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NURSING RESEARCH

Re + Search
To search again

To examine carefully

Definition of terms
Research French word Cerchier
- to seek or to search

prefix RE again
- signifies replication of search or to search
again
- an attempt to gain solution to problems.
- collection of data in a rigorously controlled
situation for the purpose of prediction or
explanation

What Is Research?
Systematic inquiry using disciplined
methods to solve problems
Nursing research
Systematic inquiry to develop knowledge
about issues of importance to the
nursing profession

- careful unbiased investigation of a problem


based upon demonstrable facts and involving
refined distinctions, interpretations and
generalizations
GOOD AND SCATES

- Systematic and refined technique of thinking,


employing specialized tool, instruments and
procedures in order to obtain a more adequate
solution of a problem than would be possible
under ordinary means
CRAWFORD

- Systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical


investigation of hypothetical propositions about
the presumed relations among natural
phenomena
KERLINGER 1973

SYSTEMATIC follows a step


CONTROLLED every step of the investigation
is planned
EMPIRICAL evidence is on hand to confirm or
refute the hypothesis
CRITICAL analyzed and judged by a panel of
judges

Nursing Research
- involves a systematic search for knowledge
about issues of importance to the nursing
profession including nursing practice,
education, administration and informatics
includes the breadth and depth of the discipline of
nursing : the rehabilitative, therapeutic and preventive
aspect of nursing, as well as the preparation of
practitioners and personnel involved in the total
nursing sphere
Clinical Nursing Research
- Research designed to generate knowledge to guide
nursing practice

Concept an image or mental picture of a


phenomena.

Present but not readily available


Ex. Health, illness, altruism

Conceptualization process of forming


ideas, designs and plans
Facts actual existence that can be
verified. Facts are the building stones for
hypothesis, propositions and theories

Hypothesis tentative, declarative


statement about the relationship between
two or more variables
Assumption a statement describing a
fact or a condition that is accepted as true
on the basis of logic or reason

Proposition statement that clarifies the


relationship between two concepts
proposition
hypothesis
Theory - a kind of general principle or
explanation of some phenomenon; an integrated
set of defined concepts and relational statements
that presents a view of a phenomenon

Variable qualities, attributes,


characteristics of a person, thing or
situation that vary and are measured in
research

Independent it is believed to cause or


influence the dependent variable;
manipulated by the investigator
Dependent effect the effect or outcome
; the variable under investigation
(criterion variable)
Extraneous variable it influences the
study result and that needs to be
controlled

Research
diligent, systematic inquiry or study

U
L
T
I
M
A
T
E
G
O
A
L

Body of Knowledge

The Purposes of Nursing Research

Identification
Description
Exploration
Explanation
Prediction
Control

To improve nursing care,


patient outcomes
and Health Care
Delivery System

Comparison of Research with Nursing Process


and Problem Solving
Nursing Process

Problem Solving

Research

Assess

Identify the
problem

Define purpose :
review literature

Make
inferences

Theorize about
facts and possible
relationships

Plan

Determines
information needs
germane to the
problem

Formulate problem,
framework,
hypothesis Define
variables
Select design,
sample, tools;
Plan analysis and
interpretation

Nursing Process

Problem Solving

Intervene

Gather, analyze,
synthesize and
interpret relevant
information;
propose
alternatives, select
best solution
Observe and
evaluate outcomes
of action

Evaluation

Research
Implement
planned study with
due consideration
for ethical
concerns
Report findings
precisely and
objectively, note
limitations,
implications for
practice and further
research

Sources of Evidence for Nursing Practice


Tradition
Authority
Clinical experience; trial and error; intuition
Logical reasoning (inductive & deductive)
Assembled information (e.g., quality improvement
data)
Disciplined research

Acquisition thru
Tradition
Authority
Borrowing
Trial and error

Personal experience
Role modelling
Intuition
Reasoning

Tradition
*Based on truths, beliefs,
customs
and past trends
*Demands critical appraisal
before it can be accepted as
truth.

Authority
- Person with expertise and powers.
- Able to influence opinions and behavior.
* Not INFALLIBLE!

Borrowing
Other disciplines
Psychology
Sociology
Medicine
Education
Physiology
Etc.

Trial and Error


An approach with unknown outcomes
Used in situation of uncertainty
Other sources of knowledge are
unavailable

Personal
experiences
Personally involved in event, situation
and circumstances.

Role
modelling
Mentorship, imitating the behavior of an
expert

Intuition
Insight, understanding of the situation or
event, that usually cannot be logically
explained
Gut feeling

BASIS FOR KNOWLEDGE CONTINUUM

Common
sense

WEAK

Trial and
error

Intuition

Authority

Research

STRONG

HUMAN EXPERIENCE, AND LOGICAL REASONING

Reasoning
-Processing and organizing
ideas to reach conclusion

Types of Reasoning
Inductive reasoning
- specific to general

Deductive
Reasoning
- general to specific

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
- involves gathering new or existing data for
new purpose from primary sources
- directed toward the solution of a problem
- involves carefully designed procedures,
always applying rigorous analysis
- emphasizes development of generalizations,
principles or theory helpful in predicting
future occurrences

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH (CONT)


- requires expertise
- demands accurate observation & description
- strives to be objective & logical, applying every
possible test to validate procedures
employed, data collected & conclusions
reached.
- involves patient & unhurried activity
- sometimes requires courage
- carefully recorded & reported.

Abilities needed for Research :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Recognize the existence of a problem


Define a problem
Select information pertinent to the solution of a
problem
Recognize assumptions bearing on the problem
Make relevant hypothesis
Draw conclusions validity from assumptions,
hypothesis and pertinent information
Judge the validity of the process conclusions
Evaluate a conclusion in terms of application

Role of Nurses
Consumer
Producer

Future Directions for Nursing Research


Promotion of evidence-based practice
Increased multidisciplinary collaboration
Greater focus on outcomes research
Use of multiple, confirmatory strategies
Expanded dissemination of research findings
Increased visibility of nursing research

Purpose of Research in Health

NEW
KNOWLEDGE

RESEARCH

NEW
TECHNOLOGY

SKILLS

IMPROVE PRACTICE
AND DELIVERY OF
SERVICE

TOOLS

BETTER
HEALTH

What Is a Paradigm?
A world view; a general perspective on the complexities
of the real world, with certain assumptions about
reality.
Key paradigms for nursing research:

Positivist paradigm: allied w/ quantitative


research; numeric information; traditional
scientific method
Naturalistic paradigm: allied w/ qualitative
research; narrative materials using flexible
procedures

What Is the Nature of Reality?


Positivist assumption: Objective reality

exists; natural phenomenon is regular & orderly;


characterized by determinism phenomena is
the result of prior causes & not haphazard; there
is a real world driven by natural causes.

Naturalist assumption: Reality is multiple

and subjective, constructed by human minds not


a fixed entity; truth is a composite of multiple
construction of reality

How Is the Inquirer Related to Those


Being Studied?
Positivist assumption: The inquirer is
independent from those being studied
Naturalist assumption: The inquirer
interacts with those being studied;
findings reflect the interaction

How Is Knowledge Obtained?


Positivist Naturalistic
Fixed design
Flexible design
Discrete, specific concepts
Holistic
Deductive processes
Inductive processes
Control over context
Context-bound
Verification of hunches Emerging
interpretations
Quantitative information Qualitative
information
Seeks generalizations
Seeks patterns

What Is the Role of Values in the


Inquiry?
Positivist assumption: Values are
held in check; objectivity is sought
Naturalist assumption: Subjective
values are inevitable, desirable

COMMON FEATURES OF THE TWO


PARADIGMS
ULTIMATE GOALS:
To gain understanding about
phenomena
EXTERNAL EVIDENCE: Data gathered through
external senses in a deliberate fashion.
RELIANCE ON HUMAN COOPERATION: Need
for candor & cooperation from participants.
ETHICAL CONSTRAINTS
FALLIBILITY OF DISCIPLINED RESEARCH
No single study can ever definitively answer a
research question

GENERAL PURPOSE OF NR
TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OR SOLVE PROBLEMS
OF RELEVANCE TO THE NURSING PROFESSION
BASIC RESEARCH: To extend the base of
knowledge in a discipline or to refine a theory.
Ex: Study to understand the near death
experiences of cardiac arrest patients
APPLIED RESEARCH: To find solutions to existing
problems
Ex: Study on the effectiveness of a diabetic
teaching program

The Purposes of Nursing Research

Identification
Description
Exploration
Explanation
Prediction
Control

KEY CONCEPTS & TERMS TO BE DEFINED


DATA
VARIABLE
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
PHENOMENA/CONSTRUCT
TRIANGULATION
BIAS
TRUSTWORTHINESS

SCHOLARLY DONE

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Criteria for Research Topics


Relevance
Avoidance of duplication
Feasibility
Political acceptability
Applicability of possible results
Urgency of data needed
Ethical acceptability

Types of Research
According to Motive
According to Level of investi
gation

According to motive
Basic Research
- for knowledge sake
Applied Research
- practical research
- Needing immediate solution

Accdg. To Level of Investigation


Exploratory what are the variables ?
Descriptive are variables related ?
Experimental Is the relationship
causal?

Major classification of Research

Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research
Systematic
Subjective approach
Describe life experiences and
give meaning

Types of Qualitative Research


Phenomenological research
Grounded theory research
Ethnographic research
Historical research

Quantitative Research
Formal
Objective
Systematic process
Uses numericals to obtain info.
Describe, examine relationships, det.
Cause and effect between variables.

Types of Quantitative Research


Descriptive research
Correlational research
Quasi- experimental research
Experimental research

PHASES
OF
NURSING
RESEARCH

DIFFERENT PHASES OF NURSING


RESEARCH
PHASE 1 : THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE
PHASE 2 : THE DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE
PHASE 3 : THE EMPIRICAL PHASE
PHASE 4 : THE ANALYTIC PHASE
PHASE 5 : THE DISSEMINATION PHASE

THE CONCEPTUAL PHASE


Step 1 : Formulating and Delimiting the
problem
Step 2 : Reviewing the related literature
Step 3 : Defining the theoretical
framework
Step 4 : Formulating Hypothesis

THE DESIGN AND PLANNING PHASE


Step 5: Selecting a Research Design
Step 6: Identifying the population to be studied
Step 7 : Specifying methods to measure the research
variable.
Step 8 : Designing the sampling plan
Step 9 : Finalizing and Reviewing the research plan
Step 10: Conducting a pilot study and making revisions

THE EMPIRICAL PHASE

Step 11 : Collecting data


Step 12 : Preparing for Data for analysis

THE ANALYTIC PHASE

Step 13: Analyzing the data


Step 14: Interpreting the results

THE DISSEMINATION PHASE

Step 15 : Communicating the findings


Step 16 : Utilizing the findings

Hypothesis

Types of hypotheses
According to Direction
According to Complexity
General classification of hypotheses

Types of Hypothesis

Alternative

Directional

Simple

Null

Non-directional Complex

Alternative Hypothesis
There is a relationship
There is a significant differences
Age is significantly correlated with the length of
service among nurses in the PGH.
There is a significant difference on the self-care
abilities among adult patients with heart failure who
received the intervention from those who did not .

Null Hypothesis
No significant relationship
No significant differences
Age is not correlated with the length of
service among nurses in the PGH.
There is no significant difference on the self-care
abilities among adult patients with heart failure
who received the intervention from those who
did not .

Directional Hypothesis
Specifies the expected direction of relationship
The older the patient, the greater the risk she
or he will fall
The higher the attendance in review classes
the greater the chance to passing the board
exam.

Non- directional Hypothesis


Does not specify the expected
relationship between variables
Age is correlated with the risk of fall.
Attending review classes is correlated
with the performance in the board exam.

Simple hypothesis
1 IV + 1 DV
Structured discharge plan and self care
abilities among adult patients with heart
failure

Complex hypothesis
2 or more IV and DV
Called as Multivariate
Home instruction program and the Quality
of Life and Functional health
performance among post MI patients.

BEFORE BUILDING A HOUSE

START WITH GOOD PLANNING

METHODOLOGY

PLANNING

Plan

Hogwart school

Research Design
-blueprint for conducting a study that maximizes over
factors that could interfere with the validity of the
findings.
DESIGNS FOR DIFFERENT NSG. STUDIES
1. Descriptive design
2. Correlational design
3. Quasi experimental design
4. Experimental design

Is there a treatment ?
YES

NO

Is the tx tightly conrolled?

Is the primary purpose


To examine relationship?

No
Descriptive design

Yes

No
Quasi-experimental

Single group?

No

Yes

Yes
Will randomly
Assigned control
Group be used?

No

Yes
Is the
sample

Correlational
design

Ramdomly
selected?

No
Algorithm for type of study design

Yes
Experimental
design

DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN
-To gain more info abt. Characteristics within a particular
field of study.
-Purpose : to provide picture of a situation that naturally
happens.
-It may be use for developing a theory, identifying problems
with current practice

No manipulation involve ( no DV and IV used for causality )

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE
DESIGN
1. Typical Descriptive design
VARIABLE 1

VARIABLE 2

VARIABLE 3

2. Comparative Descriptive Design


-Examine / describe differences of variables in 2 or more
groups that occur naturally in the setting.
GROUP 1
VARIABLE 1

Describe

Interpret Hypothesis

GROUP 2
VARIABLE 1

Describe

Interpret

Hypothesis

3. Time Dimensional descriptive design


-Developed with in the discipline of epidemeology
( occurrence / distribution of diseases among populations)
- Examine sequences & patterns of changes , growth ,
trends across time.
-

Time becomes an important factor

Cohorts ( Time dimensional design )


1. Retrospective - have already occured
2. Prospective - proposal to occur

4. Longitudinal Design
-Examines the changes in the same subjects over an extended
period.
-Requires a long term commitment
- Mortality can be high and lead to decrease in validity of findings.
5. Cross sectional descriptive design
-Used to examine groups of subjects simultaneously in various
stage of development.
-Stages are part of the process that will progress across time.

6. Trend Design
-Examines changes in the general population in relation to a
particular phenomenon.
-Different sample of subjects are selected from the same
population at preset time interval and each selected time data are
collected from that a particular sample.
7. Case Study Design
-Involve intensive exploration of a single unit study, such as :
Person, family, group, community or institution, or a very
Small # of subjects who are examined intensively.

Examining Sequences of time?


Yes

No

Following same subjects


Across time?

One group ?
No
Comparative
design

Yes
Typical
design

Yes

No
Data collected
Across time?

No
Cross sectional
design

Yes

Single unit of
Study?

No
Longitudinal
study

Studying events partitioned


Across time?

Yes
Case study

Cont.

No

Yes

Trend analysis

Repeated measures
Of each subjects?

Yes
Cross sectional design

No
Longitudinal
design

Algorithm for determining type of descriptive design

CORRELATIONAL DESIGN
-Examine relationships bet. Or among 2 or
more variables in a single group.
Types of correlational design :
1. Descriptive correlational design
- To examine the relationships that exist in a situation.
Variable 1

Description of variable

Interpretation of meaning

---------------------Examine relationship
Variable 2

Description of variable

Development of hypothesis

2. Predictive correlational design


-to predict the value of one variable based on values obtained in
another variable.
Value of Intercept

Value of
IV

Value of
IV

Predicted value
of DV

3. Model testing design


Some studies are designed to specifically test the accuracy of a
Hypothesized casual model.
The design requires that all variables relevant to the model be
Measured. A large heterogenous sample is required.

QUASI - EXPERIMENTAL
- Examine the causality ( Effects of IV to DV )

Threats to validity are controlled by:


1. Selection of subjects
2. Manipulation of the treatment
3. Reliable measurement of the DV

1. PRE-TEST AND POST TEST DESIGN


A. One group pre-test and Post test design

O
Observation/ Measure

Treatment

Observation ( Measure )

B. Two groups pre-test and Post


Study group

Control group

x
x

0
0

2. Post test design only with a comparison group


- Used when a pretest is not possible
- Has number of threats to validity
-Sometimes referred as pre-experimental design

Groups

Treatment

Study group

Measure
(post )
0

Control group

------

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
- provide the greatest amount of control .
- 3 elements :
1. Control of experimental situation
2. Manipulation of the IV
3. Random sampling

1. Factorial Experimental design


-complex, multivariate experimental design
-The two or more characteristics, tx, or events are independently
varied in a single study.
- Design to determine multicausality
Ex : 2x2 factorial design

Level of
Relaxation

Level of Distraction
Distraction

No
Distraction

Relaxation

No relaxation

Ex. Factorial
design

2. Randomized Clinical Trial


-Has been used in the field of medicine since 1945
-Uses large number of subjects to test the effects of the tx
With the study grp from the control grp.

3. Solomon four group design


-consist of two experimental groups and two control groups.
-One control group and experimental grp will be pre-tested and
other groups will not.

Solomon four group experimental design

GROUP
Study group with
pre-test

DATA COLLECTION
BEFORE
AFTER
X
X
X

Study group
without pre-test
Control with pretest
Control w/o
pre-test

x
X

4. Repeated measures design ( cross over design )


-Subjects exposedto different conditions
( age, weight, psychological state,etc. )
-Subjects are randomly assigned to different ordering of treatment.

Disadvantage: carry over effects. Receiving two treatments ,


First experience may influence the result of the second experience.

Advantage of Experimental design:


Most powerful method available for testing the
hypothesis.

Disadvantage of Experimental design:


1. Impractical and impossible in some situations because of many
constraints.
2. Artificiality
3. Hawthorne effect ( Placebo effect )
- Unless there is a double blind approach.( investigator /subjects
are not aware who belongs to the control/ study group )

SAMPLING
TECHNIQUE

Sampling
-selecting a group of people, events, behaviors or
other elements with which to conduct a study.
Sample
-represents the people in population
Sampling plan
-process of making the selections
Element
-Individual unit of population
Subjects- if the element is a person
Population referred as target population; entire set of
Individuals who met the sampling criteria.

Generalization extending the findings from the sample under study


to a larger population.
Sampling criteria characteristics; essential for inclusion in the target
population. ( Age, language, educational level etc. )
purpose : to make the sample homogenous
Representativeness- sample, accessible population are alike in many
ways.

SAMPLING
Types of Sampling :
1. Probability Random sampling with equal chance to be
included in the study.
a. Simple Random Sampling most basic
- elements are selected at random
ex. : Use of table numbers

Ex. : Use of table of random numbers, the researcher places a


pencil or finger on the random table while the eyes are closed.
That number is the starting place.

06 22 15 80 45 33 34 18 12 11
10 55 57 33 31 21 28 22 13 19
07 43 45 46 39 41 56 89 90 98
23 20 40 51 63 56 17 09 52 99
88 78 81 66 72 95 85 58 82 08

b. Stratified random sampling


- is used when the researchers knows some of the variables in the
population that are critical to achieving representativeness.
ex : age, gender, ehtnicity, SES, etc.
Age : stratified a sample of 100 subjects, 25 subjects under
age of 20, 25 subjects aged 20-39, 25 subjects aged
40-59, and 25 subjects over 60.

c. Cluster sampling
- sampling frame is developed ( includes a list of all states, cities,
institutions or organizations ) which elements of the identified
population would be linked.

d. Systematic sampling
- can be conducted when an ordered list of all members of the
population is available.
- every kth individual on the list, using a starting point selected
randomly.
2. Non probability sampling method :
-Not every element of population has an opportunity for
selection in the sample.
-Increase the possibilities of samples that are not representative.
a. Convenience sampling ( accidental sampling )
-poor approach, little opportunity to control biases; subjects
are included in the study because they happened to be in the
right place at the rigth time till reached the sample size

-convenience sample are inexpensive, accessible, and usually requies


less time than other types of samples.

b. Quota sampling
- a replicate the proportions of sub groups present in the population.
- technique is similar to that used in stratified random sampling.
- It requires researcher to identify subgroups in target population
important in achieving representativeness in their area being
studied.

c. Purposive sampling
-judgemental sampling involves conscious selection
by the researcher of certain subjects or elements to include in
the study. ( Sampling criteria )

d. Network sampling
- locating samples difficult or impossible to
obtain in other ways.
- Taken advantage in social networks and with friends having
common characteristics.

Random Assignment:
- Assign subjects to treatment or control groups
randomly can be either be probability or non-probability sampling
technique.

SAMPLE SIZE GUIDELINES


ESTIMATION
1. The larger the sample, the
more reliable
2. The purpose of the study
3. Homogeneity of
phenomenon in population
4. Research design

N ( population )
________
1+ N ( e ) ( margin of error )

VALIDITY
- Determination whether the study provides a convincing test of the
framework propositions.

4 types of validity
1.
2.
3.
4.

Statistical validity
Internal validity
Construct validity
External validity

2
10

5
3
8

STATISTICAL CONCLUSION VALIDITY

STATISTICAL CONCLUSION VALIDITY


-Concerned whether the conclusions about relationships or
differences
drawn from the statistical analyses are an accurate reflections of the
real world.
-False conclusion can be reached in interpreting the results of
statistical analyses.

TYPES OF ERRORS:

TYPE I
Occurs when it is incorrectly concluded that a
relationship / differences
exist bet. variables/grps.
When reality it does not.

TYPE II
Error occurs when it is
concluded that no
significant
relationship/differences
exist bet. Variables or
grps. When in reality it
does.

Examples of Statistical Conclusion Validity :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Low Statistical power


Violated assumptions of statistical tests
Fishing and error rate problem
Reliability of measures
Reliability of treatment implementation
Random irrelevance in the experimental setting
Random heterogeneity of respondents

INTERNAL VALIDITY:
- Is the extent to which the effects detected in the study are time
reflection of reality rather than the results of the effects of
extraneous variables.
Example of Internal validity:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

History - refers to events occurred not related to study


Maturation growing older, wiser, stronger, tired,
Testing - no. of times the subjects responses have tested
Instrumentation changes in the measurement ( pre/post test )
Statistical regression- deviation from the mean (hi/lo scores)
Selection- how subjects are selected and grouped
Mortality drop outs
Interaction with selection grp selected with diff. history etc.
Ambiguity about direction of causal influence ( measured
simultaneously and only once. D caused B or B caused A )

10. Diffusion or limitation of treatment- ctrl grp access to tx.


11. Compensatory equalization of treatment- tx appears desirable and
insist that the ctrl grp received the same treatment.
12. Compensatory rivalry by respondents receiving less desirable
treatment
13. Resentful demoralization of respondents receiving less desirable
treatment.

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
- Examines the fitness between the conceptual definition and the
operational definition.
1. Inadequate pre-operational explication of constructs- conceptual/
operation definition conflicts
1. Mono-operation bias one method of measurements
2. Mono method bias same method of recording
3. Hypothesis guessing with in experimental conditions knowing
the hypothesis
4. Evaluation apprehension subjects wanted to be seen as competent and psychologically healthy
5. Experimenter expectancies
6. Confounding constructs and levels of constructs intensity of
variables.
7. Interaction of different treatment receiving more than one tx

9. Interaction of testing and treatment- ex. Solomons


four grps, repeated measures. Pre-testing the
subjects may modify the effect of treatments.

10. Restricted generalizability across constructsimpact of the findings on the constructs than
problem statement.

EXTERNAL VALIDITY
1. Interaction of selection and
treatment
2. Interaction of setting and
treatment
3. Interaction of history and
treatment

VALIDITY - Degree to which an instrument measures


what it suppose to measure.
Face validity Instrument look as through it
is measuring the appropriate constructs.
Content validity Adequacy of thecontent area being measured.
Criterion validity Scores on the instruments
are correlated with some external criterion.
a. Predictive validity adequacy of instrument in
differentiating bet. the performance or behaviors of individuals
on some future criterion
b. Concurrent validity ability of the instrument to distinguish
indiv.who differ in their presemt status on some criterion.

Reliability Consistency with which it measures the


attribute it is supposed to be measuring.

The less variation an instrument produces in repeated


measurements of an attribute, the higher its reliability.
( reliability equated with stability, consistency or dependability )
Reliable if its measures accurately reflecting the true scores.

( consistency and accuracy approaches of reliability )

Stability Same results are obtained on repeated administrations of


the instruments.

Test retest reliability


- researcher administers the same test to a sample individuals on 2
occasions and then compares the scores.
( by computing the reliability coefficient ) ( -1.0 0r +1.0 or 0.0 )
- The higher the coefficient the more stable ( .70 satisfactory,

Internal consistency all sub-parts are measuring the same


characteristics
Equivalence aims to determine the consistency or equivalence of
Instruments of the same traits in the same subjects.
Inter-rater reliability - ( inter-observer ) is estimated by having 2 or
more trained observers watching some event simultaneously and
independently record the relevant variables.
How? Correlation techniques
Simple formula as :
# of agreements
# of agreements + # of disagreements

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION:


1. Self Reports - questioning people directly
( directness/versatility )
2. Observations

3. Biophysiologic measures ( objectivity )

Developing a data collection plan


1. Identifying data needs
2. Selecting types of measures
3. Selecting and developing instruments
4. Pre-testing the data collection package
5. Developing data collection forms and procedures
6. Implementing data collection plan

Selecting research personnel


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Experience
Congruity with sample characteristics
Unremarkable appearance
Personality
Availability
Training of data collectors

Structured interview
Unstructured interview
Focused group interview
Life histories
Critical incidents
Diaries

Points to consider :
1. Interview schedule
2. Questionnaires
( Open ended / Close
ended )

Assigning of numerical score to subjects.

LIKERT SCALE - named after Robert Likert. Answers based on the


Degree. Also known as summated rating scale. ( 0 1,2,3,4,5 scale)
RATING SCALES List an ordered series of categories of a
variable.
Ex. : Nurses comes to the room
a. Rarely
c. Whenever I call him
b. Sometimes
d. Frequently
SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIALS - measures attitudes and beliefs
Abandoned __I___I__ I___I___I___I____I____Cared for
7 point scale for this

VISUAL ANALOGUE SCALES line may be horizontal or vertical


No pain I----------------------------------------------------Severe pain

CHECKLIST is generally formatted with the list of behaviors or


Events from the category system and tally the frequency or occurrence

Refers to the influence made by


the rated characteristic in rating
other unrelated characteristics.

CONTROLLING EXTERNAL FACTORS


1. Environment
2. Time factor
3. Research protocols

CONTROLLING INTRINSIC FACTORS


1. Randomization
2. Repeated measures
3. Homogeneity
4. Blocking

PHYSICAL
TRAINING
PROGRAM

CONTROL GRP
MALE
(GENDER)

FEMALE

NO PHYSICAL
TRAINING
PROGRAM

STUDY GRP

MATCHING Individuals are one on one paired .


ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE statistical tool that removes the
Effect of extraneous variables on the dependent variable.

PILOT STUDY
Purposes :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

To determine feasibility of the study


To develop or refine reasearch treament
To develop a protocol for the implementation of a tx
To identify the problems with the design
To determine whether the sample is a representative of
the population or whether the sampling tech. Is effective
6. To examine reliability/validity of the research instrument
7. To develop or refine data collection instruments
8. To refine /develop data collection & analysis plan
9. To give the researcher experience with the subjects,
setting
10. To try out data analysis techniques

Pre-testing
- The collection of data before the experimental intervention
-sometimes referred as baseline data
-The trial administration of a newly developed instrument
to indentify flaws or assesse time requirements.
Triangulation
-The use of multiple methods or perspectives to collect and
interpret data about some phenomenon, to converge on an
accurate representation of reality.

1. RESEARCH DESIGN ( Includes research design map )


2. Setting
3. Study population
4. Sampling Technique
5. Pilot Testing
6. Research Protocol
7. The Intervention
8. Instruments
9. Data Analysis
10. Bioethical considerations

DIFFERENT WAYS OF DATA PRESENTATIONS:

1. TEXTUAL : Describing the data using words, in


a paragraph. This include explanation, exploration ,
of findings strengthened by related literatures.

2. Tabular presentation :
Table 1: Sex distribution of subjects

SEX
Female

N
20

%
50%

Male

20

50%

Total

40

100%

PARTS OF THE TABLES


1. TABLE NUMBERS :
Use with arabic numerals ( Table 1 )
Do not use suffix letters to number tables like tables 5a,5b,
5c etc. )
2. TABLE TITLES :
Give every table a brief but clear and explanatory title.
Unclear
Ex:
1. Relation Between College Majors and Performance
2. Mean Performance Scores on Test A, Test B and Test C of
students with Psychologyc, Physicis, English, and
Engineering Majors )
Too detailed

3. Mean Performance Scores of Students With different


College Majors
good

3. TABLE HEADINGS

SEX
Female

N
20

%
50%

Male

20

50%

Total

40

100%

Telegraphic
Avoid many characters in length

Can use abbreviations e.g. no. for number, % for percent


SD for standard deviations, M for mean, or ( square )

4. BODY OF A TABLE :
Contains all the data
If the cell cannot be fulfilled because data are not applicable,
leave it blank, or use dash if not obtained or reported.
SIZE OF THE TABLES :
-Avoid sideways ( inconvenient )
-Fit with the width of the journal page or column if you count
characters ( letters, numbers or spaces )

Table 2 Distribution of subjects according to sex and civil status


SEX

CONTROL
Male

STUDY

Female Male

TOTAL

Female Male

Female

Single

Married

14

13

Widowed

Separated

13

10

12

25

20

Total

23

22

45

Majority of the subjects are married (56.5% for control and


63% for the study group ). Ereno (2000) explained that the
emotional stresses of married life may contribute to the
development of the cardiovascular problems.
It was also noted that there are more single males with heart
failure than females.The development of heart failure in this
group of single males could be attributed to certain lifestyle
behaviors such as smoking, alcoholi intake and drug abuse.
There are more widowed female sujbects than males with
heart failure. Philippine Health Statistics (2001) reports that
elderly women have longer life expectancy than men. The
projected life expectancies at birth for female is 72.8 and
66.93 for males.

RELATION OF TABLES AND TEXT


Remember :
An informative table supplements not duplicates.
Discuss only the tables highlights, otherwise table is not
necessary.
In the text, refer to every table.
Refer tables by numbers.
ex. : as shown in table 6 not as the table above or below,
or on the talbe page 32.

GRAPHS :
-Type of illustration other than table ( typeset ), is a
photographed from art work.
A GOOD GRAPHS ARE :
augments rather than duplicates the text
Conveys essential facts
Omits visually distracting detail
Easy to read ( elements : type, lines, labels, symbols )
Easy to understand
Consistent
Carefully planned and prepared

BAR GRAPH
Used when the independent variable is categorical

Figure 1. Attendance of BSN IV 3

LINE GRAPH:
Used to show relation between two quantitative variables.
The IV plotted in x axis and the DV on the y axis

CIRCLE OR PIE GRAPH:


> Used to show percentages and proportions

Figure 1. Sex distribution

SCATTER GRAPHS:
Consist of single dots plotted.
Meaningful cluster of dots imply correlations.

Summary , Conclusion and Recommendation

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books :
Burns , N and Groove, S .(1995). Understanding the
Nursing research. 3rd edition, WB. Saunders, Philadelphia.
pp.90-95
Journals :
Carlson, B.,Riegel, B., & Kane, J. (1985). Adherence to
health care regimen among elderly women. Advance Journal
Nursing. Vol. 99 ( 11).

THESES/DISSERTATIONS:
Balabagno, A. (1999). Functional health performance
Outcome of compliance to home instruction program after
MI. Unpublished Dissertation. University of the Philippines,
Manila. College of Nursing.

APPENDICES :
Have a coding, arrange according to category and of order
Of use.

Ex:
A1 - A4 - Instruments
B1 B4 - The intervention
C1 - C7 - Graphical presentation of variables
D1 - D6 - Communication letters
Documentation - Pictures

OTHER PARTS :
1. Title Page
2. Certificate of acceptance of thesis
3. Approval sheet
4. Acknowledgement
5. Dedication
6. Abstract
7. Table of Contents
8. List of tables
9. List of figures
10. List of appendices