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Points to be discussed

Introduction
Origin and Nature
of Soil
Soil Structure
Soil Classification

1. Introduction
Defination of Soil : The word Soil is derived from the latin word
SOLIUM.
The upper layer of the earth that may be dug
or plowed or the loose surface material of the
earth on which plants grow is known Soil.
To an engineer, soil is the an aggregated or
uncemented deposit of material or organic
particles produced by the disintegration of
rocks.

1. Introduction
Soil Engg. And Geotechnical
Engg. : Soil Engineering : Soil Engg is an applied science dealing with
the application of the principles of soil
mechanics which was coined by Dr. Karl
Terzaghi in 1925 in German which inclueds
engineering problems such as,
Site Investigations
Design and Construction of Foundation
Earth Retaining Structures
Earth Structures

1. Introduction
Soil Engg. And Geotechnical
Engg. : Geotechnical Engineering: Geotechnical Engineering is a broader
term which includes soil engineering, rock
mechanics and geology
Rock Mechanics is the science dealing
with the mechanics of rocks.

1. Introduction
Scope of Soil Engineering : Foundations: Foundations are required to transmit the
load of the structure of soil safely and
efficiently.

1. Introduction
Scope of Soil Engineering : Retaining Structure : An earth retaining structure is required to
keep the soil at different level on either
side.

1. Introduction
Scope of Soil Engineering : Stability of slopes : If soil surface is not horizontal there is a
component of weight of the soil which
tends to move it downwards and that cause
instability of slopes.

1. Introduction
Scope of Soil Engineering : Underground Structure : Design and construction of an underground
structures are required for the evalution of
forces exerted by the soil on this
structures.

1. Introduction
Scope of Soil Engineering : Pavement Design : A pavement is a hard crust place on the
subgrade for the purpose of providing a
smooth and strong surface on which
vehicles move.

1. Introduction
Scope of Soil Engineering : Earthen Dam : Earthen dams are huge structures in which
soil is used as a construction material.

1. Introduction
Limitations of Soil Engineering : Behaviour of soil depends upon pressure,
drainage, environment and many other
factors.
Soil changes a different location.
Soil is underground and cannot be inspected.
Properties of soil like density, pressure, shear
strenght, bearing capacity,etc. changes with
depth of soil.
Soils are very sensitive to disturbance.
Soil is particular material in which the
particles are relatively free to move with one

2. Origin & Nature of Soil


Soil Formation in Geological
Cycle : Soil is formed by geological cycle which
consists,
Erosion (Weathering)
Transportation
Deposition
Upheaval

2. Origin & Nature of Soil


General Types of Soil : Soil particles are classified by their
grain sizes,
Clay
Slit

Sand
Gravel
Cobbels
Boulders

< 0.002 mm
0.002 mm to 0.075
mm
0.075 mm to 4.75
mm
4.75 mm to 80 mm
80 mm to 300 mm
> 300 mm

2. Origin & Nature of Soil


Transportation of Soil : The agencies responsible for
transportation of soil particles are as
under,
Water
Wind
Ice
Gravity

2. Origin & Nature of Soil


Different types of Soil : Marine Soil : Soil deposited by flowing water in sea beds.

Colluvial Soil : Soils transported and deposited by gravity.

Lacustrine Soil : Soil carried by flowing water and deposited in


lakes.

Aeolian Soil : Soil deposited by wind.

Alluvial Soil : Soil carried and deposit by water.

3. Soil Structure
Shape of the Soil Particles : Shape of the soil particles is useful to
know the soil properties.
Different shapes of the soil particles are
shown in figure below,

3. Soil Structure
Structure of the Soil : Single Grained Structure :-

3. Soil Structure
Structure of the Soil : Honey-Comb Structure :-

3. Soil Structure
Structure of the Soil : Flocculated Structure :-

3. Soil Structure
Structure of the Soil : Dispersed Structure :-

3. Soil Structure
Structure of the Soil : Coarse Grained Skeleton :-

3. Soil Structure
Structure of the Soil : Clay-Matrix Structure :-