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Social Groups

Group Members
Usama Sarwar
Ali Raza
Hussnain Javed

12024119-111

Contents
Social

Groups
Basis of Social group
Characteristics of Social Groups
Elements of Social Groups
How to identify Groups
Group Size and Relationships
Types of Social Groups

What is
Social Group?

Social Groups
A

social group is two or more people who


identify with and interact with one another (John
J. Macionis, Sociology)

According

to Merrill:

"Two or more persons are in communication over


an appreciable period of time and who act in
accordance with common function or purpose
Not

every collection of individuals forms a


group

Examples
Families,
companies, circles
of friends, clubs

Basis of Social Groups


Imam

Ghazali

For the satisfaction of various needs the


people formed social groups.
Maslow's theory of Needs

Physiological needs
Safety needs
Love and belonging
Esteem
Self-actualization

Characteristics of Social Groups


Collection

of individual
Interaction among members
Mutual Awareness
We feeling (unity)
Common Interests
Leadership

Importance of Social Groups


Relationship

& Friendship
Social groups is a form of communication
amongst friends or peers
Social groups act as a great support system
when needed.
Help one another and satisfy the needs of the
peoples
Groupsplayabasicroleinthedevelopment

Elements of Social Groups


The

are at least two persons.


There is reciprocal relationship among members.
There is common purpose, among a group
members.

How to Identify Groups?


Three

steps to identify Group

Social Categorization
Categorize objects in order to understand them and
identify them

Social Identification
Adopt the identity of the group we have categorized
ourselves as belonging to.

Social Comparison
Tend to compare that group with other groups. If our selfesteem is to be maintained our group needs to compare
favorably with other groups.
Social Identity Theroy by Henri
Tajfel's

Group Size and Relationships


According to German sociologist Georg Simmel
(18581918)
Dyad- group (One relation)
Triad- groups (three relationships)
A group of four.(six relationships)
A group of five.(ten relationships)

Cont..
A

B
B

C
Dyad

Triad

Cont.
A

A
C

B
D

A Group of Four

B
D

A Group of Five

Group Size and Relationships


Network

A network is a web of weak social ties. Think of a


network as a fuzzy group containing people who
come into occasional contact but who lack a sense
of boundaries and belonging.

Types of Social Groups


Primary

Groups
Secondary Groups
In & Out
Formal and Informal
Reference
Special Interest Groups:
Task Group:
Influence or Pressure Groups

Primary Groups
According

to Charles Horton Cooley


(18641929),
a primary group is a small social
group whose members share personal
and lasting relationships.
Examples:

Families, Gangs, Play Groups, Friendship Groups.

Characteristics of Primary
Groups
Closeness

or Physical Proximity

Smallness
Duration
Identity

of Ends
Relationship is Personal
Status Depends on Seniority

Secondary Groups
Ogburn

and Nimkof say,

The groups which provide experience


lacking in intimacy

Oppose to primary group

Examples:
Industrial Workers; business associates,
Faculty Staff, Company Employees

Characteristics of Secondary
Groups
Large

in size
Formality
Impersonality
Indirect Cooperation
Status depends upon Role

In Groups
Definition:
An in-group is a social group toward
which a member feels respect and loyalty.

It is a group that an individual identifies in


positive direction

Out Groups
Definition
It is a social group toward which a person
feels a sense of competition or opposition.

It

is a group that an individual identifies in


negative direction.

Reference Group
Groups

to which we consciously or
unconsciously refer when we evaluate our life
situations and behavior but to which we do
not necessarily belong.
A social group that serves as a point of
reference in making evaluations and
decisions.
It serve a comparison function
It has a normative function

Types of Reference Group


Positive

Reference Group

Positive reference group is one in which a person


motivated to be accepted and treated as a
member.
Negative

Reference Group

Negative reference group is one which the person


is motivated to oppose or in which he does not
want to be treated as a member

Formal Groups
Social

organization
Deliberately formed and their purpose and
objectives are explicitly defined.
Their goals are clearly stated and the division
of labor is based on members ability or merit

Informal Groups:
Arises

spontaneously out of the interactions


of two or more persons.
It is unplanned
Has no explicit rules for membership and
does not have specific objectives to be
attained.
It has the characteristics of primary groups
and members are bound by emotion and
sentiments.

Types of Social Groups


Special

Interest Groups:

Groups which are organized to meet the


special interest of the members.
Task

Group:

Groups assigned to accomplish jobs which


cannot be done by one person.
Influence

or Pressure Groups

Groups organized to support or influence


social actions.