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Alex Endy Budianto, S.Kom, M.

MTi
Fakultas Teknologi Informasi

Fakultas Teknologi Informasi

AWAS..

DILARANG KERAS

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Understanding the Computer

A computer is a machine that, under a programs


direction, performs four basic operations: input,
processing, output, and storage.
A program is a list of instructions that tells a
computer how perform the four operations.

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Input

The first operation.


The computer performs arithmetic or
comparison operations on data.
Electrical impulses representing
words, numbers, images, or sounds.
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Input
Input is any data entered into the computers memory.
Types of input include:

Data Unorganized information (words, numbers,


images, or sounds) that the computer converts to
meaningful information.
Software Programs transferred from storage
devices to the computers memory.
Commands Instructions that tell the computer
what to do.
Responses Prompts requiring user feedback.

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Input Devices: Giving


Commands

Keyboard & Mouse

Digital Cameras
Touch Screen

Stylus Pen

Wand Reader

Microphone

Input devices are types of hardware that enable you to get


programs, data, commands, and responses into the
computers memory.
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Keyboar
d

The keyboard allows the computer user to enter


words, numbers, punctuation, symbols, and special
function commands into the computers memory.
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Types of Keyboards
Enhanced / Extended Keyboard

Ergonomic Keyboard

Enhanced or Extended keyboard Typically 101 keys laid out in


the QWERTY fashion; connected to the computer by a serial cable.
Cordless keyboard Uses infrared or radio wave signals.
Ergonomic keyboard Designed to help prevent cumulative
trauma disorder (CTD) or damage to nerve tissues in the wrist
and hand due to repeated motion.
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Input Devices
Mouse pointing device
Keyboard

Microphonespeech- recognition

Digital Cameras

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Pointing Devices

Pointing devices enable the user to control the


movements of an on-screen pointer.
They enable the user to initiate commands and to
respond to the active program.
They are used to provide input in graphics programs.
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Types of Mice
PS/2 Mouse

Cordless
Mouse

PS/2 Most commonly used; connects to PS/2 port or USB port.


Serial Not commonly used; connects to a serial port.
Bus Obsolete; connects to an expansion card.
Cordless Uses infrared signals; must be within sight of the
receiving port.
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How a Mouse
Works
Mouse buttons enable the user to initiate actions.

Clicking (left-, right-, or double-clicking) allows the


user to select an item on the screen or open a
program or dialog box.
Click and drag Holding down the left mouse button
and moving the mouse enables the user to move
objects on the screen.

A mechanical mouse uses a rotating ball to position the


pointer on the screen.
An optical mouse uses laser light to determine the
pointer position.
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Other Types of Pointing


Devices
Touch
Screen

Foot
Mouse

Touch Pad

Joystick

Trackball

Pointing
Stick

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Pen
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Speech
Recognition

Speech recognition is a type of input in which the


computer recognizes words spoken into a microphone.
Special software and a microphone are required.
Latest technology uses continuous speech recognition
where the user does not have to pause between words.
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Optical Input
Devices
Digital Cameras

Digital Video

Videoconferencing

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Click on the
picture to play
video

Web Cams

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Other Input
Devices
Fax Machines

Scanners
Flatbed

Handheld

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Processing
Logic

Arithmetic

4 x 4

16

16 >

The second operation.


The computer performs arithmetic or
comparison (logical) operations on the
data.
Performed at a very high speed.
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Output

The third operation.


The computer shows the results of the processing
operation in a way people can understand.
Data is processed into information.
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Output
Devices

Output devices are peripheral devices that enable us


to view or hear the computers processed data.
Visual output Text, graphics, and video.
Audio output Sounds, music, and synthesized speech.
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Visual Display
System

A visual display system is composed of two parts:

Video adapter Responsible for video quality.

Monitor Displays the video adapters output.

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Monitor

A monitor is a peripheral device which displays


computer output on a screen.
Screen output is referred to as a soft copy.
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Types of Monitors
Cathode-ray tube (CRT) Resemble televisions; use picture tube
technology; inexpensive, but they take up desk space and use a
lot of energy.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD or flat-panel) Cells sandwiched
between two transparent layers form images; used for notebook
computers, PDAs, cellular phones, and personal computers;
expensive, and they take up less desk space and use less energy
than CRT monitors.
CRT
LCD
Types of LCD monitors:

Passive-matrix LCD

Active-matrix LCD

Gas plasma display

Field emission displays

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Monitor
Specifications

Screen size The diagonal measurement of the screen surface in


inches (15, 17, 19, 21).
Resolution The sharpness of the images on the screen
determined by the number of horizontal and vertical pixels that
the screen can display (800x600, 1024x768, 1600x1200).
Dot pitch The distance between each pixel on the screen
measured in millimeters (.22mm, .25mm, .28mm).
Refresh rate The speed at which the screen is redrawn
(refreshed) measured in Hertz (Hz) (60Hz, 75Hz).
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Printers

A printer is a peripheral device that produces a physical


copy or hard copy of the computers output.
Two basic types:

Impact printer
Non impact printer

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Impact
Printer
Impact printer

Dot-matrix

An impact printer is a printer that has a print head


that contacts the paper to produce a character.
It uses ink ribbon.
It is noisy, produces Near-letter quality printouts,
and is not commonly used today.
Dot-matrix Pins are used to make characters.
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Non impact Printer


Inkjet

Laser

The non impact printer is the most commonly


used printer today.
It works quietly compared to an impact printer.
Two types of non impact printers:

Inkjet printer Also called bubble-jet; makes characters


by inserting dots of ink onto paper; letter-quality
printouts; cost of printer is inexpensive but ink is costly.
Laser printer works like a copier; quality determined by
dots per inch (dpi) produced; color printers available;
expensive initial costs but cheaper to operate per page.
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Multifunction
Printer

A multifunction printer combines the


functions of a nonimpact printer, scanner,
fax machine, and copier in one unit.
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Plott
er

A plotter is a printer that uses a pen that


moves over a large revolving sheet of paper.
It is used in engineering, drafting, map
making, and seismotology.
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Audio Output
Audio output is the ability of the computer to
output sound.
Two components are needed:

Sound card Plays contents of digitized recordings.

Speakers Attach to sound card.

Digital formats include WAV, MPEG, MP3, and MIDI.


Click an icon
to play music
Click the icon
again to stop WMA
playing
Beethoven
1:15 min

Try clicking on
Cheers while
playing music

MIDI
Rocky
2:56 min

MP3
Hornsby
48 sec

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WAV
Cheers
15 sec
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Storage

The fourth operation.


The computer saves the data or
output so that it can be used again
later.
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Memory vs. Storage


Hard Drive

RAM Memory

Storage, also known as mass media or auxiliary


storage, refers to the various media on which a
computer system can store data.
Storage devices hold programs and data in units called
files.
Files are stored in directories or folders.
Memory is a temporary workplace where the computer
transfers the contents of a file while it is being used.
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Why is storage
necessary?
Storage:
Retains data when the computer is turned off.
Is cheaper than memory.
Plays an important role during startup.
Plays an input role when starting applications.
Is needed for output.
Devices can hold a large amount of data.

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Storage Devices
Storage devices are:
Hardware that is capable of retaining
data when the electricity is turned off.
Able to read (retrieve) data from a
storage medium (disk/tape).
Able to write (record) data to a storage
medium.
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How Computers Think

Computers use algorithms to solve a problem.


Algorithms are step-by-step procedures.

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The Information Processing


Cycle
Input Processing Output Storage
The computer performs the four basic operations
(input, processing, output, and storage).
Two types of processing cycles:

Batch processing A lockstep sequence used by


older computers.

Interactive processing Initiating several


information processing cycles in a single
session; used by modern computers.

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Computer System

Hardware

Software

A collection of related computer


components that are designed to work
together.
A system includes hardware and software.
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Hardware
Hardware is the computers physical components.
The components include:
Input devices Enable users to enter data into
the computer for processing.

Processing circuitry Components located in the


systems case that transform data into
information.

Output devices Peripherals that show the


results of processing.

Storage devices Used to store all the programs


and data that the computer uses.

Communication Devices Used to move data


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between computers.
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Processing: Transforming Data into


Information
Key Terms

Central processing unit (CPU) The computers


processing circuitry. It is also called a microprocessor.
Chip A wafer of silicon that contains a complex
electronic circuit.
Motherboard The computers main circuit board.
Memory Chips that store program instructions. Random
access memory (RAM) is the most important type.
Expansion slots A receptacle designed to accept a plugin expansion card.

Expansion card Used to connect peripherals


(input/output devices) to the motherboard.
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Components of the
CPU
Control unit Coordinates and
controls all parts of the
computer system.
Arithmetic-Logic unit Performs
arithmetic or logical operations.
Registers Store the most
frequently used instructions and
data.
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CPUs at Work
Control Unit Manages four basic operations
(fetch, decode, execute, and write-back).

The machine cycle or processing cycle:

Instruction Cycle
Fetch- Gets next program instruction from the
computers memory.
Decode- Figures out what the program is telling the
computer to do.

Execution Cycle
Execute- Performs the requested action.
Write-back (Store)- Writes (stores) the results
to a register or to memory.

Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) Performs basic


arithmetic or logic operations.
Adds, subtracts, multiplies, and divides

Compares data to determine which one is larger or


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smaller.
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The Processing
Cycle
ALU

Control unit

Click to
animate.
Click one
time only

Memory

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The
Motherboard
Microprocessor
Keyboard /
Mouse Ports
Printer Port

Click on terms to
view larger images
and information

Memory
Slots

Video Port
AGP Slot
PCI Slots

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Chipset

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Popular CPUs
Intel
Pentium IV

Pentium III

Advanced Micro Devices


(AMD)

Pentium MMX

Cyrix

Motorola (Apple)

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Processing Devices
Motherboard
Expansion Card

Central Processing Unit CPU

Random Access
Memory RAM

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Output: Displaying the


Information
Key Terms

Monitors Display processing results on a


screen.
Cathode ray tube Monitor similar to televisions.
Flat-panel displays (LCD) Monitor that uses liquid crystal
diodes.

Speakers Enable the user to hear the results of


sound processing.
Printers Generate output on paper.
Impact printers Print heads strike a ribbon to produce an
image.

Non impact printers Transfer the image to the paper.


Inkjet printers
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Output
Devices
Monitor

Printer

Speakers

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Storage: Holding Programs and Data for


Future Use
Key Terms
Storage media Includes all types of storage media.
Magnetic storage media Uses magnetically sensitive
material.
Optical storage media Uses a laser beam to scan pits
etched into a disc.

Writing Recording data to a disk.

Reading Playing back information on a disk.

Floppy disk Removable storage medium.

CD ROM Optical storage medium.

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Storage
Devices
Hard Drive

CD / DVD
Drive
Floppy Disk Drive

Zip
Drive

Jazz
Drive

Tape
Drive

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Micro Drive

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Communications Devices
Key Terms

Computer network Two or more computers


linked by some type of connection.
Modem Enables access to other computers by
way of a telephone line.
Network interface card (NIC) Enables
computers to connect to each other in a limited
geographic area.
Local area network (LAN) Computers
connected to each other within a building or
group of buildings.

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Communications Devices
Modem
Network Interface Card NIC

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Types of
Computers
Desktop PC, Microcomputer

Notebook Laptop

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Workstation

Personal Digital Assistant


PDA, Handheld, Pocket PC

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Introducing Software
Software consists of the programs that give the
computers hardware its step-by-step instructions.
Software is created by programmers using a
programming language.
Programs contain units called files.
Transferring a program into the computers
memory is called loading.
Once loaded into memory the programs
instructions are carried out or executed.

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Types of Software
System software

Application software

System software All programs that help the


computer function properly.
Application software All the programs you
use to perform a task such as writing a
letter or browsing the World Wide Web.
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System
Software
System software is divided into two
categories:
The operating system:
Provides support for running application software.
Coordinates the various functions of the
computers hardware.

System utilities:
Are programs for optimizing computer
performance.

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Types of Operating
Systems
Command-line interface Users type
instructions at the keyboard, one line at
a time. Examples: MS-DOS, PC DOS,
UNIX
Graphical user interface (GUI) Users
choose items from menus by using a
pointing device to click on icons which
represent resources and commands.
Examples: Windows, Mac OS
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Command-Line Interface

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Graphical User Interface (GUI)

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Application Software
Application software includes all
programs that enable us to use the
computer in a useful way.
Custom software is developed for
specific needs.
Packaged software is produced for
the mass market.

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Software Suite

MS WORD
MS ACCESS

MS EXCEL

MS POWERPOINT

MS FRONT PAGE

A collection of full-featured standalone programs


that usually share a common command structure
and have similar interfaces.

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The

End

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