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Analysis and design of

gravity dam in seismic


zone V

Dam
Dam is a solid barrier constructed at a suitable
location across a river valley to store flowing
water.

Need and Necessity:

Irrigation
Water for domestic consumption
Drought and flood control
For navigational facilities
Hydroelectric power generation
Recreation
Development of fish & wild life
Soil conservation
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History of Dams
First dam was constructed by the
Egyptians in 2950-2750 B.C, using
stone/ brick masonry.
Earth dam was built first in
Mesopotamia around 2000 B.C.
Romans used concrete and mortars
around 100 AD.
Due to large size and amount of
building material need to construct
earth and gravity dams
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Grand Anicut (Kallanai)


The oldest dam in the world
Built by Chola king Karikalan
around the 2nd Century AD
to divert the waters of the
Kaveri across the fertiledelta
region for irrigation via
canals.
It is constructed from
unhewn stone spanning the
Kaveri and is 329m
(1,079ft.) long, 20m (66ft.)
wide and 5.4m (18ft.) high
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Structure of Dam
Crest
MWL
Max. level

Spillway
(inside dam)

NWL
Normal
water level

Upstream

Free board

Down stream

Sluice way

Gallery

Heel

Toe

Heel: contact with the ground on the upstream


side
Toe: contact on the downstream side
Abutment: Sides of the valley on which the
structure of the dam rest
Galleries: small rooms like structure left within the
dam for checking operations.
Diversion tunnel: Tunnels are constructed for
diverting water before the construction of dam.
This helps in keeping the river bed dry.
Spillways: It is the arrangement near the top to
release the excess water of the reservoir to
downstream side
Sluice way: An opening in the dam near the
ground level, which is used to clear the silt
accumulation in the reservoir side.

TYPES OF
DAMS:
Reservoir
Force

Gravity Dams:

These dams are


heavy
and
massive wall-like
structures
of
concrete in which
the whole weight
acts
vertically
downwards

As the entire load is transmitted on the small area of


foundation, such dams are constructed where rocks
are competent and stable
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Buttress
Dam:
Buttress Dam Is a
gravity
dam
reinforced
by
structural supports
Buttress - a support
that
transmits
a
force from a roof or
wall
to
another
supporting structure
This type of structure can be considered even if the foundation
rocks are little weaker
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Arch Dams:

These type of dams are


concrete or masonry
dams which are curved
or convex upstream in
plan

This shape helps to


transmit the major part
of the water load to the
abutments

Arch dams are built


across narrow, deep
river gorges, but now
in recent years they
have been considered
even for little wider
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Earth
Dams:

They are trapezoidal


in shape
Earth
dams
are
constructed
where
the foundation or the
underlying material
or rocks are weak to
support the masonry
dam or where the
suitable competent
rocks are at greater
depth.
Earthen dams are
relatively smaller in
height and broad at
the base
They are mainly built
with clay, sand and
gravel, hence they
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are also known as

Dam Building Project


Planning
- Reconnaissance Study
- Feasibility Study
- Environmental Document
Design
- Preliminary (Conceptual) Design
- Detailed Design
- Construction Documents (plans &
specifications)
Construction
Startup and testing
Operation
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Necessary Data
Location and site map
Hydrologic data
Climatic data
Geological data
Water demand data
Dam site data (foundation,
material, tailwater)
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SELECTION OF SITES
PLACE MUST BE SUITABLE
NARROW GORGE OR SMALL VALLEY
WITH ENOUGH CATCHMENT AREA
WHY DO WE
NEED A
LARGE
CATCHMENT
AREA?

TO STORE A
CALCULATED
VOLUME OF
WATER

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Large storage capacity


Length of dam to constructed is less.
Water-tightness of reservoir.
Good hydrological conditions
Deep reservoir
Small submerged area
Low silt inflow
No objectionable minerals
Low cost of real estate
Site easily accessible
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INVESTTIGATIONS
Engineering surveys
Geological investigations
Hydrological investigations

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Engineering surveys
Conducted for dam, reservoir and other
associated work.
Topographic survey of the area is carried
out and the contour plan is prepared
The horizontal control is usually
provided by triangulation survey, and
the vertical control by precise levelling
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Geological investigation
Geological investigations of the dam
and reservoir site are done for the
following purposes.
(i) Suitability of foundation for the
dam.
(ii) Water-tightness of the reservoir
basin
(iii) Location of the quarry sites for
the construction materials.

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Hydrological investigations
The hydrological investigations are
conducted for the following
purposes :
(i) To study the runoff pattern and
storage capacity.
(ii) To determine the maximum
discharge at the site.
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Requirements for Stability


Modes of failure of a gravity dam:
Overturning
Sliding
Compression or Crushing
Tension.
The design shall satisfy the following
requirements of stability:

The dam shall be safe against sliding on


any plane or combination of planes within
the dam, at the foundation or
within the foundation;

The dam shall be safe against


overturning at any plane within the dam, at
the base, or at any plane below the base; 20

Reservoir Sedimentation
It is a difficult problem for which an
economical solution has not yet been
discovered, except by providing a dead
storage to accommodate the deposits
during the life of the dam.

Disintegration, erosion, transportation, and


sedimentation, are the different stages
leading to silting of reservoir.
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Causes of sedimentation
Nature of soil in
catchment area
Topography of the
catchment area
Cultivation in
catchment area
Vegetation cover
in catchment area
Intensity of rainfall
in catchment area
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Sediment Management
water with Maximum
efforts
should
be
released so that less
sediments
should
retain in reservoir.
Following options are:
Catchment Vegetation
Construction of coffer
dams/low
height
barriers
Flushing and desilting
of sediments
Low level outlets /
sediment sluicing

Wooden
barriers

Sediment
sluicing

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Spillways
Used to pass excess flow in a controlled
fashion
Two main types:
Unregulated
Regulated

Control
section

Terminal
structure

Discharge
channel

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SPILLWAYS
Types of Spillways
a. Overflow spillways
b. Chute spillways
c. Side-channel spillways
d. Shaft spillways
e. Siphon spillways
f. Service & Emergency spillways

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Overflow
spillway

side-channel
spillway

Chute
spillway

Morning glory spillway

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Energy Dissipiators
Hydraulic Jump type induce a
hydraulic jump at the end of spillway
to dissipate energy
Bureau of Reclamation did extensive
experimental studies to determine
structure size and arrangements
empirical charts and data as design
basis
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Stilling basin

Hydraulic
jump

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THANK YOU!!!

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