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BEAMS

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOME CONCEPTS

ALLAN LAMBOR MARBANIANG

154104023

MTECH

CONTENTS

Unrestrained Sections:

Open Sections to Shear

Closed Sections to Shear

Closed Sections to Torsion

Restrained Sections

Closed Sections to Torsion

Introduction to Shear lag

WALLED BEAMS

A thin walled beam is a type of beam .The cross section of thin

walled beams is made up from thin panels connected among

themselves to create closed or open cross sections of a beam.

defining the center line of the wall forms a closed/open contour.

Closed sections include round, square, and rectangular tubes.

Open sections include I-beams, T-beams, L-beams, and so on.

Thin walled beams exist because their bending stiffness per unit cross sectional area is

much higher than that for solid cross sections such a rod or bar. In this way, stiff beams

can be achieved with minimum weight.

Applications is in aircraft wings, box section concrete, steel sections,etc..

Solid beams have their cross- sectional dimensions small compared with the third, the

longitudinal dimension. Thin wall beams however have all three dimensions of different

order of magnitudes. For such structures the wall thickness is small compared with any

other characteristic dimensions compared with the longitudinal dimension,

Torsion induces shear stresses in the walls of beams and these cause shear strains,

which produce warping of the cross-section. When this warping is restrained, direct

stresses are set up which modify the shear stresses. In a similar manner, the shear

strains in the thin walls of beams subjected to shear loads cause cross-sections to

distort or warp, so that the basic assumption of elementary bending theory of plane

sections remaining plane is no longer valid

SHEAR FLOW

Convenient way to work.

(1)

magnitude

Assumption:

Shear Flow does not vary through the thickness.

EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

Equilibrium in z direction

(2)

Equilibrium in s direction

(3)

BEAMS

Assume Sx and Sy are shear forces causing no twisting of the

beam cross section, that is the shear loads pass through the shear

center. Taking equation 2

Let us assume that the direct stresses are obtained with the

basic bending theory such that :

Integrating :

It is easy as we can take the origin for s at the open edge where the

shear flow ,q=0

(4)

1

(5)

SHEAR OF CLOSED

SECTION BEAMS

Taking equation (2)

(6)

(7)

(8)

Therefore, by cutting the closed section beam, we are, in effect, replacing the shear

loads by shear loads Sx and Sy acting through the shear center of the resulting open

section beam together with a torque T, as shown. In this case, the constant shear flow

qs,0 corresponds to the torque but has different values for different positions of the cut.

LOADED CLOSED SECTION BEAMS

Shear loads that are not applied through the shear center of a closed section

beam cause cross-sections to twist and warp; that is, in addition to rotation, they

suffer out-of-plane axial displacements.

The tangential displacement vt of any point N in the wall of either an open or

closed section

(9)

beam is seen to be

Where clearly u, v, and y are functions of z only (w may be a function of z and s).

If displacements are equivalent to a pure rotation

about R, which is the center of twist

(10)

(11)

Substituting for vt in 11 , we get :

(12)

Integrating:

where AOs is the area swept out by a generator, center at the origin of axes, O, from

the origin for s to any point s around the cross-section :

From which

(13)

(14)

Replacing du/dz and dv/dz

(15)

In the case where the origin coincides with the center of twist R of the section

(16)

A closed section beam subjected to a pure torque T, does not, in the absence of an

axial constraint, develop a direct stress system.

(17)

It follows that the equilibrium conditions of

These relationships may be satisfied simultaneously only by a constant value of q.

We deduce, therefore, that the application of a pure torque to a closed section

beam results in the development of a constant shear flow in the beam wall

The torque produced by the shear flow acting on an element ds of the beam wall is

p q ds.

(18)

which is valid for q

(18)

(19)

And :

So:

Wrapping distribution for varying shear can also be applicable to the case of constant shear

flow where the origin is at the center of twist.

(20)

The geometry of the cross-section of a closed section beam subjected to torsion may be

such that no warping of the cross-section occurs when eq (20) =0

=0

warp.

Examples of such beams are a circular section beam of constant thickness, a rectangular

section beam for which atb = bta

RESTRAINED CONDITION

Allowance is made for the effects of restrained warping produced by structural

or loading discontinuities in the torsion of open or closed section beams or for

the effects of shear strains on the calculation of direct and shear stresses in

beams subjected to bending and shear.

Structural constraint stresses in either closed or open beams result from a

restriction on the freedom of any section of the beam to assume its normal

displaced shape under load.

In torsion, a longitudinal stress system is induced, which, in a special case

discussed later, is proportional to the free warping of the beam.

Under shear stress loading However, for a box beam comprising thin skins and

booms, the shear strains in the skins are of sufficient magnitude to cause a

measurable redistribution of the direct load in the booms, and hence

previously plane sections warp.

The problem of axial constraint may be conveniently divided into two parts. In

the first, the shear stress distribution due to an arbitrary loading is calculated

exclusively at the built-in end of the beam. In the second, the stress (and/or

load) distributions are calculated along the length of the beam for the separate

loading cases of torsion and shear. Obviously, the shear stress systems

predicted by each portion of theory must be compatible at the built-in end.

The shear flow at any point in the section is given by eq(12)

be statically equivalent to the applied loading

(21)

SUBJECTED TO TORSION

Idealization :

Suppose we wish to idealize the panel into a combination of direct stress

carrying booms and shear stress only carrying skin

The assumption on which the idealization is based is that the direct stress

distribution at any cross-section is directly proportional to the warping which has

been suppressed. Therefore, the distribution of direct stress is linear around

any cross-section and has values equal in magnitude but opposite in sign at

opposite corners of a wall.

beam in, is to reduce this free warping to zero at the built-in section,

so that direct stresses are induced which subsequently modify the

shear stresses predicted by elementary torsion theory. These direct

stresses must be self-equilibrating, since the applied load is a pure

torque.

suppressed to some extent along the complete length of the beam

(22)

(13)

Since the beam cross-section is doubly

symmetrical, the axis of twist passes

through the center of symmetry at any section, so

that,

(23)

Keep them in Torsion formulation

(24)

(25)

We shall now use the further condition of equilibrium between the shears in the

covers and webs and the direct load in the booms to obtain expressions for the

warping displacement and the distributions of boom stress and load. Thus,

for the equilibrium of an element of the top right-hand boom,

(26)

Boundary condition

(27)

SHEAR LAG :

Torsion induces shear stresses in the walls of beams and these cause shear

strains, which produce warping of the cross-section. When this warping is

restrained, direct stresses are set up which modify the shear stresses. In a

similar manner, the shear strains in the thin walls of beams subjected to

shear loads cause cross-sections to distort or warp, so that the basic

assumption of elementary bending theory of plane sections remaining plane

is no longer valid.

The direct and shear stress distributions predicted by elementary theory

therefore become significantly inaccurate.

section AA is uniform across the width of the covers, so that all the

stringers and web flanges are subjected to the same stress.

However, the shear strains at the section cause the distortion

shown, so that the intermediate stringers carry lower stresses than

the web flanges.

Since the resultant of the direct stresses must be equivalent to the

applied bending moment, this means that the direct stresses in the

web flanges must be greater than those predicted by elementary

bending theory.

Thin walled beams behave differently from elementary beams when they

are restrained due to the presence of shear lag and interaction of warping

Stresses.

REFERNCE :

Aircraft Structures for engineering students ,Fifth Edition by T.H.G.Megson.

Thin- Walled Composite Beams ,By Liviu Librescu and Ohseop Song,

Published by Springer

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