Sei sulla pagina 1di 171

Engineering Materials

Engineering Materials

Instructors
Rabya Aslam
Engr. Ali Nadeem
Institute of Chemical Engineering & Technology
University of the Punjab, Lahore
rabya.icet@pu.edu.pk
July, 2016

Course contents (2 credit hours)


Introduction to the engineering materials
Introduction to various physical, mechanical and thermal
properties of Engineering Materials
Introduction to Metals, Composites, Ceramics and
Polymers
Application of the engineering materials (Iron, steel,
stainless steel, nickle, copper alloys, aluminum and its
alloys, lead titanium and tantalum, PVC, Teflon, polyolefins,
polytera flouro ethylene (PTFE) glass, stone ware, acid
resistant bricks and tiles)
Biomaterials and advance materials
Introduction to corrosion
3

Learning objectives
To learn about the materials used for various
engineering purposes, and study of their suitability for a
specific end use.

Books
Smith, William Fortune (1990), Principles of
Materials Science and Engineering 2nd Ed. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
William D. Callister. Jr., (2002), Materials Science
and Engineering, 6th Edition, Wiley & Sons.
Srivastava C.M., Srinivasan C. (2000) Science of
Engineering Materials 2nd Ed. New Age
International Limited, Publishers.

Engineering materials
Materials are the substances of which anything is
composed of.
Engineering materials are the substances used to
produce society beneficial products or technical
products.
There is no distinguishable line between both
Materials and Engineering Materials, and they can be
used interchangeably.

Examples

?
7

Engineering Materials
What is Materials Science?
Why should we know about it?
Materials drive our society
Stone Age
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Now?
Silicon Age?
Polymer Age?

Classifications of Engineering Materials


Engineering
Materials

Metals

Ceramics

Electronic

Composites

Polymeric

Classifications of Engineering Materials


Engineering
Materials

Metals

Composites

Ceramics

Electronic

Polymeric

(Semiconductors)

Biomaterials

Advance
Materials

10

Engineering materials
Metals
Ceramics

Polymers
Composites
Electronic

Include both pure metals and combinations of metallic elements.


(Cu, Al etc.). Used where better electrical or strengthened
materials are required. Automobile engine blocks, electrical
conductor wire etc.
SiO2-Na2O-CaO, SiO2, MgO, Barium titanate, etc. used as
window glass, refractories, transducers (due to piezoelectric
behavior)
PET, PVC, Epoxy etc. used in food packaging, adhesives for
joining plies in plywood, encapsulation of integrated circuits
Composed of two or more individual materials. The design goal
of a composite is to achieve a combination of properties
Examples include plywood, concrete, fiber glass, carbon fiber
reinforced polymer etc.
These materials have electrical properties that are intermediate
between the electrical conductors (metals and metal alloys) and
insulators (ceramics and polymers). Semiconductors have
revolutionized the electronics and computer industries. 11

Engineering materials
Biomaterials
Advance
materials

Biomaterials are mostly employed in the human body for


replacement of diseased or damaged body parts.

Nano-engineering materials, optical fibers,


microelectromechanical materials.

12

Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding-Revision


Atom, Neutrons, electrons, protons, atomic
number, atomic mass, mole, crystal structure,
unit cells, Primary bonding, secondary
bonding, what promote bonding and what
properties are inferred from bonding etc.

13

Atomic Structure -Revision


atom electrons 9.11 x 10-31 kg
protons
1.67 x 10-27 kg
neutrons

atomic number =
# of protons in nucleus of atom
= # of electrons
atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12C
Atomic wt = wt of 6.022 x 1023 molecules or atoms
1 amu/atom = 1 g/mol

14

Atomic Structure -Revision


Some of the following properties are determined by electronic
structure
Chemical
Electrical
Thermal
Optical

15

Electronic Structure-Revision
Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties.
Two of the wavelike characteristics are
electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability.
each orbital at discrete energy level is determined by
quantum numbers.

Quantum #

Designation

n = principal (energy level-shell) K, L, M, N, O (1, 2, 3, etc.)


l = subsidiary (orbitals)
s, p, d, f (0, 1, 2, 3,, n -1)
ms = spin

, -

16

Electron Energy States-Revision


Electrons have discrete energy states and tend to occupy lowest
available energy state.
4d
4p

N-shell n = 4

3d
4s
Energy

3p
3s

M-shell n = 3

2p
2s

L-shell n = 2

1s

K-shell n = 1

Adapted from Fig. 2.6, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

17

Electronic configuration -Revision


Valence electrons in outer shells
Filled shells more stable
Valence electrons are most available for bonding and
tend to control the chemical properties
example: C (atomic number = 6)
1s2 2s2 2p2

valence electrons

18

Periodic table-Revision
accept 2eaccept 1einert gases

give up 1egive up 2egive up 3e-

Columns: Similar Valence Structure

He

Li Be

F Ne

Na Mg

Cl Ar

K Ca Sc
Rb Sr

Cs Ba

Se Br Kr
Te

Xe

Po At Rn

Fr Ra

Electropositive elements:
Readily give up electrons
to become + ions.
Adapted from Fig. 2.8, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

Electronegative elements:
Readily acquire electrons
to become - ions.

19

Electronegativity-Revision
Ranges from 0.9 to 4.1,
Large values: tendency to acquire electrons.

Smaller electronegativity

Adapted from Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

Larger electronegativity
20

Primary bonding-Revision
Primary or chemical bonding
1. Ionic bonding
2. Covalent bonding
3. Metallic bonding

Secondary bonding or physical forces bonding


1. van der Waals bond
2. Dipole bonding
3. Hydrogen bonding

21

Ionic bonding-Revision
Ionic bond metal

donates
electrons

nonmetal
accepts
electrons

Dissimilar electronegativities
ex: MgO

Mg 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2


Mg2+ 1s2 2s2 2p6

O 1s2 2s2 2p4


O2- 1s2 2s2 2p6

22

Ionic bonding-Revision

Occurs between +ve and -ve ions.


Requires electron transfer.
Large difference in electronegativity required.
Example: NaCl

Na (metal)
unstable

Cl (nonmetal)
unstable
electron

Na (cation)
stable

Cl (anion)
stable
23

Ionic bonding-Revision
Predominant bonding in Ceramics
NaCl
MgO
CaF 2
CsCl

Give up electrons

Acquire electrons
24

Covalent bonding-Revision
Atoms with similar electronegativity share electrons
Example: H2
H2

Each H: has 1 valence e ,


needs 1 more.
Electronegativities are the
same.

shared 1s electron
from 1st hydrogen
atom

shared 1s electron
from 2nd hydrogen
atom

Fig. 2.12, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


25

Covalent
bonding-Revision
Covalent
Bonding:
Carbon sp3
Example: CH4
C: has 4 valence e-,
needs 4 more
H: has 1 valence e-,
needs 1 more

Electronegativities of C and H
are comparable so electrons
are shared in covalent bonds.

Fig. 2.15, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


(Adapted from J.E. Brady and F. Senese, Chemistry:
Matter and Its Changes, 4th edition. Reprinted with
permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

26

MetallicBonding:
bonding-Revision
Covalent
Carbon sp3
Metallic bonding, the final primary bonding type, is found in
metals and their alloys and is mainly due to delocalized or
free valence electrons.

27

Mixed primary bonding-Revision


Ionic-Covalent Mixed Bonding
% ionic character =

x (100%)

where XA & XB are electronegativities


Ex: MgO

XMg = 1.3
XO = 3.5

28

Secondary
bonding-Revision
Covalent
Bonding:
Carbon sp3
van der Waals forces are week in comparison to primary
bonding and arises due to attraction between molecules.

29

Secondary bonding-Revision
Arises from interaction between dipoles
asymmetric electron
clouds

secondary
bonding

Permanent dipoles-molecule induced


-ex: liquid HCl

H Cl

Adapted from Fig. 2.20, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

secondary
bonding

H Cl

30

Secondary
bonding-Revision
Covalent
Bonding:
Carbon sp3
The strongest secondary bonding type, the hydrogen
bond, is a special case of polar molecule bonding. It
occurs between molecules in which hydrogen is
covalently
bonded to fluorine (as in HF), oxygen (as in H2O ),
and nitrogen (as in NH3 ).

Hydrogen bonding in liquid water

31

Summary-Revision
Comments

Type

Bond Energy

Ionic

Large

Nondirectional (ceramics)

Covalent

Variable
large-Diamond
small-Bismuth

Directional
(semiconductors, ceramics
polymer chains)

Metallic

Variable
large-Tungsten
small-Mercury

Nondirectional (metals)

Secondary

smallest

Directional
inter-chain (polymer)
inter-molecular
32

Properties
inferred
fromTmbonding-Revision
Properties From
Bonding:
Bond length, r

Melting Temperature, Tm
Energy

r
Bond energy, Eo

ro

Energy

r
smaller Tm

unstretched length
ro

Eo=
bond energy

larger Tm
Tm is larger if Eo is larger.

33

Summary:
Primary Bondsdue to bonding
Summary-Properties
Ceramics
(Ionic & covalent bonding):

Metals
(Metallic bonding):

Polymers
(Covalent & Secondary):

Large bond energy


large Tm
large E

Variable bond energy


moderate Tm
moderate E
Secondary bonding dominates
small Tm
small E

34

Atomic Structure- Revision


Unit cell: smallest repetitive volume which contains the
complete lattice pattern of a crystal.

35

Atomic Structure- Revision

36

Atomic Structure- Revision

37

Important terminologies-Revision

38

Metals crystal structure- Examples

39

Engineering Materials-Important properties


Mechanical Properties
(Elasticity, plasticity, ductility, toughness, malleability, resilience, brittleness,
hardness)

Electrical Properties
(resistivity, conductivity, capacitance)

Thermal Properties
(Melting point, latent heat, thermal shock resistance, thermal conductivity,
thermal expansion, specific heat)

Magnetic properties
(Reluctance, magnetic hysteresis, permeance)

Chemical properties
(chemical composition, atomic weight, molecular weight, reactive nature etc.)

Physical properties
(specific gravity, density, porosity, bed density)
40

Engineering Materials-Mechanical properties


Mechanical Properties
(Elasticity, Plasticity, ductility, toughness, Malleability, Resilience, Brittleness,
Hardness)

41

Engineering Materials-Mechanical properties


Elasticity

is property possessed by material of resuming its


original shape upon removal of any force which has modified its
form by stretching or compressing etc.

For a perfectly elastic body, strain always remains


constant for a given stress.
Hooks Law:

Where E = modulus of elasticity

42

Engineering Materials-Mechanical properties


Plasticity is property possessed by material to undergo
permanent deformation under load without fracture.
Plasticity is reverse of elasticity and a perfectly plastic material
retain the shape it takes under load, even after the load is
removed.
Ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile
stress. Materials capable of forming wires are ductile in nature.
(Cu, Al etc.)
Malleability is a property of solid material to extend in all
direction under compressive stress (when hammered). Thin
sheets are formed due to malleability of metals. (e.g. gold, Al,
Cu, Fe etc.)
Both of these mechanical properties are characteristics of
plasticity
43

Engineering Materials-Mechanical properties


Toughness is the ability of material to absorb energy during
plastic deformation. It is the strength with which material
oppose rupture/ breakage.
Resilience: Capacity of material to absorb energy under
elastic limit.
Brittleness: It is the tendency of material to break. The plastic
limit of such materials is found to be very small. (e.g. glass
etc.)
Hardness: Property of material by which it offers resistance to
scratching. One of the most investigated property of Engg.
Materials.
44

Engineering Materials-Mechanical properties [2]

45

Engineering Materials-Mechanical properties [3]

46

Engineering Materials-Electrical properties


Mainly conductors, insulators, and semi-conductors are defined
on the basis of electrical properties.
Resistivity: Property of a substance to oppose the flow of
electricity. Conductors have low resistivity (1E-8 to 1E-4 ohm)
while insulators have high resistivity (1E+12 to 1E +21 ohm).
Conductivity: reciprocal of resistivity.
Capacitance: property of material which allow the storage of
electricity when potential difference exist between two
conductors.

47

Engineering Materials- Thermal properties


Specific heat
Thermal expansion (linear expansion, superficial expansion
volumetric expansion)
Thermal conductivity
Thermal fatigue
Melting point
Latent heat

48

Engineering Materials- Magnetic properties


Magnetic properties arises from spin of electron and orbital
motion of electrons around atomic nuclei.
Diamagnetic substances, paramagnetic substances, ferromagnetic substances.
Reluctance
Permeance
Magnetic hysteresis

49

Engineering Materials- Physical properties


Density
Porosity
Specific gravity etc.

50

Engineering Materials

Metallic Materials or Metals and


alloys

51

Engineering Materials
Revision of phase

diagrams

Discuss applications of
Metals
Alloys

52

Metals and Alloys


Metals are about 3/4th of periodic table.
General properties of metals
Metals are excellent conductors of heat and electricity.
They have fixed melting points.
They are crystalline in nature.
Metals are ductile, these can be drawn in wires.
These are malleable and can be beaten into sheets.
Some metals have high strength and are very dense.
Metals have a luster and may be polished.

53

Metals and Alloys: Examples


Lead (Pb)
Titanium (Ti)
Tantalum (Ta)
Zirconium (Zr)
Silver (Ag)
Platinum (Pt)
Copper (Cu) and its alloys
Aluminum (Al) and its alloys
Iron (Fe) and its alloys
Nickel (Ni) and its alloys
54

Alloys
Alloys?
The term alloys is used to describe a mixture of elements
where primary component is a metal.
That primary metal is called base metal.
Why to form alloys?
To improve mechanical properties. (Iron is relatively soft
metal, carbon is brittle in nature but steel alloys of Fe and C
is tough and has high tensile strength.
To improve corrosion resistance.(Example, Cr is added in
steel to improve its corrosion resistant properties in oxidizing
environment).
To vary physical properties e.g. melting points.

55

Phase Diagrams
Phase B

Phase A
Nickel atom
Copper atom

Phase diagrams? Why these are important?


When we combine two elements, what is the resulting
equilibrium state?
If we specify the composition and the temperature then
How many phases are formed?
What is the composition of each phase?
What is the amount of each phase?
56

Phase Diagrams
Sugar/Water Phase Diagram
100
Temperature (C)

Phase: (mechanically separable


part of system).
Solution: (single phase (solid,
liquid, or gas solutions)).
Mixture: (more than one
phases).
Solubility limit: (maximum
concentration for which only a
single phase solution exists).
Phase equilibrium: A system is
at equilibrium if its free energy is
at minimum under specified
conditions of T, P, and
composition.

Solubility
Limit

80
60

40

(liquid solution
i.e., syrup)

Water

20

40

(liquid)

+
S
(solid
sugar)

20
0

60

80

100
Sugar

(wt% sugar)

Adapted from Fig. 11.1, Callister & Rethwisch 9e.


57

Class activity
What is the solubility limit for sugar in water at 20 C?
Sugar/Water Phase Diagram
Temperature (C)

10 0
Solubility
Limit

80

L
(liquid)

60

40

(liquid solution
i.e., syrup)

+
S
(solid
sugar)

20
0
Water

20

40

60

(wt% sugar)

80

100
Sugar
58

Equilibrium Phase Diagrams


Phase diagrams represents relation between temperature and
the compositions and the quantities of phases at equilibrium.
We will discuss phase diagrams of binary alloys (alloy that
contains only two components)
Three types systems are observed for binary alloys
1. Binary isomorphous systems (solid solution type system)
2. Binary Eutectic systems
3. Binary systems having intermediate phases

59

1-Binary isomorphous systems


(Example: Cu-Ni system)

Liquid, L
Liquidus Line

Solidus
Line
Solid,

60

Equilibrium Phase Diagrams


Using phase diagram you can calculate:
No. of phases presents
Phase composition
Phase amount (Weight fraction and volumetric fraction)

61

Binary isomorphous systems


For 35wt%Ni-65wt%Cu system:
What is the phase at
T = 1500 oC, 1250 oC, 1100 oC.
What is the phase composition at

Liquid, L
Liquidus Line

Solidus
Line

T = 1500 oC, 1250 oC, 1100 oC.


What is the phase amount?

Solid,

62

Binary isomorphous systems


Amount of liquid
phase

Amount of solid
phase

63

Class activity

Find the amount of phases present for a 50wt


%Si and 50wt %Ge alloy at 1250 oC.

Germanium- Silicon phase diagram


64

2: Binary Eutectic Systems

Silver-Copper phase diagram

65

2: Binary Eutectic Systems


is solid

Liquidu
s
Solid
us

solution rich in
copper, is
solid solution
rich in silver.

Solv
us

Silver-Copper phase diagram

66

2: Binary Eutectic Systems


Liquidu
Solids
us

Solv
us

Silver-Copper phase diagram

67

Class activity

Pb-Sn phase diagram

68

Class activity

Pb-Sn phase diagram

69

Class activity
Using NaCl-water
phase diagram,
explain how
spreading salt on ice
that is at 0 oC can
cause the ice to
melt.

70

3: Binary systems having intermediate phases

Magnesium-Lead phase diagram

71

3: Binary systems having intermediate phases

Magnesium Lead phase diagram

72

3: Binary systems having intermediate phases

Zn-Cu phase diagram

73

3: Binary systems having intermediate phases

Zn-Cu phase diagram

74

Examples: Phase diagrams

Fe-C phase diagram

75

Fe structure variation with temperature

Temperature (oC)

MP

-Fe ( -Ferrite, BCC


structure)
-Fe (Austenite, FCC
structure)
-Fe + -Fe

1538
o
C
1394
o
C
912
o
C
727
o

-Fe ( -Ferrite, BCC


structure)
RT

76

Fe-C phase diagram

77

Applications of Metallic compounds: Lead


Lead was one of the traditional MOC for
chemical plants but now due to price and
toxicity, it is largely replaced by other
materials.
It is soft, ductile, malleable, and has
lubricating properties.

MP = 327.5 oC
BP = 1749 oC
= 11.34 g/cm3

Used as lining material.


It has good resistance to acids particularly
H2SO4.
Now a days applications for lead and its
alloys include x-ray shields and storage
batteries.
78

Titanium
Titanium is a hard and shiny metal. It is as
strong as steel but much less dense.
Its alloys with Al, Mo etc. are widely used in
aircraft, spacecraft and missiles because of
their low density and ability to withstand
extremes of temperature.
Titanium metal connects well with bone, so it
has found surgical applications such as in
joint replacements (especially hip joints) and
tooth implants.
It is resistant to chloride solutions, including
sea water and wet chlorine, therefore, widely
used as MOC for shell and tube heat
exchangers and plate exchangers.

MP = 1670 oC
BP = 3287 oC
= 4.51 g/cm3

79

Tantalum
Tantalum is shiny silver non-toxic transition metal that is
highly corrosive resistant. Corrosion resistant properties
are similar to glass therefore called as metallic glass. It
is quite expensive (about 5 times of stainless steel) and
only used for special applications.
Used as lining material where glass lining is not
suitable.
One of the main uses of tantalum is in the production
of electronic components. An oxide layer which forms
on the surface of tantalum can act as an insulating
(dielectric) layer.

MP = 3017 oC
BP = 5455 oC
= 16.4 g/cm3

Tantalum alloys can be extremely strong and have


been used for turbine blades, rocket nozzles and
nose caps for supersonic aircraft.
80

Zirconium
Zirconium is a hard, silvery transition metal and is
very resistant to corrosion. Its resistance is
equivalent to Ta but Zr is less expensive, similar in
price to high nickel steel.

Zirconium does not absorb neutrons, making it


an ideal material for use in nuclear power
stations. More than 90% of zirconium is used in
this way. Nuclear reactors can have more than
100,000 meters of zirconium alloy tubing.

MP = 1855 oC
BP = 4406 oC
(RT) = 6.52 g/cm3

Zirconium metal is protected by a thin oxide


layer making it exceptionally resistant to
corrosion by hot acids, alkalis and boiling water.
Cubic zirconia (zirconium oxide) is a synthetic
gemstone. The colorless stones, when cut,
resemble diamonds.
81

Iron and its alloys


Iron is a shiny grayish transition metal that rust in
air quite easily. It is by mass the most common
element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer
and inner core.
It rusts easily, yet it is the most important of all
metals. 90% of all metal that is refined today is iron.
Alloys having iron metal are called ferrous alloys and
rest are called non-ferrous alloy.

MP = 1538 oC
BP = 2862 oC
(RT) = 7.87 g/cm3

Iron is an essential element for all forms of life and is


non-toxic. The average human contains about 4
grams of iron. A lot of this is in haemoglobin, in the
blood. Haemoglobin carries oxygen from our lungs to
the cells, where it is needed for tissue respiration.
Humans need 1018 milligrams of iron each day. A
lack of iron will cause anemia to develop. Foods
such as liver, kidney, molasses, cocoa contain a lot
of iron.

82

Iron alloys
Ferrous
Alloys

Steel

Low
carbon
steel

Medium
carbon
steel

Cast Iron

High
carbon
steel
ductile Iron
Grey Iron
white Iron mallea
ble
IronCompac
ted Iron
83

Iron and its alloys: Steel


Steel

Low carbon
steel

Medium
carbon
steel

High carbon
steel

Steel : The mechanical properties are sensitive to the content


of carbon, which is normally less than 1.5 wt %. Some of the
more common steels are classified according to carbon
concentration.

84

Low carbon Steel (Carbon contents ~0.3%)


Low carbon steel is the most commonly used
engineering material. It is cheap, available in wide range
of sizes and standard forms, can be easily welded. It
has good tensile strength and ductility. Most commonly
used low carbon steels are plain low carbon steels and
high strength low carbon steel.

85

Low carbon Steel: properties and applications

86

Medium carbon Steel(Carbon contents ~0.6%)


The medium-carbon steels have carbon concentrations
between about 0.3 and 0.60 wt%. These alloys may be heat
treated by austenitizing, quenching, and then tempering to
improve their mechanical properties.
The plain medium-carbon steels have low hardenabilities and can
be successfully heat treated only in very thin sections and with very
rapid quenching rates. Additions of chromium, nickel, and
molybdenum improve the capacity of these alloys to be heat
treated giving rise to a variety of strengthductility combinations.
These heat-treated alloys are stronger than the low-carbon steels,
but at a sacrifice of ductility and toughness.
Applications include railway wheels and tracks, gears, crankshafts,
and other machine parts and high-strength structural components
calling for a combination of high strength, wear resistance,87and
toughness.

High carbon Steel


The high-carbon steels, normally having carbon contents
between 0.60 and 1.4 wt%, are the hardest, strongest, and
least ductile of the carbon steels.
They are almost always used in a hardened condition and are
especially wear resistant and capable of holding a sharp
cutting edge.
The tool and die steels are high-carbon alloys, usually
containing chromium, vanadium, tungsten, and molybdenum.

88

Medium and high carbon Steel

89

Stainless Steel
The stainless steels are highly resistant to corrosion (rusting) in
a variety of environments, especially the ambient atmosphere.
Their predominant alloying element is chromium (up to 20%).
Corrosion resistance may also be enhanced by nickel and
molybdenum additions.
These are further divided into three categories
1-Ferritic SS (13-20 %Cr, 0.1 %C )
2- Austenitic SS (18-20 % Cr, 7% Ni, widely used category)
3- Martensitic SS (10-12 % Cr, 0.2-0.4 % C, up to 2% Ni)

90

Stainless Steel Types


Type 304: the most generally used stainless steel.
It contains the minimum Cr and Ni that give a stable austenitic
structure.
Type 304L: Low carbon version of type 304 (C < 0.03 %).
Type 321: stabilized version of type 304. it is stabilized with
titanium. It is mostly used in high temperature environment.
Type 347: Stabilized version of type 304, stabilized with
niobium to enhance strength.
Type 316: highly resistant to corrosion in reducing environment.
Mo is added to improve corrosion and used in particular for
solutions containing chlorides.
91

Stainless Steel Types

92

Stainless Steel Types (Ferritic steel)

93

Stainless Steel Types (Austenitic steel)

94

Stainless Steel Types (Martensitic steel)

95

Cast Iron
Cast Iron

Gray Iron ductile Ironwhite Iron malleable


Iron
Compacte
d Iron
96

Cast Iron
Generically, cast irons are a class of ferrous alloys with
carbon contents above 2.14 wt%.
In practice, most cast irons contain between 3.0 and 4.5
wt% C.
There MP is less than steels. They are easily melted
and amenable to casting. Moreover, some cast irons are
very brittle, and casting is the most convenient
fabrication technique.
For cast irons at, C exists as graphite in iron.

97

Cast Iron

98

Gray cast Iron


The carbon and silicon contents of gray cast irons vary
between 2.5 and 4.0 wt% and 1.0 and 3.0 wt%, respectively.
For most of these cast irons, the graphite exists in the form of
flakes which are surrounded by -ferrite. These graphite flakes
cause grey appearance therefore these are named as gray cast
iron.
These are used in manufacturing Small cylinder blocks, cylinder
heads, pistons, clutch plates, transmission cases.

99

Ductile cast Iron


Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast
iron, spheroidal graphite iron and SG iron, is a type of cast
iron invented in 1943 by Keith Millis.
Adding a small amount of magnesium and/or cerium to
the gray iron before casting produces a different set of
mechanical properties. Graphite forms as sphere like
particles instead of flakes.
It is used to manufacture
Pressure-containing parts such as valve and pump
bodies
High-strength gears and machine components
Pinions, gears, rollers, slides
100

White cast Iron


For low-silicon cast irons (containing less than 1.0
wt% Si) and rapid cooling rates, most of the carbon
exists as cementite instead of graphite. Fraction of
the surface of this alloy has a white appearance,
and thus it is termed white cast iron.
Its use is limited to applications that necessitate a very
hard and wear-resistant surface, without a high degree of
ductilityfor example, as rollers in rolling mills.
Generally, white iron is used as an intermediate for the
production of malleable iron.

101

Malleable cast Iron


Malleable cast iron is manufactured from white cast
iron. Heating white iron at temperatures between 800
and 900 oC for a prolonged time period and in a
neutral atmosphere (to prevent oxidation) causes a
decomposition of the cementite, forming graphite.
Applications include connecting rods, transmission gears,
and differential cases for the automotive industry, and also
flanges, pipe fittings, and valve parts for railroad, marine,
and other heavy-duty services.

102

Compacted cast Iron


A relative new addition to cast iron alloys. In
compacted cast iron, carbon also exists as graphite
due to addition of Si. Silicon content ranges between
1.7 and 3.0 wt%, whereas carbon concentration is
normally between 3.1 and 4.0 wt%.
Compacted cast irons are now being used in a number of
important applicationsthese include: diesel engine
blocks, exhaust manifolds, gearbox housings, brake discs
for high-speed trains, and flywheels.

103

Non-Ferrous Alloys

Examples:
Copper and its alloys
Aluminum and its alloys
Nickel and its alloys

104

Copper and its Alloys


A reddish-gold ductile and malleable metal. The major
copper-producing countries are Chile, Peru and China.
It is relatively soft metal and is extensively used for
small bore pipes and tubes.
Historically, copper was the first metal to be worked by people.

MP = 1085 oC
it could be hardened with a little tin to form the alloy bronze.
BP = 2563 oC
Traditionally it has been one of the metals used to make = 8.96 g/cm3
coins, along with silver and gold.
Due to excellent electrical and heat conductivity, most copper
is used in electrical equipment such as wiring and motors.
It is also used uses as MOC for heat exchangers.
Copper sulfate is used widely as an agricultural poison and as
an algicide in water purification.
Copper compounds, such as Fehlings solution, are used in
chemical tests for sugar detection.

105

Copper Alloys- Brass


The most common copper alloys are
the brasses for which zinc is the
predominant alloying element.
The brasses are relatively soft,
ductile, and easily cold worked.
Some of the common brasses are
yellow, naval, and cartridge brass.
Brasses are used in
costume
jewelry,
cartridge
casings,
automotive
radiators,
musical
instruments, electronic packaging,
and coins.

Naval brass (60 % Cu, 39.2 % Zn


and 0.75 % Sn) is widely used in
marine construction where strong,
corrosive-resistant and hard material
is required and is suitable for both
salt and fresh water applications.

106

Copper Alloys- Bronze


The bronzes are alloys of copper
and
several
other
elements,
including tin, aluminum, silicon, and
nickel.
These alloys are little stronger than
the brasses and have a high degree
of corrosion resistance.
Generally they are utilized when, in
addition to corrosion resistance,
good tensile properties are required.
For example in manufacturing
bearings, bushings, piston rings,
steam fittings, gears etc.

Tin bronze (88 % Cu, 2 % Zn and


10 % Sn) are typically found in
gear, high strength bushing and
bearing, pump impellers etc.

107

Aluminium and its Alloys


Aluminium is a silvery-white, lightweight, soft and
malleable metal. Pure Al lacks mechanical strength but
has higher resistance to corrosion due to formation of
thin oxide film. It has low density, is non-toxic, has a high
thermal conductivity, has excellent corrosion resistance
and can be easily cast, machined and formed. It is the
MP = 660.3 oC
second most malleable metal and the sixth most ductile.
o
BP = 933.4 C
Aluminium is used in a huge variety of products including = 2.70 g/cm3
kitchen utensils, window frames, cans, foils, and aeroplane
parts.
Aluminium is a good electrical conductor and is often used
in electrical transmission lines.
When evaporated in a vacuum, aluminium forms a highly
reflective coating for both light and heat. These coatings
have many uses, including telescope mirrors, decorative
paper, packages and toys.

108

Aluminium Alloys
The main structural alloys used are the Duralumin (Dural) range of
aluminium copper alloys (typical 4 % Cu with Mg and Mn)
Dural have a tensile strength equivalent to that of mild steel. It is used
where good machinability and good strength are required (wire, rod, and
bar for screw machine products). The pure Al metal can be used as a
cladding on Dural plates, to combine the corrosion resistance of the pure
metal with the strength of the alloy.

109

Nickel
Nickel is silvery metal that resists corrosion
even at high temperatures.
Nickel resists corrosion and is used to layer other
metals to protect them. It is mainly used in making
alloys such as stainless steel, Hastelloy, Inconel,
o
MP
=
1455
C
Monel etc.
o

BP = 2913 C
Nickel is used in batteries, including rechargeable = 8.90 g/cm3

nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-metal hydride


batteries used in hybrid vehicles.

It is used in making coins. The US five-cent piece


(known as a nickel) is 25% nickel and 75% copper.
Finely divided nickel is used as a catalyst for
hydrogenating vegetable oils. Adding nickel to glass
gives it a green color.
110

Nickel alloys
Monel: Classical Ni-Cu Alloy( metal ratio 2:1) is most common
alloy for chemical plants after steel. It is more expensive than
SS but is not susceptible to stress cracking corrosion.
Inconel: 76% Ni, 7 % Fe, 15 % Cr is primarily used for acid
resistance at high temperature. It is also used for propeller
shafts, hot vessels for food and water, chemical processing
equipment, gas turbines, aircraft, and tank trucks.
Hastelloys: It is registered trade name of alloys of Ni, Cr, Mo,
and Fe that were developed for corrosion resistance to strong
mineral acids e.g. HCl. Primary metal is nickel. These have
good ductility and extensively used in welding applications.
Nichrome: It is an alloy of nickel and chromium with small
amounts of silicon, manganese and iron. It resists corrosion,
111
even when red hot, and is used in toasters and electric ovens.

Refractory metals
Metals that have extremely high melting
temperatures are classified as the refractory metals.
Niobium (Nb), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), and
tantalum (Ta). MP ranges between 2400 to 3410 oC.
Tantalum and molybdenum are alloyed with stainless
steel to improve its corrosion resistance.
Molybdenum alloys are utilized for extrusion dies and
structural parts in space vehicles, x-ray tubes.
Welding electrodes employ tungsten alloys.
Niobium is used in welding and nuclear industries,
electronics, optics, numismatics, and jewelry.

112

Noble metals
The noble or precious metals are expensive and
characteristically soft, ductile, and oxidation resistant.
Examples include silver, gold, platinum, palladium,
rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium.
The Ag, Au, Pt are most common and are used
extensively in jewelry.
Alloys of both silver and gold are employed as dental
restoration materials
Platinum is used for chemical laboratory equipment, as a
catalyst and in thermocouples to measure elevated
temperatures.
Rh, Ru are used as catalyst and promoters.
Iridium is normally used in the production of platinum
alloys (with 5 to 10% of iridium)
113

Engineering Materials

Ceramics

114

Ceramics
Derived from Greek word Keramos; meaning burnt clay.
Inorganic or non-metallic materials.
Non metallic materials which are processed and used at high
temperature.
Now a days, Study and manufacturing of ceramic materials is the
art and science of making and using inorganic and dominantly nonmetallic materials formed by the action of heat.
Examples are

Glass
Traditional ceramics
Refractories
Clay Products and cement
Advanced Ceramics
Modern ceramics
115

General Properties of Ceramics


Ceramics are essentially inorganic materials which may contain
metallic and non-metallic components.
All ceramics are insulators of electricity and poor conductors of
heat.
These can withstand high temperature (M.P. is very high)
Ceramics have good compressional strength but poor tensile
strength.
Chemically inert and resistant.
Brittle in nature.
Have lower density as compared to metals.
Normally amorphous but some ceramics exists in crystal form (e.g.
diamond).
116

Glass
Glass are non-crystalline silicates containing other oxides (CaO,
Na2O, Al2O3 etc.)

SiO2 + Na2CO3

Na2SiO3 + CO2
Glass

117
*Callister, 7th edition

General Properties of Glass Materials


Amorphous materials
High viscosity (Glass is super-cooled liquid of high viscosity,
materials having viscosity higher than 1013 Pa are termed as glassy
materials)
Transparent
Hard and resist penetration
Chemically inert to most acids, however, HF and H3PO4 can
dissolve glass therefore kept in polymeric bottles
Refractive
Low coefficient of expansion
Brittle
118

Properties of Glass Materials


Specific volume

Glass materials do not crystallize.


Change in slope is observed in
spec. vol. curve at glass transition
temperature or fictive temperature,
Tg.
Below Tg, material is glass, above
it, material is super-cooled liquid
and finally a liquid.

Liquid
(disordered)

Supercooled
Liquid

crystallization

Glass

Crystalline Solid
solid

Tg

Tm

119

Viscosity temperature characteristics of glass


strain point

Viscosity [Pa-s]

10 14

annealing point

10 10
10 6

Working range:
glass-forming carried out

10 2
1
200

Tmelt

600

1000

T(C)

1400

The melting point ( = 10 Pa.s).


1800
The working point ( = 103 Pa.s).
The softening point ( = 4x106
Pa.s).
The annealing point ( = 1012
Pa.s).
120
Strain point ( = 3x1013 Pa.s).

Viscosity temperature characteristics of glass

Viscosity-Temp diagram for soda lime


glass

121

Glass Forming/ fabrication of glass products


Four different forming methods are used to fabricate glass
products;
Pressing (for relatively thick walled pieces such as
plates and dishes)
Blowing (glass jars, bottles, light bulbs etc.)
Drawing( to form glass pieces such as rods, sheets,
tubes etc.)
Fiber Drawing (a special drawing technique to form
glass fibers)

122

Glass Forming/ Pressing

Pressin
g
Plunger
Raw glass/
gob
Mol
d

123

Glass Forming/ Pressing and blowing


Step
1

Raw gob of glass

Pressing operation

Initial mold

Compressed air

Step
2
Suspended
parison
Finishing
mold

124

Glass Forming/ Drawing

125

Fig. 17.26, Callister & Rethwisch 9e. (Courtesy of Pilkington Group Limited.)

Glass Forming/ Fiber Drawing

orific
es

cooling

The glass viscosity is most critical parameter and is controlled by chamber


and orifices temperatures
126

Fig. 17.25, Callister & Rethwisch 9e. (Courtesy of Pilkington Group Limited.)

Heat treatment of Glass


Annealing: To remove residual thermal stresses.

In this heat treatment, the glassware is heated


to the annealing point, then slowly cooled to
room temperature.
Glass tempering: To enhance the glass strength and brittleness
by intentionally adding compressive and tensile stresses.

With this technique, the glassware is heated to


a temperature above the glass transition
region yet below the softening point. It is then
suddenly cooled to room temperature in a jet
of air.
127

Types of Glasses
Soda Lime glass
Lead glass
Borosilicate glass
High Silica glass
Special glasses
Colored glass
High strength glass
Laminated glass

128

Types of Glasses
1: Soda Lime glasses
SiO2 and Na2O are main ingredients,
composition of Al2O3, K2O, CaO etc
varies with application.
It is used in window glasses, electric
bulbs, bottles, cheap table ware etc.
2: Lead Glasses/ flint glasses/ lead
crystal glasses
Contains 18-40 % PbO.
It is used as optical glasses, shield to
protect X-rays, neon sign tubing etc.

129

Types of Glasses
3: Borosilicate glasses/ Pyrex
It contains silica, B2O3, Al2O3 and small
amount of alkaline oxides. Highly
chemical resistant.
It is used for laboratory glass wares and
cook wares such as baking dishes etc.
4: High Silica glass
Contains higher amount of Silica ( 90%).
Highly durable and heat resistant. Used
to manufacture lab wares such as
crucible and glass wool etc.

130

Special Glasses
a) Colored glasses: manufactured by adding coloring
ions.
Iron (II) oxide may be added to glass resulting in bluish-green glass which is
frequently used in beer bottles.
Iron oxide with Cr it gives a richer green color, used for wine bottles.
Materials
Color added to glass
Potassium dichromate greenish yellow
Mgo
purple or pink
Cobalt oxide
blue (royal blue/ intense blue)
Cuprous salt
red
Cupric salt
blue
Gold chloride
ruby
Carbon
amber
131

Special Glasses
b) High strength glass
Contains 65% SiO2, 25 % Al2O3 and up to 10 % MgO.
It is used in military and aerospace applications.

c) Laminated glass
It is manufactured by placing a non-brittle plastic sheer between
two glass layers.
Used in cars, buses, and for safety purposes.
Bullet proof glasses also falls in this category.

132

Ceramics: Refractories
Materials which can withstand high temperature and thermal
shocks are termed as refractory materials.
The salient properties of these materials include
the capacity to withstand high temperatures without melting or
decomposing
the capacity to remain unreactive and inert when exposed to
severe environments
the ability to provide thermal insulation is often an important
consideration.
Mainly used in Furnaces, Nuclear reactors, Missiles, etc.

133

General properties of Refractories


Maintain dimensions and
temperature.
Withstand thermal shocks.

strength

at

operating

Inert to the charge.


Insulator (porosity ranges between 10-70 %)

134

Types of Refractories
Acidic Refractories (Silica bricks, Fireclay bricks,
Alumina bricks: used in arched roof of steel and glass
making furnaces)
Basic refractories (rich in periclase or MgO: used in
steel making open hearth furnaces, furnaces used in
refining Au, Ag and Pt)
Neutral refractories (graphite, chromite; in making
stainless steel)
Super refractories (ThO2,BeO, ZrO2,3Al2O3-2SiO2: high
temp applications up to 3200 oC and in chemical
reactors)
135

Composition of commonly used refractories

136
Table 13.2 , Callister & Rethwisch 6e.

Modern Ceramics:Nano-tubes
Fullerenes spherical cluster of 60 carbon atoms, C60 like a
soccer ball
Carbon nanotubes sheet of graphite rolled into a tube with
ends capped with fullerene hemispheres

137
Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

Modern Ceramics
Graphene single-atomic-layer of graphite composed of

hexagonally sp2 bonded carbon atoms

138
Callister & Rethwisch 9e.

Applications of Ceramics
Die blanks and die surfaces: due to
wear resistant properties.
For example 4m polycrystalline
diamond particles that are sintered
onto a cemented tungsten carbide
substrate. This polycrystalline
diamond gives uniform hardness in all
directions to reduce wear.

Tools:
-- for grinding glass, tungsten,
carbide, ceramics
-- for cutting Si wafers
-- for oil drilling

139

Applications of Ceramics
Sensors: due to Piezoelectric properties.
Commonly used piezoelectric ceramics include barium titanate (BaTiO 3), lead
titanate (PbTiO3), and potassium niobate (KNbO3). Common applications are
transducers, strain gauges, ultrasonic detectors.

Refractory materials:
For high temperature applications

Ultimate fiber and electrical applications:


For example cabon-nano tubes
Due to

low density, high strength nano-tubes are used


as a reinforcement in composite materials.
Carbon nanotubes also have unique and structure
sensitive electrical characteristics for TV and computer
monitors.
140

Engineering Materials: Polymers

141

Polymeric materials
Polymers are high molecular weight compounds whose structure
are made up of large number of simple repeating units.
Derived from Greek word poly-, "many" + -mer, "part"
Monomers: repeating unit; mono-, single/one" + -mer, "part"
Examples:
Polyethylene, Polyethylene terephthalate, Nylon etc.

142

Polymeric materials: General properties


Low density (PP has 0.92 g/cm3,PS has 1.06 g/cm3, PTFE
has 2.17g/cm3).
Mostly flexible. However, some of polymers are hard and
brittle e.g. Bakelite.
Insulators of heat and electricity.
Corrosion resistant
Usually water proof
Not resistant to high temperature
Weather resistant
143

Codes for Different Polymeric Materials

144

Polymeric materials: Classification


Natural and synthetic
Based on process of polymerization
(addition or condensation )

Based on their behavior toward heat


(thermoset and thermoplastics)

Based on molecular structure of polymers


(straight chain, branched chain, cross linked chain polymers,
cross linked etc.)

145

Natural and Synthetic polymers


Natural polymers
Proteins, wood, natural rubber, silica, starch,
DNA
Synthetic polymers (man-made polymers)
(Bakelite, PS, PE, PET, PVC etc.)

146

Based on process of polymerization


Addition polymerization/ Chain polymerization
Process in which a polymer is formed by an addition reaction, where many
monomers bond together via rearrangement of bonds without the loss of any
atom or molecule.
Three steps are involved: Initiation, propagation, termination.
Its a rapid reaction and the initiation species continues to propagate until
termination.
Example includes production of PVC, PE etc.

147

Based on process of polymerization


Condensation polymerization/ Stepwise polymerization
Process in which a polymer is formed by combining monomers with the
elimination of simple molecule such as H2O, CH3OH, NH4OHetc.

Example includes Dacron, Nylon 6,6, Polyphthalamides etc.

148

Based on behavior toward heat


Thermoplastic polymers
Polymers which can be softened on heating. These can be
reheated, remelted, reshaped several times without much
change in properties. These are mostly linear polymers.

Examples: Polyethylene,
polymethylmethacrylate, polypropylene
Thermosetting polymers
Polymers which cannot be remelted or reformed upon heating.
These are normally network polymer containing cross-linked
molecules that does not soften when heated.

Examples: rubber, Bakelite, polyurethane


149

Based on behavior toward heat


Thermoplastics
Thermosets
- little crosslinking
- significant crosslinking
- ductile
- hard and brittle
- soften with heating
- do NOT soften while heating
- polyethylene,
- vulcanized rubber, epoxies,
polypropylene,
polyester resin, phenolic
polycarbonate, polystyrene
resin

150

Based on molecular structure of polymers


Structure of
polymer

151

Industrial Polymerization Methods


Bulk Polymerization
Solution Polymerization
Suspension polymerization
Emulsion polymerization

152

Bulk Polymerization
Simplest of the techniques requiring only monomer and
monomer-soluble initiator.
Process is extensively used for condensation
polymerization.
Difficulty of removing unreacted monomer and heat control
are negative features.
Examples of polymers produced by bulk polymerization
include poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, and lowdensity polyethylene.

153

Solution Polymerization
Monomer and initiator must be soluble in the
liquid and the solvent must have the desired
chain-transfer characteristics, boiling point
(above the temperature necessary to carry out
the polymerization).
The presence of the solvent assists in heat
removal and control.
Polymer yield per reaction volume is lower than
for bulk reactions. Also, solvent recovery and
removal (from the polymer) is necessary.
Examples: water-soluble polymers prepared in
aqueous solution polyacrylamide, and
poly(Nvinylpyrrolidinone).Polystyrene, poly(vinyl
chloride), and polybutadiene are prepared from

154

Suspension Polymerization
The monomer is mixed with catalyst and then dispersed as
suspension in water.
Droplets of monomer containing initiator and chain-transfer
agent are formed. A protective colloidal agent, often
poly(vinyl alcohol), is added to prevent coalescence of the
droplets.
Because the liquid is water-based, solvent recovery and
treatment problems are minimal.
Examples: polystyrene resins, and copolymers such as
poly(styrene-coacrylonitrile)

155

Emulsion Polymerization
Similar to suspension polymerization, however, an emulsifier
is added to disperse the monomers in to very small particles.
It is customary to use a water-soluble initiator such as
potassium persulfate and surfactant sodium sterate.
Many water-soluble vinyl monomers may be polymerized by
the emulsion polymerization technique.

156

Important terminologies about polymers


Molecular weight

Number-average molecular weight

where Mi represents the mean molecular weight of size range i, and x


is the fraction of the total number of chains within the corresponding
size range.

Weight-average molecular weight

Where Mi is the mean molecular weight within a size range, and wi


denotes the weight fraction of molecules within the same size interval.
157

Important terminologies about polymers


Degree of polymerization (DP)
DP represents the average number of repeat units in a chain. It is
related to average mol. Wt by following relation.

Crystallinity:
Polymers are amorphous materials, however, sometimes portion of
chain attains such an arrangement that they become crystalline.
Crystallinity results in
Increase in MP.
Prevents solvent attack
Increase ultimate strength and reduce % elongation
158

Important terminologies about polymers


Stress Strain behavior
brittle polymer

plastic
elastomer

159

Important terminologies about polymers


Glass transition temperature
The temperature at which polymeric material changes from being rigid and
brittle to being flexible and rubbery is called glass transition temperature (T g).

160

Important terminologies about polymers


Temperature of crystallisation, TC
When heat is supplied to polymeric material a transition occurs at Tc when
molecules acquire enough freedom to move into a more energetically stable
phase, i.e. a crystalline state. This would indicate that the phase following the
glass transition is metastable and when sufficient energy is supplied, its
molecules adapt a more stable arrangement.

Melting temperature, TM
This is the point at which the crystalline polymer molecules have gained
enough vibrational freedom to break free from the solid binding forces and
form a liquid.

161

Important terminologies about polymers


Degradation temperature
At this point in the heating cycle, individual polymer molecules
decompose into their components.

Elastomers
Elastomers are elastic materials that stretch to high extensions and
rapidly recover their original dimensions once the applied stress is
released. They are formed by a loose network. Styrene-butadiene rubber
(SBR) and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) are examples of
important elastomers.

162

Important terminologies about polymers


Vulcanization
The crosslinking process in elastomers is called vulcanization, which is
achieved by a irreversible chemical reaction, carried out at an elevated
temperature.

163

Polymeric materials: Applications


Polyethylene terephthalate:

PET/PETE is a
clear, strong, and lightweight plastic that is widely used for
packaging foods and beverages, especially conveniencesized soft drinks, juices and water. It is one of the major
consumable plastic in the world. Most commonly used
method for production of PET on industrial scale is based on
copolymerization of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. It
is an amorphous and rigid polymer.
Applications
Soft drink bottles
Carpets
Rope
Fabrics and Cassette manufacturing etc.

164

Polymeric materials: Applications


Polyethylene :

PE is produce by addition
polymerization of ethylene. Three types are available in
market; High density polyethylene (HDPE), ultrahigh
molecular weight polyethylene and low density polyethylene
(LDPE).

Applications
Food containers
Detergent bottles
Garden furniture
Shopping bags
Coating cables etc.
165

Polymeric materials: Applications


Polystyrene :

It is produced by polymerization of
styrene. it is an amorphous, non flexible polymer which has
very good insulation properties.

Applications
Radio & TV parts
Toys
Electronic Components
Window frames
Disposable cups
Foam Containers

166

Polymeric materials: Applications


Nylon 6,6 :

Nylon 6,6/Nylon 66/ Nylon 6/6 is made by


condensation polymerization of two monomers each
containing 6 carbon atoms, hexamethylenediamine and
adipic acid.

Applications
Nylon 6,6 is used when high mechanical strength,
rigidity and good stability under heat and/or chemical
resistance are required.
It is used in fibers for textiles and carpets.
Used in manufacturing of airbags.

167

Good Luck for Exam!

168

FCC structure

169

BCC structure

170

Polymerization Processes

171