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Quality Management

Meaning of Quality
Final Perspective of quality includes both the producers and customers perspective.
Customers view must dominate.
Fitness for consumer use at the lowest cost.
Meaning
Meaning of
of Quality
Quality

Production
Production

Producers
Producers Perspective
Perspective

Consumers
Consumers Perspective
Perspective

Quality
Quality of
of Conformance
Conformance

Quality
Quality of
of Design
Design

Conformance to
specifications
Cost

Quality
characteristics
Price
Fitness
Fitness for
for
Consumer
Consumer Use
Use

Marketing
Marketing

Evolution of Quality Management


Identifying
Characteristics

Contd
Phase of Quality Movement

Quality
Quality
Inspection
Control
Quality
InspectionQuality
Quality
Control Quality Assurance

Assurance

Primary Concern

Detection

Control

Coordination

Strategic View

Product Uniformity

Product Uniformity
with Reduced
Inspection

Entire Production
Chain

Market and Customer


Needs

Gauging and
Measuring

Statistical Tools and


Techniques

Programs and Systems

Strategic Planning and


Goal Setting

Inspection,
Acceptance Sampling

Trouble Shooting and


Application of
Statistical Methods

Quality Measurement,
Planning and Program
Design

Goal Setting,
Education, Training
and Consultation

Inspection Department

Manufacturing and
Engineering
Department

All Departments

Everyone in the
Organization

Inspects in Quality

Control in Quality

Builds in Quality

Manages in Quality

Emphasis

Methods
Role of Quality
Professionals
Who has responsibility
for quality?
Orientation and
Approach

TQM TQM

Total Quality Management


The art of managing the whole to achieve excellence
Total everything or made up of the whole
Quality degree of excellence
Management art, act or way of planning, organizing, controlling, and
directing to achieve certain goals
A management philosophy embracing All activities through which
the needs and expectations of the CUSTOMER and COMMUNITY, and
the objectives of the organization
are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective manner by
maximizing the potential of ALL employees
in a continuing drive for improvement.

The foundation of total quality is a management philosophy that supports


meeting the customer requirements through continuous improvement.

Total Quality Management

Contd

Basic Principles of TQM:

Approach
Scope
Scale

Management Led
Company Wide
Everyone is responsible for Quality

Philosophy

Prevention not Detection

Standard

Right First Time

Control

Cost of Quality

Theme

On going Improvement

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

TQM versus Traditional Approach


Quality element

Traditional Approach

TQM

Definition

Product-oriented

Customer-oriented

Priorities

Second to service and cost

First among equals of service and cost

Focus

Short-term

Long-term

Emphasis

Detection

Prevention

Errors

Operations

System

Responsibility

Quality Control

Everyone

Problem solving

Managers

Teams

Procurement

Price

Life-cycle costs

Managers role

Plan, assign, control, and


enforce

Delegate, coach, facilitate, and mentor

Total Quality Management

Contd

TQM requires the cultural change


prevention not detection, pro-active not fire-fighting, life-cycle costs not the price, etc
TQ: Transforming an Organization

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management

All these present an


excellent way to run
a
business

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

Good experience are told to 6 people while bad experience are


repeated to 15 people.

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management


Continuous Process Improvement
An ongoing effort to improve processes.
Process improvement increased
customer satisfaction
TQM emphasizes continuous commitment
to process improvement.
View each activity as process
production, engineering and business
management.
Process purchasing, design, invoicing,
etc.

Five ways to improve the process


Reduce resources.
Reduce errors.
Meet expectations of downstream
customers.
Make process safer, and
Make process more satisfying to the
person doing.

Contd

TQM: Continuous Process Improvement

Contd

TQM: Continuous Process Improvement

Contd

TQM: Continuous Process Improvement

Contd

TQM: Continuous Process Improvement


The Never-ending Improvement
Cycle
Prevention of failure
the primary objective of process
improvement
caused by a management team
focused on customers
The system that helps them achieve
continuous improvement
Also known as Demings PDCA Cycle.
This provides the strategy in which
the SPC tools
are most useful and
identify the steps for
improvement

Contd

TQM: Demings Cycle

Contd

TQM: Demings Cycle

Contd

TQM: Demings Cycle

Contd

TQM: Demings Cycle

Contd

TQM: Demings Cycle

Contd

TQM: Demings Cycle

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

Total Quality Management

Contd

Quality Control Circle

Contd

Quality Control Circle

The
Japanese
description
effectiveness of a quality
expressed as:

Contd

of
the
circle is

It is better for one hundred people to take one


step than for one person to take a hundred

Quality Control Circle

Contd

How Do Quality Circles Work?


All members of a Circle need to receive training
Members need to be empowered
Members need to have the support of Senior
Management
Characteristics:
Volunteers
Set Rules and Priorities
Decisions made by Consensus
Use of organized approaches to Problem-Solving

QCC:

How Do Quality Circles Work?

Contd

Seven Basic QC Tools


Dr. Ishikawa advocates of the use of seven basic tools of quality
control.
Pareto Analysis
Cause and effect diagram

which are the big problems?


what causes the problem?

Stratification

how is the data made up?

Check sheets

how often it occurs or is done

Histograms

what do overall variations look like?

Scatter charts

what do the relationships between factors?

Process control charts

which variations to control and how?

Quality Control Circle

Contd

Quality Control Circle

Contd

Premises of Quality Circles


Much of the trouble originate from the gulf between management and shop
floor.
Operators are frequently well aware of the cause of quality problems and,
with modern standards of education, often know how to solve them.
The Benefits of Quality Circles
A Direct Pay-off (cost/benefits)
An Operator To Manager Dialogue (involvement, participation,
communication)
A Manager To Manager Dialogue (awareness)
An Operator to Operator Dialogue (attitudes)
A Quality Minded (product quality and reliability, prevention of nonconformance)
The Personal Development of the Participants

Quality Control Circle

Contd

Reasons for Failure of Quality Circles


Inadequate Training
Unsure of Purpose
Not truly Voluntary
Lack of Management Interest
Quality Circles are not really empowered to make
decisions.
The Quality Circles have been started in isolation and
not part of a wider program of Company-wide
Continuous Improvement

Quality Improvement Team

QIT Process
Adequate training in appropriate skills must be
provided before the QIT starts work
How Does Quality Improvement Team Work?
Identify the project and form the team
Define the problem accurately
Identify and verify root causes
Plan and implement corrective action
Standardize and seek other applications
Conduct a review of the project

5S
What it is
Japanese concept of housekeeping
This philosophy focuses on
Effective workplace organization and
Standardize work procedure.
It simplifies work environment, reduces waste and non-value
added actvity while improving quality, effciency and safety.
What these are
Seiri (sort)- Put things in order (remove what is not needed and
keep what is needed)
It focuses on
Eliminating the unnecessary items
Removing broken tools and
Getting rid of dust and oil
from the workplace.

5S

Contd

What these are


...contd
An effective method to identify the unneeded items is called red
tagging.
A red tag is placed on all the items not required to complete the
job, and
These items are then moved to central storage area.
Useful items are moved to more organized storage location
outside the workplace and
Unneeded items are discarded.
An excellent way to free up valuable floor space and eliminate broken
tools, obsolete jigs and fixtures, scrap and excess raw material.
Seiton (set in order)- Proper arrangement (place things in such a way that
they can be reached easily whenever they are needed)
It focuses on efficient and effective storage methods.
This phase of 5S is all about keeping things in their rightful place.
One must ask himself/herself the following questions:
What do I need to do my job?
Where should I locate this item?
How many of this item do I really need?

5S

Contd

What these are


...contd
Strategies for an effective set in order are:
Painting floor
Outlining work areas and locations
Shadow boards, and
Modular shelving and cabinets for needed items
A place for everything and everthing in its place
Seiso (Shine)- clean (keep things clean and polished; no trash or dirt in
the workplace)
Once clutters and junks, which clog work area, have been eliminated
and necessary items have been identified and located, next step is
to thoroughly clean the work area.
Workers are made responsible for
keeping their own work area and equipment clean and in good
order, and
making sure tools are where they should be.
Responsibility for workplace tidiness is moved back to operators
A daily 5-10 minute cleaning routines are established to maintain
clean and tidy working environment.

5S

Contd

What these are


...contd
Benefits of shine (Seiso) step:
Worker will take pride in a clean and clutter-free work area
It will help create ownership in equipment and facility
Workers will begin to notice changes in equipment and facility
location, which, if unattended, can lead to equipment failure and
loss of production.
Seiketsu (standardize/systemize)- purity (maintain cleaniness after
cleaning-perpetual cleaning).
Standardizing the best practice in the work area
It is necessary to allow employees to participate in the
development of such standard.
It is never good to think how difficult it will be to maintain new
tidy work area.
Random, detailed audits of different work areas can be used to help
maintain the standard.
These should be suitably strict, both praising good practice and
highlighting areas for improvements.
Trophies and other staff incentives techniques can be used
according to company culture.

5S
What these are

Contd
...contd

Shitsuke (Sustain)- commitment


This is by far the most difficult S to implement and achieve.
Human nature is to resist the change and
More than a few organiztions have found themselves with a dirty
cluttered shop in a few month following their attempt to
implement 5S.
Tendency is to return to the status quo and comfort zone of
the oldway of doing things.
Sustain (Shitsuke) phase focuses on defining a new status quo and
standard for the work place of the organiztion.
From here on, the system moves into the area of kaizen or
continuous improvement.
It means not just cleaning up spills and leaks, but tackling the
underlying causes of these problem.
In order to do this,
problems are kept in record: when these problems occur,
how often, and how long they last etc.
Biggest problems are then identified (pareto analysis) and
actions to tackle those problems are planned accorddingly.

5S

Contd

How to Acieve 5S
5S can be achieved in the following ways:
First S (Sorting)- Sort out all the components, spears and
materials as Good and Bad, Usable and Non-usable.
Second S (Systematic Arrangement)- Once sorted, keep those
systematically to have traceability.
Third S (Spic and Span/Neatness)- Keep arranged things always
ready to use in dirt free and tidy status.
Fourth S (Standardize)- Make a process for above three stages,
make standards and aslo keep on reviewing these.
Fifth S Self descipline an individual has to commit.
The Benefits of 5S implemetation
If fully implemented, the 5S process can
Increase morale,
Create positive impression on customers, and
Increase efficiency
Not only will employee feel better about where they work, the effect on
continuous improvement can lead to less waste, better quality, and faster
lead times.
Organization becomes more profitable and competitive in the
market place.

Quality Planning
Quality planning is process identifying which quality
standards are relevant to the project and determining how
to satisfy them.
Developing a process to achieve goals involving
customer satisfaction
Input: Quality policy, scope statement, product
description, standards and regulations, and other
process Output.
Tools and techniques used: benefit / cost analysis,
benchmarking, flowcharting, and design of
experiments
Output: Quality management plan, operational
definitions, checklists, and Input to other processes.
The subject of quality planning can be anything:
an engineering process for designing new products,
a production process for making goods, or
a service process for responding to customer requests.

Quality Planning:
Outputs

Inputs, Tools &

Techniques, and

Quality Planning:

Input

Project Management Plan


How the project is executed, monitored controlled, and closed.
Project Statement of Work (SOW)
Documents the product requirements and characteristics of
the product or service that the project will be undertaken to
create.
Acceptance criteria includes performance and acceptance
standards.
Organizational Process Assets
Organizational standard processes, such as standards,
policies, standard product and project life cycles, and quality
policies and procedures (e.g., process audits, improvement
targets, checklists, and standardized process definitions for
use in the organization).
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Governmental or industry standards (e.g., regulatory agency
regulations, product standards, quality standards, and
workmanship standards).

Quality Planning:

Tools and Techniques

Cost-Benefit Analysis
Quality planning must consider cost-benefits tradeoffs.
The primary benefit of meeting quality requirements is less rework,
which means higher productivity, lower costs, and increased
stakeholder satisfaction
Benchmarking
Involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of
other projects to generate ideas for improvement
Also provide a basis by which to measure performance.
Design of Experiments (DOE)
Statistical method that helps identify which factors may influence
specific variables of a product in production or process under
development.
Cost of Quality (COQ)
Quality costs are the total costs incurred by investment in
preventing nonconformance to requirements,
appraising the product or service for conformance to
requirements, and
failing to meet requirements (rework).
Failure costs are often categorized into internal and external.
Failure costs are also called cost of poor quality.
Additional Quality Planning Tools
brainstorming, affinity diagrams, force field analysis, nominal group
techniques, matrix diagrams, flowcharts, and prioritization matrices

Quality Planning:

Output

Quality Management Plan


Describes how the project management team will
implement the organizations quality policy.
Provides input to the overall project management plan
and must address quality control (QC), quality
assurance (QA), and continuous process improvement
for the project.
Quality Metrics
A metric is an operational definition that describes in
very specific terms
what something is and
how the quality control process measures it.
Quality Checklists
A checklist is a structured tool, usually componentspecific, used to verify that a set of required steps has
been performed.
Checklists may be simple or complex.

Quality Planning:

Output

Contd

Quality Baseline
The quality baseline
records the quality objectives of the project.
is the basis for measuring and reporting quality
performance as part of the performance
measurement baseline.
Process Improvement Plan/Project Management Plan
Requested changes (additions, modifications, deletions)
to the project management plan and its subsidiary plans
are processed
By review and disposition through the Integrated
Change Control process.
Other outputs
Quality roles list, Implementation test chart , Project
Monitoring Checklist, Project Review Checklist,
Operational Definitions Table.

Quality Planning:

Jurans Roadmap

In broad terms, Quality Planning consists of


developing services and processes required to
meet customers needs.
It involves the following steps:
Identify customers, both internal and external
Determine their needs
Specify the product features that satisfy those
needs at minimum cost.
Design the processes that can reliably produce
those features.
Prove that the process can achieve its goals
under operating conditions

Quality Planning:

Quality Planning Cycle

Define Opportunity &


Stakeholder Needs
Problem/Opportunity to Address
Identify clients/stakeholders and
needs
Translate stakeholders needs
Establish performance measures
Design & Pilot
based on needs

Take Action
Fully implement if
expected outcomes
achieved
Initiate QI if outcomes not
achieved

Service/Process
Develop activity to meet
needs
Establish outcome
measures
Implement service/process
Monitor Impact/Results of
Service
Measure Outputs and Outcomes
Compare actual results to
expected results

MarMason Consulting

Benchmarking
Selecting best practices to use as a standard for
performance
Steps to be followed:
Determine what to benchmark
Form benchmarking team
Identify benchmarking partners
Collect benchmarking information
Take action to meet or exceed benchmark

Brainstorming

Brainstorming:

Procedure

The following steps are recommended prior to a brainstorming session:


1. Select the topic or problem.
2. Conduct research on the topic in a library or on the internet.
3. Prepare a list of the identified ideas and provide a copy to each of the brainstormees
before the brainstorming session.
4. Establish a time and place for the brainstorming session.
5. Invite all attendees to the session.
6. Remind all attendees to study the list of ideas provided to them on the topic.
The following steps are recommended at a brainstorming session:
1. Post the topic or problem.
2. Each group member makes a list of ideas about the problem.
3. Each person reads one idea at a time from his/her list of ideas, sequentially, starting
at the top of the list.
Group members continue in this circular reading fashion until all the ideas on
everyone's list are read.

Brainstorming:

Procedure

...Contd

4. If a member's next idea is a duplication of a previously


stated idea, then that member goes on to the subsequent
idea on his list.
5. After each idea is read by a group member, the leader
requests all other group members to think of new ideas.
6. Members are free to pass on each go-round but should be
encouraged to add something.
7. If the group reaches an impasse, the leader can ask for
everyone's "wildest idea."
Alternatively, the group leader can use the random word
technique to stimulate a new flow of ideas.

Brainstorming:

Rules

Certain rules should be observed by the participants to ensure a


successful brainstorming session, otherwise, participation may be
inhibited.
1. Don't criticize, by word or gesture, anyone's ideas.
2. Don't discuss any ideas during the session, except for clarification.
3. Don't hesitate to suggest an idea because it sounds silly. Many times a
"silly" idea can lead to the problem solution.
4. Dont allow any group member to present more than one idea at a
time.
5. Don't allow the group to be dominated by one or two people.
6. Don't let brainstorming become a gripe session.
Limitation of Brainstorming:
Some ideas that are generated in a brainstorming session are not polite
or politically correct. Consequently, people may not verbalize them

Nominal Group Technique


Method of brainstorming, making decisions, or
organizing ideas in a group setting.
In this technique
Team members silently write down ideas
Ideas are shared and discussed
Team members vote
This technique is often used for:
setting goals,
identifying problems,
obtaining suggestions for solving problems, or
planning programs.

Nominal Group Technique


Why Use NGT:
Helps eliminate biases and peerpressure
Encourages participation from all team
members
All opinions are heard and weighted
equally
Best to use NGT when
Some members are very vocal.
People work better in silence.
Some members are reluctant to
participate.
There is concern that enough ideas
will be generated.
Some participants are new to the
team.

...Contd

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Stages

Preparation
Preparation

Introduction
Introduction

Idea
Idea Generation
Generation

Idea
Idea Sharing
Sharing

Discussion
Discussion

Voting/Ranking
Voting/Ranking

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Preparation
A team is assembled including
participants from varying areas.
Materials needed:
Pen and paper for each member
Flip chart
Markers
Tape
Sticky notes (optional)

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Introduction
A facilitator introduces him/herself,
and explains the NGT process.
The key problem or question is
presented, explaining the purpose
of the meeting.
Telling team members about
problem sooner allows them to
come prepared.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Introduction
Role of Facilitator:
A facilitator is chosen from among group
members.
His/her responsibilities include:
Helping group avoid conflict
Encouraging participation
Keeping time
Facilitating rounds
Recording ideas

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Idea Generation
Individuals silently and
independently write down as
many ideas as possible
during pre-determined time
period. (usually 10 minutes)

Nominal Group Technique

Idea Sharing

...Contd

There are various approaches to idea


sharing, but the same principles apply.
Everyone has equal chance to share
their ideas.
All ideas shared are recorded on flip
chart, except repeat ideas.
There is no discussion during this
stage.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Idea Sharing
Anonymous approach:
Facilitator
collects idea cards and
records ideas on flipchart
eliminating duplicates.
Non-anonymous approach:
Ideas are shared one at a time in a
circular direction.
Members can pass at any point.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Idea Sharing
This round ends when
All members have passed on
sharing their ideas
Time limit is reached (usually 15-20
minutes)

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Discussion
Now ideas are discussed.
Members can ask for details or
clarification.
The purpose is clarification not
changing peoples opinions.
Ideas are not eliminated.
Ideas can be re-worded.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Discussion
Facilitator tries to
keep all members involved,
continue the flow of discussion, and
not get caught on any point for too
long.
This phase typically lasts 30-40
minutes.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Discussion
If there are many ideas
(over 40), there can be an
elimination stage before
voting.
Members can choose to
eliminate their own
ideas or combine ideas
together.
Alternatively, idea
elimination can require
approval by all
members.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Voting/Ranking
Voting or ranking determines
the NGTs output.
Facilitator should number the
ideas to make voting easier.
Members either vote
anonymously, with the
facilitator totaling points, or
they can publicly write their
votes on the flipchart.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Voting/Ranking
Voting Method 1:
Members can vote for ideas based
on a chart like the following:
Number of ideas

Number of
votes

Value of votes

Less than 20

1, 2, 3, 4

20-35

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Over 35

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8

Points for each idea are totaled after


all members vote.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Voting/Ranking
Voting Method 2:
Members rank all ideas, with the
highest number as the most
favored idea.
Points are totaled after all
members rank ideas.
The idea with the most points
wins.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Voting/Ranking
If the top 5 ideas are all within
several points of each other, a
second round of votes will best
determine the real winner.
Repeat the voting stage using
only the top 5 ideas.

Nominal Group Technique

...Contd

Visibility
Throughout the process, all charts should remain
visible.
Tape them to the walls around the room.

Affinity Diagram

Affinity Diagram
How to use it:
...Contd
4. Silently, as a team, sort the cards by grouping together
similar items on the basis of their affinity.
Don't just use reason, use feelings too. You should feel
that the cards belong together.
Repeat this process until clear groupings are formed.
Cards which are strange or inappropriately filed should
be taken out of the group and returned to the pre-sorting
file.
Cards which do not fit into any of the groups should
be isolated and left to one side.
Continue this sorting process until everyone is happy with
the groupings. It is common to end up with 5-10
groupings.
5. Construct the affinity diagram from the cards and reach
consensus on a title for each grouping. If appropriate, break
each grouping into sub-sections with titles.
6. In presenting the data expect to use phrases like: we
feel..., our impression is..., it appears....

Affinity Diagram

How to use it:

...Contd

Delphi Technique

Similar to Nominal Group Technique


Individuals share ideas without meeting face to face
Absentee brainstorming
Steps to be followed
Leader selects issue or
problem
Leader communicates
with group asking
suggestions and input
Group members
generate list of ideas
and give to leader

Leader summarizes
responses and sends
to group members,
requesting additional
ideas
Team ranks ideas and
returns to leader
Process repeated until
consensus is reached
and decision is made

Matrix Diagram

A graphical comparison of two or more sets of data to identify the interrelationships between these sets.
It is very effective for identifying priorities and relationships for possible
improvement.
It can be used to
evaluate how well a solution meets given requirements and
expectations (during analysis phase).
translate customer requirements and expectations into processes
and products (in design phase and as part of house of quality)

How to use Matrix Diagram


Key to cell scores
9 = high correlation
Define the purpose.
3 = moderate correlation
1 = low correlation
Select the appropriate matrix.
Define the lists.
Customer service needs
Understand my needs
Score the relationships.
On-time delivery
Works first time
Interpret the findings.
Easy to learn
Rapid fixing of problems
Take action.
Easy to call for help

Customer
priority
(1 to 5)
4
1
4
3
5
5
Unweighted total
Weighted total

P rio rity s h ip p in g
L o c a l c o u n try a g e n ts
S p e c ia lis t e n g in e e rs
O n -s ite e d u c a tio n
U n w e ig h te d to ta l
W e ig h te d to ta l

Service features

9
1

9
9

3
9
22
97

9
1
9
45

4
14

9
10
0
3
12
10

36
10
0
9
60
50

Matrix Diagram:

Procedures and Guideline Notes

Matrix Diagram:

Types

ISO 9000 Standard


It is a system standard for quality management.
Theses standards
are generic and not specific to any particular product and
can be used in manufacturing and service industries.
It defines the basic disciplines and specifies the procedure and
criteria to ensure that output of an organization consistently
meets the customers requirements.
It guides to establish, operate, document and maintain an
effective, economic quality system which will demonstrate that
the organization is committed to quality and
is capable to meet the specified quality requirements.
Implementation of ISO 9000 standards by an organization
provides opportunity to move from state of disorganized to high
degree of system standardization.
Its implementation requires involvement of all the employees,
workmen upwards to the level of directors.
All these need to trained to understand and appriciate both of
its implicit and explicit requirements

ISO 9000 Standard

Contd

Characteristics of ISO 9000


It is the only available internationally accepted standard.
It does not replace but complement the product standard.
It is applicable to all types of industries or oragnization in manufacturing
or service sector.
It stands for systematic standardization and certification rather than
product standardization and certification.
It is a documentation oreinted system which allows complete freedom on
Selection and use of processes, and
Framing of operating procedure and work instruction.
A mistake made in selection of proper product standard can never be
compensated by ISO 9000 implementation.
Areas covered in ISO 9000 series:
ISO 9000: provides guideline for selection and use of the quality
standards
ISO 9001: is a quality system model for quality assurance in
design/development, production, installation and servicing. This is the
most exaushtive standard.
ISO 9002: provides a model or quality assurance only in production and
installation. This does not cover areas of design/development and
servicing.

ISO 9000 Standard

Contd

Aims of ISO 9000


To provide for development of quality systems to achieve
Quality for products or services
Customer satisfaction.
Who can adopt ISO 9000?
Manufacturing Organizations:
Product manufacturing industries
Process industries
Service Organizations:
Technical- Consultancy, design, engineering, testing etc.
Professional- Legal, security, training, management etc.
Hospitability- Catering, hostels, tourism etc.
Banking- Insurance, banking, portfolio management etc.
Transportation- Airlines, rail, roads, sea travels etc.
Health- Hospitals, nursing homes, laboratories etc.