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MSOffice Excel - Part 3

Calculating Data with Formula


Functions

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Objectives

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Make a workbook user friendly


Translate an equation into an Excel formu
Understand function syntax
Enter formulas and functions with the Qui
Analysis tool
Enter functions with the Insert Function d
box
Change cell references between relative a
absolute
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Objectives

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Use the AutoFill tool to enter formulas and


data and complete a series
Display the current date with the TODAY
function
Find the next weekday with the WORKDAY
function
Use the COUNT and COUNTA functions

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Objectives

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Use an IF function to return a value based


condition
Perform an exact match lookup with the
VLOOKUP function
Perform what-if analysis using trial and er
and Goal Seek

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Visual Overview: Functions

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Cell References and Excel Funct

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Making Workbooks User-Friendl

Creating an explanatory worksheet


Many users may use the workbook so it is
important they understand the contents.
A worksheet can be added explaining con
including:
Industry jargon (Industry-specific terms, or
technical terms)
What is being calculated and why
Formulas used in calculations
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Making Workbooks User-Friendl

Using formatting and styles to differentiate


contents

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Working with Functions

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Quick way to calculate summary data


Every function follows a set of rules (synt
that specifies how the function should be
written
General syntax of all Excel functions

Square brackets indicate optional argume

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Excel Function CategoriesXP

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Excel Functions

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Entering Functions with the Qui


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Analysis Tool

The Quick Analysis tool can generate colu


and rows of summary statistics that can b
used for analyzing data.

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Working with Functions

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Advantage of using cell references:


Values used in the function are visible to
users and can be easily edited as neede
Functions can also be placed inside anoth
function, or nested (must include all
parentheses)

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Choosing the Right Summary Fu

AVERAGE function
To average sample data
Susceptible to extremely large or small values
MEDIAN function
When data includes a few extremely large or
extremely small values that have potential to s
results
MODE function
To calculate the most common value in the dat
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Inserting a Function

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Three possible methods:


Select a function from a function catego
the Function Library
Open Insert Function dialog box to searc
for a particular function
Type function directly in cells

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Using the Insert Function Dialog

Organizes all functions by category


Includes a search feature for locating func
that perform particular calculations

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Using the Function Library to In


Function
When you select a function, the Function
Arguments dialog box opens, listing all
arguments associated with that function

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Understanding Cell Referen

To record and analyze data


Enter data in cells in a worksheet
Reference the cells with data in formula
that perform calculations on that data
Types of cell references
Relative
Absolute
Mixed
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Using Relative References

Cell reference as it appears in worksheet


Always interpreted in relation (relative) to
location of the cell containing the formula
Changes when the formula is copied to
another group of cells
Allows quick generation of row/column to
without revising formulas

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Formulas Using a Relative Refer

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Using Absolute References

Cell reference that remains fixed when th


formula is copied to a new location
Have a $ before each column and row
designation ($B$2)
Enter values in their own cells; reference
appropriate cells in formulas in the works
Reduces amount of data entry
When a data valued is changed, all form
based on that cell are updated to reflec
new value
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Formulas Using an Absolute XP


Reference

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Using Mixed References

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Contain both relative and absolute refere


Lock one part of the cell reference while
other part can change
Have a $ before either the row or column
reference ($B2 or B$2)

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Using a Mixed Reference XP

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When to Use Relative, Absolute


Mixed References

Relative references
Repeat same formula with cells in different
locations
Absolute references
Different formulas to refer to the same cell
Mixed references
Seldom used other than when creating tables o
calculated values
Use F4 key to cycle through different types of
references
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3.2 Look-up Tables

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Logical and Lookup Function

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Entering Data and Formulas XP


wit
AutoFill

Use the fill handle to copy a formula and


conditional formatting
More efficient than two-step process of
copying and pasting
By default, AutoFill copies both content an
formatting of original range to selected ra

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Entering Data and Formulas XP


wit
AutoFill

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Entering Data and Formulas XP


wit
AutoFill

Use Auto Fill Options button to specify wh


copied

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Entering Data and Formulas XP


wit
AutoFill

Use AutoFill to create a series of numbers


dates, or text based on a pattern

Use Series dialog box for more complex


patterns
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Entering Data and Formulas XP


wit
AutoFill

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Working with Date Function

For scheduling or determining on what da


the week certain dates occur

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Displaying the Current Date


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the TODAY function

Many workbooks include the current date


can use the TODAY function to display t
current date in a worksheet.

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Displaying the Current Date


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the TODAY function
Inserting the Today function

Select the cell you wish the date to appear in.


On the Formulas tab, in the Function Library
group, click the Date & Time button to display t
date and time functions.
Click TODAY. The Function Arguments dialog bo
opens and indicates that the TODAY function
requires no arguments.
Click the OK button. The formula =TODAY() is
entered in the selected cell.
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Counting Cells

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Excel has two functions for counting cells


COUNT function and the COUNTA function

The COUNT function tallies how many cel


range contain numbers or dates (because
are stored as numeric values).

The COUNT function does not count blank cells


cells that contain text.

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Counting Cells

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COUNTA FUNCTION
If you want to know how many cells conta
entrieswhether those entries are numb
dates, or textyou use the COUNTA funct
which tallies the nonblank cells in a range

The COUNTA function does not count blank cell

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XP

Working with Logical Functio

Logical functions
Build decision-making capability into a
formula
Work with statements that are either tru
or false
Excel supports many different logical
functions, including the IF function

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Comparison Operators

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Using the IF Function

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Returns one value if a statement is true a


returns a different value if that statement
false
IF

(logical_test, [value_if_true,]

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[value_if_false])

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Using a Lookup Function

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Lookup functions find values in tables o


and insert them in another location in the
worksheet such as cells or in formulas.

Often you need the contents of a table to change rela


to a set of criteria that may change over a period of t
look up table searches for data in one place then use
data to populate information in another place.

For example, a students numeric grade (percentage)


change throughout the semester and the correspond
changes must also be applied to the letter grade (A,
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Lookup tables

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The table that stores the data you want to


retrieve is called a lookup table. A lookup
organizes numbers or text into categories

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Function Arguments dialog


b
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the VLOOKUP function

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Performing What-If Analysis XP

A what-if analysis lets you explore the i


that changing input values has on the
calculated values in the workbook.
Examples of a what-if analysis occur when
calculating car loans or mortgages.

What will my loan payment be if the interest rate is 6


also at 7%?
What will the loan balance be if I put $10,000 down o
put $20,000 down?

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Trial and Error

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One way to perform a what-if analysis is b


changing one or more of the input values
see how they affect the calculated results
This trial-and-error method requires so
guesswork as you estimate which values
change and by how much.

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Using Goal Seek

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Goal Seek automates the trial-and-error


process by allowing you to specify a value
calculated item, which Excel uses to dete
the input value needed to reach that goal
In some ways this is the opposite of trial a
error as goal seek allows us to input the
answer and then calculates the associate
variables to arrive at the answer.

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Goal Seek Dialog Box

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