated with

other similar papilionaceae seeds having


similarity in morphology.
M.utills (sold as white variety) are
M.deeringiana (sold as bigger variety) are
popular adulterants.
M.deeringiana and M.utilis are bigger
(1.5-2cm) in size while M.deeringiana is
dull black and m.utilis is white or buff
colored
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind adulteration


Similarity in colour
Ratanjot is a recent day example
According to the suppliers and non-timer forest

product (NTFP) contractors, in the past, roots of


Ventilago madraspatana were collected from
Western ghatts as the only source of Ratanjot.
However that has not been practiced now.
It is clearly known that Arnebia euchroma
vareuchroma is the present source. Similarity is
yielding a red dye, A.euchroma substitutes
V.madraspatana.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Reasons behind adulteration


Careless collection
Some of the herbel adulterations are due to the

carelessness of herbel collectors and suppliers.


Parmelia perlata is used in Ayurveda, unani and
Siddha.
It is also used as grocery. Market samples showed

it to be admixed with other species P. cirrhata.


Usnea sp. Is also mixed with them. Authentic

plants can be identified by their thallus nature.


Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

TYPES OF ADULTERATION-

A-Intentional
B- Unintentional-

Adulteration of drugs with low quality/

exhausted herbs such as clove, funnel sold in


market after removal of their essential oil.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Intentional

Herbs having similar

appearance

shoka ( Saraka ashoka Roxb


Polyalthia

longifolia Thw, Shorea robusta


Gaertn. in.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Adulteration with inferior commercial varieties Maricha


(Piper nigrum
Linn.)

Vidang-Embelia
ribes

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

papaya seeds

(b) Un-intentional-

common
vernacular names, same habitat, and unskilled
labourer employed for collection of drugs from wild

Trianthema portulacastrum (varshabhuPunarnava


)
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

(Boerhavia diffusa Lin

Adulteration with inferior


commercial varieties
Adulteration by artificially manufactured

substitutes. Eg: Artificial invert Sugar for


honey.
Adulteration by addition of Heavy Metals.
Eg: Pieces of Limestone in Asafoetida, Lead in
pieces of Opium .
Adulteration by Synthetic Principles. Eg:
Adding Citral to Oil of Lime.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Impact of adulteration
Low quality of herbal drugs.
Altered batch to batch

consistency of herbal
formulations.
Depletion in the community trust
on herbal drugs.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Coping with the problem of


substitution & adulteration
Measures for Curbing down adulteration/
substitution in Preprocessed herbs Conservation of genome of rare and
endangered species- seed banks, field gene
banks (plantation, botanical garden), tissue culture.
Promotion of cultivation of rare and endangered
species.
Provide technical assistance in establishing herbal
gardens.
Conducting training programs for women groups and
public in cultivation of medicinal plants.
Increasing the availability of medicinal plants utilised
in Ayurvedic sectors
through scientific propagation
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT
and defined cultivation
methods.

TISSUE CULTURE-

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

TISSUE CULTURE

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Coping with the problem of


substitution & adulteration
Creating awareness on the importance of medicinal
plants within the society.
Development of Bio-fertilizers and Natural pesticides
for the growth and maintenance of medicinal
plants.
Measures to minimize dependence on wild for
collection of herbs declaration of incentives for
growers of medicinal herbs, support price policy.
Ensure that farmers are real beneficiaries rather than
middle men.
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Coping with the problem of


substitution & adulteration
Employing skilled labourers for collection of drugs
from wild.
Adherance to GACP guidelines.
GMP guidelines.
Post marketing surveillance.
Strength punishment provisions for offenders
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Legislative provisions
Government of India, in section 33-

EEA of Drugs and Cosmetics Act


1940, has banned use of substitutes.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India has
used certain official substitutes in
place of original drug like use of Bilva
fruit in place of its root bark.

Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Legislative provisions
Penalty for manufacture, sale, etc., of Ayurvedic,

Siddha or Unani drug in 33I .


(a) any Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani drugs-(i) deemed to be adulterated under section 33EE,
or
(ii) without a valid licence as required under clause
(c) of section 33EEC,
shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term

which may extend to one year and


with fine which shall not be less than two thousand
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
rupees;
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Legislative provisions
(b) any Ayurvedic, Siddha or Unani drug deemed to

be spurious under section


33EEA, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a
term which shall not be less than one year but
which may extend to three years and with fine
which shall not be less than five thousand rupees:
Provided that the Court may, for any adequate and
special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment,
impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of
less than one year and of fine of less than five
thousand rupees
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

Measures for Curbing down


adulteration/ substitution
API has establised standerization of these drugs
on the basis ofmicroscopic study,
macroscopic study,
T.L.C. study,
constituents,properties ,
action and therapeutic uses of drugs.
API has mentioned
80 drugs in vol 1
78 drugs in vol 2
100 drugs in vol 3
68 drugs in vol 4
92 drugs in vol 5Dr.AWANISH PANDEY

,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

adulteration/ substitution in
processed herbs-

1. Botanical identification
monographs,
Pharmacopeias
reference books
2. Quality evaluation
i. On basis of botanical parameters
Collection & identification
Macroscopic
Microscopic
ii. On basis of physical parameters
Moisture content
Powder study
Extractive value
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

adulteration/ substitution in
processed herbs-

iii. On the basis of organoleptic characters(a)Texture & Fracture


(b)Colour, odour and taste
iv. Biological parameter
(a) Microbial contamination
(b) Pharmacology
(c) Toxicology
v. chemical parameters
(a)HPTLC finger printing
(b)Qualitative and quantitative chromatography
(c)DNA fingerprinting
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

CONCLUSION

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Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

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Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT

THANK YOU
Dr.AWANISH PANDEY
,P.G.SCHOLAR,PILIBHIT