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Large-Scale Path Loss

Mobile Radio Propagation: Large-Scale


Path Loss

Last two lectures:

Properties of cellular radio systems


Frequency reuse by using cells
Clustering and system capacity
System components - Mobile switching centers, base stations,
mobiles, PSTN
Handoff strategies
Handoff margin, guard channels
Mobile Assisted Handoff
Umbrella cells
Hard and soft handoffs
Co-Channel Interference
Adjacent Channel Interference
Trunking and grade of service (GOS)
Cell splitting
Sectoring
2

This lecture: Electromagnetic propagation


properties and hindrances.
What are reasons why wireless signals are hard
to send and receive?

Speed, Wavelength, Frequency


Light speed = Wavelength x Frequency
= 3 x 108 m/s = 300,000 km/s
System

Frequency

Wavelength

AC current

60 Hz

5,000 km

FM radio

100 MHz

3m

Cellular

800 MHz

37.5 cm

Ka band satellite

20 GHz

15 mm

Ultraviolet light

1015 Hz

10-7 m

Types of Waves

Ionosphere
(80 - 720 km)

Sky wave

Mesosphere
(50 - 80 km)
Stratosphere
(12 - 50 km)

Space wave
tter
i
m
s
Tran

Ground wave
Earth

Rece

iver

Troposphere
(0 - 12 km)

Radio Frequency Bands


Classification
Band

Initials

Frequency Range

Extremely low

ELF

< 300 Hz

Infra low

ILF

300 Hz - 3 kHz

Very low

VLF

3 kHz - 30 kHz

Low

LF

30 kHz - 300 kHz

Medium

MF

300 kHz - 3 MHz

Ground/Sky
wave

High

HF

3 MHz - 30 MHz

Sky wave

Very high

VHF

30 MHz - 300 MHz

Ultra high

UHF

300 MHz - 3 GHz

Super high

SHF

3 GHz - 30 GHz

Extremely high

EHF

30 GHz - 300 GHz

Tremendously high THF

300 GHz - 3000 GHz

Characteristics

Ground wave

Space wave

Propagation Mechanisms
Reflection
Propagation wave impinges on an object which is large as
compared to wavelength
- e.g., the surface of the Earth, buildings, walls, etc.

Diffraction
Radio path between transmitter and receiver
obstructed by surface with sharp irregular edges
Waves bend around the obstacle, even when LOS (line of sight)
does not exist

Scattering
Objects smaller than the wavelength of the
propagation wave
- e.g. foliage, street signs, lamp posts

Radio Propagation Effects


Building

Direct Signal
Reflected Signal

hb

Diffracted
Signal

Transmitter

hm
Receiver

Free-space Propagation
hb
hm
Transmitter

Distance d

Receiver

The received signal power at distance d:

Pr

AeGtPt
4d 2

where Pt is transmitting power, Ae is effective area, and Gt is the


transmitting antenna gain. Assuming that the radiated power is uniformly
distributed over the surface of the sphere.

I. Problems Unique to Wireless (not wired)


systems:

Paths can vary from simple line-of-sight to ones


that are severely obstructed by buildings,
mountains, and foliage.
Radio channels are extremely random and
difficult to analyze.
Interference from other service providers
out-of-band non-linear Tx emissions

10

Interference from other users (same network)


CCI due to frequency reuse
ACI due to Tx/Rx design limitations & large #
users sharing finite BW

Shadowing
Obstructions to line-of-sight paths cause areas of
weak received signal strength

11

Fading
When no clear line-of-sight path exists, signals are
received that are reflections off obstructions and
diffractions around obstructions
Multipath signals can be received that interfere with
each other
Fixed Wireless Channel random & unpredictable
must be characterized in a statistical fashion
field measurements often needed to characterize radio
channel performance

12

** The Mobile Radio Channel (MRC) has


unique problems that limit performance **
A mobile Rx in motion influences rates of
fading
the faster a mobile moves, the more quickly
characteristics change

13

II. Radio Signal Propagation

14

The smoothed line is the average signal


strength. The actual is the more jagged line.
Actual received signal strength can vary by
more than 20 dB over a few centimeters.
The average signal strength decays with
distance from the transmitter, and depends on
terrain and obstructions.

15

Two basic goals of propagation modeling:


1) Predict magnitude and rate (speed) of received
signal strength fluctuations over short
distances/time durations
short typically a few wavelengths () or
seconds
at 1 Ghz, = c/f = 3x108 / 1x109 = 0.3 meters
received signal strength can vary drastically by 30
to 40 dB

16

small-scale fluctuations called _____ (Chapter 5)


caused by received signal coming from a sum of
many signals coming together at a receiver
multiple signals come from reflections and
scattering
these signals can destructively add together by being
out-of-phase

17

2) Predict average received signal strength for


given Tx/Rx separation
characterize received signal strength over distances
from 20 m to 20 km
Large-scale radio wave propagation model models
needed to estimate coverage area of base station
in general, large scale path loss decays gradually
with distance from the transmitter
will also be affected by geographical features like
hills and buildings

18

Free-Space Signal Propagation


clear, unobstructed line-of-sight path satellite and
fixed microwave
Friis transmission formula Rx power (Pr) vs. T-R
separation (d)

19

where
Pt = Tx power (W)
G = Tx or Rx antenna gain (unitless)
relative to isotropic source (ideal antenna which
radiates power uniformly in all directions)
in the __________ of an antenna (beyond a few meters)
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)

EIRP = PtGt
Represents the max. radiated power available
from a Tx in the direction of max. antenna gain,
as compare to an isotropic radiator
20

= wavelength = c / f (m). A
term is related to
antenna gain.
So, as frequency increases, what happens to the
propagation characteristics?

L = system losses (antennas, transmission lines


between equipment and antennas, atmosphere, etc.)
unitless
L = 1 for zero loss
L > 1 in general

21

d = T-R separation distance (m)


Signal fades in proportion to d2
We can view signal strength as related to the
density of the signal across a large sphere.
This is the surface area of a sphere with radius d.
So, a term in the denominator is related to distance
and density of surface area across a sphere.

22

Path Loss (PL) in dB:

23

d2 power law relationship


Pr decreases at rate of proportional to d2
Pr decreases at rate of 20 dB/decade (for line-ofsight, even worse for other cases)
For example, path loses 20 dB from 100 m to 1 km
Comes from the d2 relationship for surface area.

Note: Negative loss = gain

24

Example:
Path loss can be computed in terms of a link
budget calculation.
Compute path loss as a sum of dB terms for the
following:

Unity gain transmission antenna.


Unity gain receiving antenna.
No system losses
Carrier frequency of 3 GHz
Distance = 2000 meters

25

Close in reference point (do) is used in large-scale models

do : known received power reference point - typically 100 m or


1 km for outdoor systems and 1 m for indoor systems
df : far-field distance of antenna, we will always work problems
in the far-field

2D2
df

df ? D

df ?

D: the largest physical linear dimension of antenna


26

Reference Point Example:


Given the following system characteristics for largescale propagation, find the reference distance do.
Received power at do = 20 W
Received power at 5 km = 13 dBm

Using Watts:

Using dBm:

27

III. Reflections
There are three basic propagation mechanisms
in addition to line-of-sight paths
Reflection - Waves bouncing off of objects of large
dimensions
Diffraction - Waves bending around sharp edges of
objects
Scattering - Waves traveling through a medium
with small objects in it (foliage, street signs, lamp
posts, etc.) or reflecting off rough surfaces

28

Reflection occurs when RF energy is incident upon


a boundary between two materials (e.g air/ground)
with different electrical characteristics
Permittivity
Permeability
Conductance

Reflecting surface must be large relative to of RF


energy
Reflecting surface must be smooth relative to of
RF energy
specular reflection

29

Important reflecting surfaces for mobile radio

Fresnel reflection coefficient


describes the magnitude of reflected RF energy
depends upon material properties, polarization, &
angle of incidence

30

IV. Ground Reflection (2-Ray) Model


Good for systems that use tall towers (over 50 m
tall)
Good for line-of-sight microcell systems in urban
environments

31

ETOT is the electric field that results from a combination of a


direct line-of-sight path and a ground reflected path

is the amplitude of the electric field at distance d


c = 2fc where fc is the carrier frequency of the signal
Notice at different distances d the wave is at a different phase
because of the form similar to
32

For the direct path let d = d ; for the reflected path


d = d then

for large TR separation : i goes to 0 (angle of incidence


to the ground of the reflected wave) and
= 1
Phase difference can occur depending on the phase
difference between direct and reflected E fields
The phase difference is due to Path difference ,
= d d, between
33

From two triangles with sides d and (ht + hr) or (ht hr)

34

can be expanded using a Taylor series


expansion

35

which works well for d >> (ht + hr), which means


and
are small
36

the phase difference between the two arriving


signals is

E0 d 0

ETOT (t ) 2
sin
d
2
2 hr ht

0.3 rad
2
d
E0 d 0 2 hr ht
k
ETOT (t ) 2
2 V/m
d
d
d
37

For d0=100meter, E0=1, fc=1 GHz, ht=50 meters, hr=1.5 meters, at t=0

38

note that the magnitude is with respect to a


reference of E0=1 at d0=100 meters, so near 100
meters the signal can be stronger than E0=1
the second ray adds in energy that would have been
lost otherwise

for large distances


that

it can be shown

39

40

V. Diffraction
RF energy can propagate:
around the curved surface of the Earth
beyond the line-of-sight horizon
Behind obstructions

Although EM field strength decays rapidly as


Rx moves deeper into shadowed or
obstructed (OBS) region
The diffraction field often has sufficient
strength to produce a useful signal

41

Huygens principle says points on a wavefront


can be considered sources for additional
wavelets.

42

The wavefront on top of an obstruction generates


secondary (weaker) waves.

43

The difference between the direct path and


diffracted path, call excess path length

Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction parameter

The corresponding phase difference

44

45

The excess total path length traversed by a ray


passing through each circle is n/2

46

The diffraction gain due to the presence of a knife


edge, as compared the the free space E-field

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

VI. Scattering
Received signal strength is often stronger than that
predicted by reflection/diffraction models alone
The EM wave incident upon a rough or complex
surface is scattered in many directions and provides
more energy at a receiver
energy that would have been absorbed is instead reflected to
the Rx.

Scattering is caused by trees, lamp posts, towers, etc.


flat surface EM reflection (one direction)
rough surface EM scattering (many directions)

55

56

VII. Path Loss Models


We wish to predict large scale coverage using
analytical and empirical (field data) methods
It has been repeatedly measured and found that
Pr @ Rx decreases logarithmically with
distance
PL (d) = (d / do )n

where n : path loss exponent or

PL (dB) = PL (do ) + 10 n log (d / do )

57

bar means the average of many PL values at a


given value of d (T-R sep.)
n depends on the propagation environment
typical values based on measured data

58

At any specific d the measured values vary


drastically because of variations in the
surrounding environment (obstructed vs. lineof-sight, scattering, reflections, etc.)
Some models can be used to describe a
situation generally, but specific circumstances
may need to be considered with detailed
analysis and measurements.

59

Log-Normal Shadowing
PL (d) = PL (do ) + 10 n log (d / do ) + X
describes how the path loss at any specific location may vary
from the average value

has a the large-scale path loss component we have already


seen plus a random amount X.
60

X : zero mean Gaussian random variable, a bell


curve
is the standard deviation that provides the second
parameter for the distribution
takes into account received signal strength variations
due to shadowing
measurements verify this distribution

n & are computed from measured data for different


area types
any other path loss models are given in your book.
That correlate field measurements with models for different
types of environments.
61

62

Co-channel and Adjacent Channel


Interference, Propagation

Small-scale and large-scale fading

Figure 4.1 Small-scale and large-scale fading.

Antenna basics

Free-space and received fields

Reflection from smooth surface

Typical electromagnetic properties

Superposition for polarization

Reflection coefficients

Classical 2-ray ground bounce model

Method of Images

Vector addition of 2 rays

Diffraction geometry

Fresnel Screens

Fresnel diffraction geometry

Figure 4.12 Illustration of Fresnel zones for different knife-edge diffraction scenarios.

Knife-edge diffraction

Knife-edge diffraction loss

Multiple knife-edge diffraction

Measured results

Typical large-scale path loss

Measured large-scale path loss

Area versus Distance coverage model


with shadowing model

2-D Propagation Raster data

Representing propagation

Algorithm for line of sight (LOS)

Multiple diffraction computation

Modeling Mobile Radio Small-scale fading

Okumura and Hatas model

Walfisch and Bertonis model

Measured data from San Francisco

Partition losses

Partition losses

Partition losses

Partition losses

Ericssons indoor model

Measured indoor path loss

Measured indoor path loss

Measured indoor path loss

Devasirvathams model

Fading
Mobile Radio Propagation: Small-Scale Fading
and Multipath

101

Last lecture

Large scale propagation properties of wireless


systems - slowly varying properties that depend
primarily on the distance between Tx and Rx.

Free space path loss


Power decay with respect to a reference point
The two-ray model
General characterization of systems using the path
loss exponent.
Diffraction
Scattering

This lecture: Rapidly changing signal


characteristics primarily caused by movement
and multipath.
102

I. Fading
Fading: rapid fluctuations of received signal strength
over short time intervals and/or travel distances
Caused by interference from multiple copies of Tx
signal arriving @ Rx at slightly different times
Three most important effects:
1. Rapid changes in signal strengths over small travel
distances or short time periods.
2. Changes in the frequency of signals.
3. Multiple signals arriving a different times. When added
together at the antenna, signals are spread out in time.
This can cause a smearing of the signal and interference
between bits that are received.
103

Fading signals occur due to reflections from


ground & surrounding buildings (clutter) as
well as scattered signals from trees, people,
towers, etc.
often an LOS path is not available so the first
multipath signal arrival is probably the desired
signal (the one which traveled the shortest distance)
allows service even when Rx is severely obstructed
by surrounding clutter

104

Even stationary Tx/Rx wireless links can


experience fading due to the motion of objects
(cars, people, trees, etc.) in surrounding
environment off of which come the reflections
Multipath signals have randomly distributed
amplitudes, phases, & direction of arrival
vector summation of (A ) @ Rx of multipath
leads to constructive/destructive interference as
mobile Rx moves in space with respect to time

105

received signal strength can vary by Small-scale fading


over distances of a few meter (about 7 cm at 1 GHz)!
This is a variation between, say, 1 mW and 10-6 mW.
If a user stops at a deeply faded point, the signal quality
can be quite bad.
However, even if a user stops, others around may still
be moving and can change the fading characteristics.
And if we have another antenna, say only 7 to 10 cm
separated from the other antenna, that signal could be
good.
This is called making use of ________ which we
will study in Chapter 7.

106

fading occurs around received signal strength predicted


from large-scale path loss models

107

II. Physical Factors Influencing Fading in Mobile Radio Channel (MRC)

1) Multipath Propagation
# and strength of multipath signals
time delay of signal arrival
large path length differences large differences in delay
between signals

urban area w/ many buildings distributed over large


spatial scale
large # of strong multipath signals with only a few having
a large time delay

suburb with nearby office park or shopping mall


moderate # of strong multipath signals with small to
moderate delay times

rural few multipath signals (LOS + ground


reflection)
108

2) Speed of Mobile
relative motion between base station & mobile
causes random frequency modulation due to
Doppler shift (fd)
Different multipath components may have different
frequency shifts.

3) Speed of Surrounding Objects


also influence Doppler shifts on multipath signals
dominates small-scale fading if speed of objects >
mobile speed
otherwise ignored

109

4) Tx signal bandwidth (Bs)


The mobile radio channel (MRC) is modeled as
filter w/ specific bandwidth (BW)
The relationship between the signal BW & the
MRC BW will affect fading rates and distortion,
and so will determine:
a) if small-scale fading is significant
b) if time distortion of signal leads to inter-symbol
interference (ISI)

An MRC can cause distortion/ISI or small-scale


fading, or both.
But typically one or the other.
110

Doppler Shift

motion causes frequency modulation due to Doppler


shift (fd)

v : velocity (m/s)
: wavelength (m)
: angle between
mobile direction
and arrival direction of RF energy
+ shift mobile moving toward S

shift mobile moving away from S


111

Two Doppler shifts to consider above


1. The Doppler shift of the signal when it is received at
the car.
2. The Doppler shift of the signal when it bounces off
the car and is received somewhere else.

Multipath signals will have different fds for


constant v because of random arrival
directions!!

112

Example 5.1, page 180


Carrier frequency = 1850 MHz
Vehicle moving 60 mph
Compute frequency deviation in the following
situations.
(a) Moving directly toward the transmitter

(b) Moving perpendicular to the transmitter

113

Note: What matters with Doppler shift is not


the absolute frequency, but the shift in
frequency relative to the bandwidth of a
channel.
For example: A shift of 166 Hz may be significant
for a channel with a 1 kHz bandwidth.
In general, low bit rate (low bandwidth) channels
are affected by Doppler shift.

114

III. MRC Impulse Response Model

Model the MRC as a linear filter with a time


varying characteristics
Vector summation of random amplitudes &
phases of multipath signals results in a "filter"
That is to say, the MRC takes an original signal and
in the process of sending the signal produces a
modified signal at the receiver.

115

Time variation due to mobile motion time


delay of multipath signals varies with location
of Rx
Can be thought as a "location varying" filter.
As mobile moves with time, the location changes
with time; hence, time-varying characteristics.

The MRC has a fundamental bandwidth


limitation model as a band pass filter

116

Linear filter theory y(t) = x(t) h(t) or


Y ( f ) = X( f ) H ( f )
How is an unknown h(t) determined?
let x(t) = (t) use a delta or impulse input
y(t) = h(t) impulse response function
Impulse response for standard filter theory is the same
regardless of when it is measured time invariant!

117

118

How is the impulse response of an MRC


determined?
channel sounding like radar
transmit short time duration pulse (not exactly an
impulse, but with wide BW) and record multipath
echoes @ Rx

119

short duration Tx pulse unit impulse


define excess delay bin as i 1 i
amplitude and delay time of multipath returns change as mobile
moves
Fig. 5.4, pg. 184 MRC is time variant

120

model multipath returns as a sum of unit impulses

ai i = amplitude & phase of each multipath signal


N = # of multipath components
ai is relatively constant over an local area
But i will change significantly because of different path
lengths (direct distance plus reflected distance) at
different locations.

121

The useful frequency span of the model :

2 /
The received power delay profile in a local area:

P ( ) k hb (t ; )

Assume the channel impulse response is time invariant, or


WSS

122

Relationship between Bandwidth and Received Power

A pulsed, transmitted RF signal of the form

123

For wideband signal

124

The average small-scale received power

The average small scale received power is simply


the sum of the average powers received in each
multipath component
The Rx power of a wideband signal such as p(t)
does not fluctuate significantly when a receiver is
moved about a local area.
125

CW signal (narrowband signal ) is transmitted in


to the same channel

126

Average power for a CW signal is equivalent to the


average received power for a wideband signal in a smallscale region.
The received local ensemble average power of wideband
and narrowband signals are equivalent.
Tx signal BW > Channel BW
Rx power varies very
small
Tx signal BW < Channel BW
large signal
fluctuations (fading) occur
The duration of baseband signal > excess delay of channel
due to the phase shifts of the many unsolved multipath
components
127

128

The Fourier Transform of hb ( t,) gives the spectral


characteristics of the channel frequency response

MRC filter passband Channel BW or Coherence


BW = Bc
range of frequencies over which signals will be transmitted
without significant changes in signal strength
channel acts as a filter depending on frequency
signals with narrow frequency bands are not distorted by the
channel
129

130

131

132

133

134

135

IV. Multipath Channel Parameters

Derived from multipath power delay profiles


(Eq. 5-18)
P (k) : relative power amplitudes of multipath
signals (absolute measurements are not needed)
Relative to the first detectable signal arriving at the
Rx at 0

use ensemble average of many profiles in a


small localized area typically 2 6 m spacing
of measurements to obtain average smallscale response

136

137

Time Dispersion Parameters


excess delay : all values computed relative to the
time of first signal arrival o
mean excess delay

RMS delay spread


where Avg( 2) is the same computation as above as
used for except that
A simple way to explain this is the range of time within
which most of the delayed signals arrive
138

outdoor channel ~ on the order of microseconds


indoor channel ~ on the order of nanoseconds
139

maximum excess delay ( X): the largest time where the


multipath power levels are still within X dB of the
maximum power level
worst case delay value
depends very much on the choice of the noise threshold

140

and provide a measure of propagation delay


of interfering signals
Then give an indication of how time smearing
might occur for the signal.
A small is desired.
The noise threshold is used to differentiate between
received multipath components and thermal noise

141

142

143

Coherence BW (Bc) and Delay Spread ( )


The Fourier Transform of multipath delay shows
frequency (spectral) characteristics of the MRC
Bc : statistical measure of frequency range where MRC
response is flat
MRC response is flat = passes all frequencies with
equal gain & linear phase
amplitudes of different frequency components are
correlated
if two sinusoids have frequency separation greater
than Bc, they are affected quite differently by the
channel
144

amplitude correlation multipath signals have


close to the same amplitude if they are then
out-of-phase they have significant destructive
interference with each other (deep fades)
so a flat fading channel is both good and
bad
Good: The MRC is like a bandpass filter and
passes signals without major attenuation
from the channel.
Bad: Deep fading can occur.

145

so the coherence bandwidth is the range


of frequencies over which two frequency
components have a strong potential for
amplitude correlation. (quote from
textbook)

146

estimates

0.9 correlation Bc 1 / 50 (signals are 90%


correlated with each other)
0.5 correlation Bc 1 / 5 Which has a larger
bandwidth and why?

specific channels require detailed analysis for a


particular transmitted signal these are just rough
estimates

147

A channel that is not a flat fading channel is


called frequency selective fading because
different frequencies within a signal are
attenuated differently by the MRC.
Note: The definition of flat or frequency selective
fading is defined with respect to the bandwidth of
the signal that is being transmitted.

148

Bc and are related quantities that characterize


time-varying nature of the MRC for multipath
interference from frequency & time domain
perspectives

149

150

151

these parameters do NOT characterize the time-varying


nature of the MRC due to the mobility of the mobile
and/or surrounding objects
that is to say, Bc and characterize the statics, (how
multipath signals are formed from scattering/reflections and
travel different distances)
Bc and do not characterize the mobility of the Tx or Rx.

152

Doppler Spread (BD) & Coherence Time (Tc)


BD : measure of spectral broadening of the Tx signal
caused by motion i.e., Doppler shift
BD = max Doppler shift = fmax = vmax /
In what direction does movement occur to create this
worst case?
if Tx signal bandwidth (Bs) is large such that Bs >> BD
then effects of Doppler spread are NOT important so
Doppler spread is only important for low bps (data
rate) applications (e.g. paging)
153

Tc : statistical measure of the time interval over


which MRC impulse response remains
invariant amplitude & phase of multipath
signals constant
Coherence Time (Tc) = passes all received signals
with virtually the same characteristics because the
channel has not changed
time duration over which two received signals have
a strong potential for amplitude correlation

154

Two signals arriving with a time separation


greater than Tc are affected differently by the
channel, since the channel has changed within
the time interval
For digital communications coherence time and
Doppler spread are related by
9
0.423
Tc

2
16 f m
fm

155

V. Types of Small-Scale Fading


Fading can be caused by two independent MRC
propagation mechanisms:
1) time dispersion multipath delay (Bc , )

2) frequency dispersion Doppler spread (BD , Tc)


Important digital Tx signal parameters symbol
period & signal BW

156

A pulse can be more than two levels, however,


so each period would be called a "symbol
period".
We send 0 (say +1 Volt) or 1 (say -1 Volt) one bit
per symbol
Or we could send 10 (+3 Volts) or 00 (+1 Volt) or
01 (-1 Volt) or 11 (-3 Volts) two bits per
symbol

157

illustrates types of small-scale fading

158

1) Fading due to Multipath Delay

A Flat Fading Bs << Bc or Ts >>


Ts 10
signal fits easily within the bandwidth of the channel
channel BW >> signal BW

most commonly occurring type of fading


159

spectral properties of Tx signal are preserved


signal is called a narrowband channel, since the
bandwidth of the signal is narrow with respect to the
channel bandwidth
signal is not distorted

What does Ts >>

mean??

all multipath signals arrive at mobile Rx during 1 symbol


period

Little intersymbol interference occurs (no multipath


components arrive late to interfere with the next symbol)

160

161

flat fading is generally considered desirable


Even though fading in amplitude occurs, the signal
is not distorted
Forward link can increase mobile Rx gain
(automatic gain control)
Reverse link can increase mobile Tx power
(power control)
Can use diversity techniques (described in a later
lecture)

162

B) Frequency Selective Fading Bs > Bc or Ts <

Ts 10

Bs > Bc certain frequency components of the signal


are attenuated much more than others

163

164

Ts < delayed versions of Tx signal arrive


during different symbol periods
e.g. receiving an LOS 1 & multipath 0 (from
prior symbol!)
This results in intersymbol interference (ISI)
Undesirable

it is very difficult to predict mobile Rx


performance with frequency selective channels

165

But for high bandwidth applications, channels with


likely be frequency selective
a new modulation approach has been developed to
combat this.
Called OFDM

One aspect of OFDM is that it separates a wideband


signal into many smaller narrowband signals
Then adaptively adjusts the power of each narrowband
signal to fit the characteristics of the channel at that
frequency.
Results in much improvement over other wideband
transmission approaches (like CDMA).
166

OFDM is used in the new 802.11g 54 Mbps


standard for WLANs in the 2.4 GHz band.
Previously it was thought 54 Mbps could only be
obtained at 5.8 GHz using CDMA, but 5.8 GHz
signals attenuate much more quickly.
Signals are split using signal FFT, break into
pieces in the frequency domain, use inverse FFT to
create individual signals from each piece, then
transmit.

167

2) Fading due to Doppler Spread


Caused by motion of Tx and Rx and reflection
sources.
A) Fast Fading Bs < BD or Ts > Tc
Bs < BD
Doppler shifts significantly alter spectral BW of TX signal
signal spreading

Ts > Tc
MRC changes within 1 symbol period
rapid amplitude fluctuations

uncommon in most digital communication systems


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B) Slow Fading Ts << Tc or Bs >> BD


MRC constant over many symbol periods
slow amplitude fluctuations
for v = 60 mph @ fc = 2 GHz BD = 178 Hz
Bs 2 kHz >> BD
Bs almost always >> BD for most applications

** NOTE: Typically use a factor of 10 to


designate >> **
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VI. Fading Signal Distributions

Rayleigh probability distribution function

r
r2
P (r ) 2 exp 2

0r

Used for flat fading signals.


Formed from the sum of two Gaussian noise signals.
: RMS value of Rx signal before detection (demodulation)
common model for Rx signal variation
urban areas heavy clutter no LOS path
probability that signal does not exceeds predefined threshold
level R

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rmean : The mean value of Rayleigh distribution

rmean E[r ] rp (r )dr


0

1.2533
2

r2 : The variance of Rayleigh distribution; ac power of signal


envelope

r2 E[r 2 ] E 2 [r ]

r 2 p(r )dr
2

2 0.4292 2
2

: RMS value of Rx signal before detection (demodulation)

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Ricean Probability Distribution Function


one dominant signal component along with weaker
multipath signals
dominant signal LOS path
suburban or rural areas with light clutter

becomes a Rayleigh distribution as the dominant


component weakens

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