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NNPC FSTP Technicians

Fundamentals of
Electricity
Course Code: FY7W 04
Lesson 15

Contents

Electrical Drawings &


Diagrams

Performance Objectives
Upon completion of this Course, students will be able to:
Explain the purpose of electrical drawings & diagrams
State the four main ways of representing an electrical
circuit & explain/describe their differences
Draw the symbols for an alternating current; a
conductor; a fuse; a single phase transformer; a 3
phase transformer; a generator & a motor
Describe the 3 main types of Architects Drawings
Given a drawing or diagram, extract information from
it as required

Introduction to
Drawings, Diagrams,
& Symbols

Electrical Drawings
There are many different ways of showing in
drawing form how an electrical circuit works;
these are all termed diagrams.
Diagrams use simple symbols to represent
complete equipment or elements that make up
an electrical circuit.

Types of Diagrams
There are 4 main ways of representing an
electrical circuit, whether it is for generation,
distribution or control circuitry.
These are:
Block Diagrams
Single Line Diagrams
Wiring Diagrams
Schematic Diagrams or Drawings

Block Diagrams
A simple form of diagram, when it is not required to go
into detailed circuits is the Block Diagram.
Here complete units of equipment, or separate stages
of a piece of equipment, are shown by single blocks.
The blocks are connected together with single lines
indicating the logical path of the circuit.
These blocks either have their electrical symbol or their
title written in them.
The left to right or top to bottom progress should be
followed.

A Typical Block Diagram

Single Line Diagrams


Another simple type of diagram used to
represent an electrical layout similar to the block
diagram is the One Line Diagram.
It is basically a schematic diagram but only uses
one line to denote all the cables or wires.

A Typical Single Line Diagram

Wiring Diagrams
The wiring diagram shows the actual wiring
between every terminal in an electrical
equipment or group of equipments.
In some cases details of the type of wire used,
or its colour is shown.
AN ACTUAL EXAMPLE FOLLOWS

An Actual Example of Wiring


Diagram

Wiring Diagrams
It can be seen that by using a wiring diagram it
can be difficult to see how a system works,
especially with a more complicated circuit.
Another form of diagram or drawing is used in
conjunction with the wiring diagram called a
schematic diagram

Schematic Diagrams or Drawings


The schematic diagram shown in the next slide is exactly
the same motor control system as shown in the wiring
diagram, and the simplification is very obvious.
Whereas the wiring diagram shows the physical location
of the equipment and the actual physical wiring, the
schematic diagram shows the electrical circuit and how it
works.
When trouble shooting or fault finding on a piece of
electrical apparatus very often the wiring diagram and the
schematic are used together.

Schematic Diagrams or Drawings

Diagrams showing a circuit & a


wiring diagram of the same electrical
circuit

Schematic Diagrams or Drawings

Piping Drawing for a


Refrigerator

Electrical Schematic for the same refrigerator

Symbols or Legend
Care has to be taken when reading/interpreting
electrical drawings. The symbols designating
individual pieces of electrical equipment can vary
depending on the country of manufacture.
THEREFORE THE DRAWING LEGEND
SHOULD ALWAYS BE OBTAINED
REFERRED TO.

Symbols or Legend
There are several national and international standards for
graphical symbols in circuit diagrams, in particular:
IEC 60617 (also known as British Standard BS 3939)
ANSI standard Y32 (also known as IEEE Std 315)
IEC 60617 originally consisted of 13 parts, from resistors
and capacitors to logic symbols and even a generalised
drawing standard of connections and bus line widths. It is
now published as a subscription online database IEC
60617-DB
Different symbols may be used depending on the discipline
using the drawing; for example, lighting and power symbols
used as part of architectural drawings may be different from
symbols for devices used in electronics.

Symbols or Legend

Some Common Symbols Used


for Drawing Circuits

Other Types of
Drawings

Pictorial drawings show a picture


of the plant or equipment

Pictorial drawings show a picture


of the plant or equipment

A modern electric motor fitted with a mist system


to lubricate the front & rear shaft bearings

Exploded Views
EXPLODED VIEWS are often used to give extra detail for assembly
of a component

Cut-Away Views and Sectional


Views
CUT-AWAY VIEWS and SECTIONAL VIEWS are used to give extra
internal detail of a component. The diagram below shows an
example of both the cut-away and sectional view.

The Sectional View can be used to show


how the device operates

Assembly Drawings
Assembly drawings are used to show how things are put together
(assembled). They show how the different parts of a piece of
equipment are put together to make the complete unit. The diagram
shows an assembly drawing of a cable gland. The diagram shows
how the gland should be assembled on the cable.

Drawings Supplied by
Architects

Architects Drawings
There are different types of architects drawings
for different purposes.
Architects drawings
show the physical locations of electrical wiring,
fittings and equipment. They also show the
layout of the site or building. The most common
types of architects drawings are:
Plans
Plot Plans
As-Fitted

Plans
Plans are also called floor
plans or layout diagrams.
The term plan is generally
used to describe the layout
drawing of the site or
building.
A plan is a drawing of the
details of a site or building
seen from above.

Importance of a Plan
The plan is an important way of giving information. First it shows the
outline of the site or building. Secondly, it gives information about
structural details, such as the position of doorways, windows, stairs, etc

As-Fitted (As Built) Drawings


Plans can be changed to show progress of work,
material requirements etc. These modified plans are
called as-fitted drawings.
The as-fitted drawing is a plan which shows the exact
location of cables, method of installation and the final
position of all equipment. The as-fitted drawing is
constantly kept up to date as the work continues. It
shows any changes that have been made from the
original drawings. On completion of the work copies of
the as-fitted drawing are given to the customer.

Plot Plans
Plot plans show a top view of the site or plot. They
show existing buildings, equipment, roadways, etc.
Plot plans are used to:
plan where new buildings and equipment can be
located.
plan the best use of services and utilities (e.g. water,
electricity, roads, etc.)
show the location of existing buildings, equipment
and services / utilities, etc.
give
information
about
equipment / buildings.

distances

between

Plot Plans
Plot plans can be used to
show the electrical distribution
system on a site or plot.
The diagram here shows the
plot-plan of an industrial site.
It shows the route of the overhead high-voltage system as
well as the underground duct
system.
The plot-plan shows where the
electrical cables are actually
installed.
Plot plans use symbols to give
information.
Sometimes the symbols used
are not the usual ones, so you
must read the legend on the
drawing.

Practice in Reading Drawings &


Diagrams

Your Instructor will ask you questions

Practice in Reading Drawings &


Diagrams

Practice in Reading Drawings &


Diagrams

Practice in Reading Drawings &


Diagrams