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WELCOME

Training Module on

Transmission
Network and Testing
Concepts

TEST LAB

Sub-Modules
Page No
Chapter-1

PDH & SDH Technologies

6 -- 110

Chapter-2

SDH Synchronization

111 -- 139

Chapter-3

New Generation SDH

140 -- 200

Chapter-4

DWDM

201 -- 285

Chapter-5

SDH & DWDM Products

286 -- 411

Chapter-6

Transmission Network Architecture

412 -- 454

Chapter-7

Network Management System

455 -- 481

Chapter-8

Concepts of Fiber Optics

482 -- 511

Chapter-9

Transmission Testing Concepts

512 -- 639

TEST LAB

Chapter-1

PDH & SDH Technologies


Page No

1.01

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

6 15

1.02

Jitter & Wander

16 21

1.03

Disadvantages of PDH

22

1.04

Advantages of SDH

23

1.05

SDH bit rates and Multiplexing

24

1.06

SDH Frame Structure

25 29

1.07

Frame Alignment

30

1.08

Mapping

..

31

TEST LAB

Chapter-1

PDH & SDH Technologies


Page No

1.09

Aligning of VC-12 with TU-12

1.10 Pointer

..

32
33

1.11 Multiplexing, Pointer & Frame Structure

34 - 46

1.12 Over head and

47 -- 70

1.13 Contiguous & Virtual concatenation

71 81

1.14 Over head byte functionality

82 88

1.15 SDH Layer model

89

Mapping

1.16 Elements of SDH Network

TEST LAB

90 -- 97

Chapter-1

PDH & SDH Technologies


Page No

1.17

Automatic Protection Switching

98 -- 102

1.18

SDH Management

103 110

1.19

Summary

111

TEST LAB

1.01 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

TEST LAB

PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)

Plesio means = similar


Chronous means= Timing

Plesiochronous - "almost synchronous, because bits are


stuffed into the frames as padding and the
calls (signal) location varies slightly - jitters - from frame to
frame".

TEST LAB

Pulse Code Modulation


.

The basis of analog to digital conversion is Shannons theory.The theory


states that after transmission the original signal can be reproduced within
certain limits from digital signal obtained by Sampling an analog at regular
intervals and at a rate at least twice the highest significant message
frequency.
The PCM Consists of 3 steps.
Sampling
Quantization
Coding

TEST LAB

Sampling
T1

T2

Audio Signal

T3
T4

T5

T6

T7

time

Sampler Output
Pulse Amplitude
Modulated
(PAM) signal
1.
2.

T1

T2

T3
T4

T5

T6

T7

Voice Frequency
4 KHz
Sampling
4 KHz * 2 = 8 KHz

TEST LAB

time

Quantization & Encoding


For Quantization CEPT countries use A- Law,other countries use -law is used.In -law the decoder
output value number is 0 to 127 for positive and 0 to 127 for Negative.While in A- Law ,the decoder
output value number is 1 to128 for positive and 1 to 128 for negative.

Quantizing = Amplitude is given a certain value.


Encoding

= 8 KHz * 8 = 64 KHz

TEST LAB

10

2Mb Frame Structure

Signaling

FAS (Frame Alignment signal)


NFAS(Non frame Alignment signal)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

32channels/Tim
e slots
0

Each channel is of 64Kb/s


32 * 64 KHz = 2.048 Mb/s
Capacity = 30 Base Channels

TEST LAB

11

Multi Frame Structure


Submultiframe 1

Submultiframe 2
2ms ( 500Hz )

Multi frame
F0 to F15
125s ( 8 kHz )

Encoded telephone signals

Encoded telephone signals

s
FO
Multiframe

frame alignment

Spare bit

alignment

signal of the assigned channel

F1
A : bit used to indicate MUX alarm (Normal1:0,Alarm=1)
X : Bit reserved for future international use (No use =1) Can be
used for CRC-4 check bit
F 15
Y: bit reserved for domestic use.One bit of 5 can be assigned for 2
Mb/s remote loop back command signal(OFF:1,ON: 0)

CH . 1

a to h = PCM 8 bit encoded telephone

CH . 16

488 ns ( 2048 KHz )

a to d = Signaling of the associated channel (CAS) or the

CH . 15

common signaling channel(CCS)

CH . 30

TEST LAB

12

PDH Bit rates


Sampling x Coding
8kHz
x 8bits

64kbit/s
64kbit/s

32 Channels
(PCM30 or 31, CRC
C12 Container

2Mbit/s
2Mbit/s

4 Channels

8Mbit/s
8Mbit/s

1. PCM 30 Mux (D1 Level )


2. PDH (D2 Level )
4 * 2.048 +stuffing bits = 8.448 Mbps
Capacity = 120 Base Channels

E1

3. PDH (D3 Level )


4 * 8.448 + stuffing bits = 34.368 Mbps
Capacity = 480 Base Channels

4 Channels
C4 Container

34Mbit/s
34Mbit/s

E3

4. PDH (D4 Level )


4 * 34.368 +stuffing bits = 139.264 Mbps
Capacity = 1920 Base Channels

5. PDH (D5 Level )


4 * 139 + stuffing bits = 565 Mbps

4 Channels
C4 Container

TEST LAB

E4

140Mbit/s
140Mbit/s

13

Bit Stuffing

Pleisochronous Multiplexing
TEST LAB

14

Bit Stuffing and Justification (Contd..)


The number of stuffing bits added depends not only on the speed
of the tributaries to the multiplexer, but also on the speed of the
higher order bit stream
The justification process is employed in all the PDH Multiplexers
At the far end of the transmission system, the justification bits are
removed and the original digital signal is recovered
The removal of these justification bits causes a small variation in the
phase of the clock.This variation is called Jitter

TEST LAB

15

1.02 What are jitter and wander?


Jitter:
jitter is the term used to designate periodic or stochastic
deviations of the significant instants of a digital signal from the
ideal, equidistant values.
Otherwise stated, the transitions of a digital signal invariably
occur either too early or too late when compared to a perfect
square wave (reference clock).
Wander:
very slow jitter is known as wander. ITU-T G.810 puts the limit
between jitter and wander at 10 Hz.
TEST LAB

16

Jitter vs Wander

Parameter

Jitter

Wander

Frequency range of phase


variations
Primary disruption

>10Hz

0-10Hz

Causes bit errors

Reference clock source


for measurement
Unit for amplitude

Not required

Synchronization
problem
Absolutely necessary

UI(Unit interval)

Ns

Test times

Minutes

Long-term
measurement (hours,
days)

TEST LAB

17

Jitter and Wander Definitions

Ideal Signal (NRZ)

Jittered Signal

Jitter

TEST LAB

18

Sources of Jitter and Wander


Interference signals
Pattern dependent jitter
Phase noise
Delay variation
Stuffing and wait time jitter
Mapping jitter
Pointer jitter

TEST LAB

19

Definition of Jitter Peak-to-Peak Amplitude


Jitter / UIpp

Jitter
Amplitude
(PP)

Time

Measurement Period

TEST LAB

20

WANDER Definitions
Wander

Long-term timing variation (below 10 Hz)

TIE

"Time Interval Error"

MTIE

"Max. Time Interval Error"

TDEV

"Time Deviation", timing variation as a function of


integration time. Provides information about the
spectral content.

TVAR"Time Variation", square of TDEV


ADEV

"Allen Deviation"

MADEV

"Modified Allen Deviation"

TEST LAB

21

1.03 Disadvantages of PDH


Plesiochronous Hierarchy based on 2Mbps primary rates permits
multiplexing up to 140Mbps respectively.
Changing from one hierarchical level to another requires additional
equipment.
Transmitting a multiplexed signal (34/140 Mb, etc) requires
specialized equipment.
Redirection (cross-connection) of channels must be done by hand on
DDFs.
Administrative connections require separate equipment to support
Supervision, EOW and protection switching.
Compatibility of transmission and administrative signals between
different vendor may give trouble.

TEST LAB

22

1.04 Advantages of SDH

Need for extensive network management capability


within the hierarchy.

Standard interfaces between equipment.

Facilities to add or drop tributaries directly from a


high speed signal.

Standardization of equipment management process.

Need for inter-working between north American and


European systems.

TEST LAB

23

PDH
(asynchronous)

1.05 SDH Bit Rates and Multiplexing

SDH (synchronous)

4 Channels
C4 Container

140Mbit/s
140Mbit/s

USA, HongKong, Taiwan

44.36Mbit/s
44.36Mbit/s DS3

STM-0

E4

STM-1

155Mbit/s
155Mbit/s

STM-4

622Mbit/s
622Mbit/s

STM-16

2.5Gbit/s
2.5Gbit/s

STM-64

10Gbit/s
10Gbit/s

STM-256

40Gbit/s
40Gbit/s

TEST LAB

51Mbit/s
51Mbit/s

STS1
OC1

STS3
OC3
OC12
OC48
OC192
OC768

24

1.06 SDH Frame Structure


A frame with a bit rate of 155.52Mbps is defined in ITU-T
recommendation G.707.This frame is called Synchronous Transport
Module(STM),since it is the first level in hierarchy it is called STM-1
It is made up from a byte matrix of 9 rows and 270 columns
Transmission is row by row, starting with the byte in the upper left
corner and ending with the byte in the lower right corner
The frame repetition rate is 125s.Each byte in payload represents a
64kbps channel

TEST LAB

25

SDH Frame Structure


The STM-n frame structure is best represented as a rectangle of 9 x 270 x n.
The 9 x n first columns are the frame header and the rest of the frame is the
inner structure data i.e. payload (including the data, indication bits, stuff bits,
pointers and management).
The STM-n frame is usually transmitted over an optical fiber. The frame is
transmitted row by row (first is transmitted the first row then the second and so
on). At the beginning of each frame, synchronization bytes A1, A2 are
transmitted .
The multiplexing method of 4 STM-1 streams into a STM-1x4 is an interleaving
of the STM-1 streams to produce the STM-4 stream.

TEST LAB

26

SDH Frame Structure


1

10

270

1
RSOH
3
4

POINTER
POH

PAYLOAD CONTAINER

MSOH
9
PAYLOAD CONTAINER: 9 (Rows) * 260 (Columns) * 64Kbps = 149.76 Mbps
POH:

9 (Rows) * 1

(Column ) * 64 Kbps = 0.576 Mbps

RSOH:

3 (Rows) * 9

(Columns) * 64 Kbps = 1.728 Mbps

MSOH:

5 (Rows) * 9

(Columns) * 64 Kbps = 2.880 Mbps

TEST LAB

27

How Is The Frame Composed ?


PDH Payload

Container (C)

Container + Path Overhead (POH)

Virtual Container (VC)

Virtual Container + TU Pointer

Tributary Unit (TU)

more than 1 Tributary Unit

Tributary Unit Group (TUG)

biggest Tributary Unit Group


Tributary Unit Group + AU Pointer

=
=

Administrative Unit (AU)


Administrative Unit (AU)

more than 1 Administrative Unit

Administrative Unit Group

Administrative Unit Group +


Section Overhead (SOH)

SDH Frame

TEST LAB

28

SDH Hierarchy - TUG Structure


C-12

VC-12

TU-12

X3
TUG-2

C-3

VC-3

TU-3

X7

X1

TUG-3

X3
C-4

VC-4
ALIGNMENT
POINTERS
MULTIFLEXING
ADDITION OF OVERHEADS

TEST LAB

AU-4
X1
STM-1

29

1.07 Frame Alignment

PCM-30 ( 32 Bytes)

125s

125s

125s
R

PCM-30 ( 32 Bytes)

PCM-30 ( 32 Bytes)

TEST LAB

125s
R

R PCM-30 ( 32 Bytes)

30

1.08 Mapping
125 sec

125 sec

125 sec

125 sec

35 Bytes

TEST LAB

31

1.09 Aligning of VC-12s With TU-12s

TEST LAB

32

1.10 Pointers

New Data Flag


Normal value-0110 (in active)
1001 (active)

SS bits
TU-2 00+10 bit pointer value (0 to 427)
TU-12 10+10 bit pointer value (0 to 139)
TU-11 11+10 bit pointer value (0 to 103)

TEST LAB

33

1.11 SDH

Multiplexing Structure
Frame Structure
Pointer

TEST LAB

34

SDH Multiplexing Structure (1)


STM-256

X1

AUG-256

x1

AU-4-256c

VC-4-256c

C-4-256c

AU-4-64c

VC-4-64c

C-4-64c

AU-4-16c

VC-4-16c

C-4-16c

AU-4-4c

VC-4-4c

C-4-4c

VC-4

C-4

139264 kb/s

C-3

44736 kb/s
34368 kb/s

C-2

6312 kb/s

x4

STM-64

X1

AUG-64

x1

x4

STM-16

x1

X1

AUG-16
x4
x1

STM-4

AUG-4

X1

x4

STM-1

X1

AUG-1

x1

AU-4

STM-0

x1

TUG-3

x3

AU-3

X1

x3

VC-3

x7

TU-3

VC-3

x7
x1

TUG-2

TU-2

VC-2

x3

Poi nter pr ocessi ng

TU-12

Multiplexing

VC-12

C-12 2048 kb/s

VC-11

C-11 1544 kb/s

x4

Aligning

TU-11

Mapping

TEST LAB

35

SDH Multiplexing Structure (2)


STM-256

X1

AUG-256

x1

AU-4-256c

VC-4-256c

C-4-256c

AU-4-64c

VC-4-64c

C-4-64c

AU-4-16c

VC-4-16c

C-4-16c

AU-4-4c

VC-4-4c

C-4-4c

VC-4

C-4

139264 kb/s

C-3

44736 kb/s
34368 kb/s

C-2

6312 kb/s

x4

STM-64

X1

AUG-64

x1

x4

STM-16

x1

X1

AUG-16
x4
x1

STM-4

X1

AUG-4
x4

STM-1

X1

AUG-1

x1

AU-4

STM-0

x1

TUG-3

x3

AU-3

X1

x3

VC-3

x7

TU-3

VC-3

x7
x1

TUG-2

TU-2

VC-2

x3

Poi nter processi ng

TU-12

Multiplexing

VC-12

C-12 2048 kb/s

VC-11

C-11 1544 kb/s

x4

Aligning

TU-11

Mapping

TEST LAB

36

Multiplexing Process of SDH


Example: 2 Mb/s to STM-4

LO POH
pointer offset value

TU-1 PTR
TU-1 PTR 3 TU-1 PTR 2 TU-1 PTR 1

TUG-2
HO POH
AU-4 PTR

VC-12

SOH

C-12

C-12

TUG-2
TUG-3

AU-4 PTR

S 2.048Mb/s

VC-12

21

pointer offset value

AUG-1

PDH

AUG-1

VC-12
TU-12

VC-12
VC-12

31

2.048Mb/s

TUG-3

TUG-3

11

TUG-2

TUG-3

VC-4

VC-4

AU-4

VC-4

AUG-1

AUG-1

AUG-4

TEST LAB

AUG-1

AUG-4
STM-4

37

STM-1 Frame Structure


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

8 bits = 1 byte

125 s
( 1)

( 2)

( 9)

270 bytes
9

261

( 1)
( 2)

9
rows

R-SOH

AU PTR
Payload Capacity

M-SOH

( 9)

270 columns

125 s

TEST LAB

R-SOH: Regenerator Section Overhead


M-SOH: Multiplex Section Overhead

38

Byte Interleaved Multiplex and Frame Structure STM-N


STM-1 (AU-4) STM-N

AAA

STM-1
STM-1
STM-1

BBB
CCC
NNN

STM-1

AU-4
AU-4

AU-4

9 x N

R SOH
9 rows

AU-4

CBA N
STM-N

CBA

byte interleaved multiplexing


261 x N

ABC

NABC

AU PTRs
M SOH

N 125 s

TEST LAB

39

Pointer Function
VC-4(1)
VC-4(2)

R SOH

VC-4(3)

AU PTR

M SOH

TU12 PTR
P
O
H

POH
VC- 12

TU-3 PTR area

POH
VC- 12

VC- 12

STM-4

POH

V
C
4

2 M signal
Example:
2 Mb/s to STM-4 via AU-4

VC-4 (4)

63

VC-12 (63)

TEST LAB

2
1

40

AU-4 Pointer and Pointer Offset Number

H1 * * H2 * * H3H3H3

VC-4

H1

H2

NNNNSS I D I D I D I D I D

0 0 0 1 1 1
87 # #

86 # #

435 # #
522 # #

521 # #

696 # #

782 # #

same number for 3 consecutive bytes

10 bits

Pointer Configuration

TEST LAB

41

TU-12 Pointer and Pointer Offset Numbering


V1
105

V1
V5
36 bytes
35 bytes

139
V2
0

20

125 s

J2

V2

125 s

V5
Z6

34
V3
35

V3

V1

V2

N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D
10 bits

Pointer Structure

69
V4
70

K4

V4

* In this case, pointer offset value is set


20(0000010100)

VC-12

104

TU-12

500 s

500 s

TEST LAB

42

Pointer Renewal
A

STM-1

STM-1

STM-N
AB

input signal
A

multiplexed signal

delay

STM-1

STM-1
delay

)
frame aligned signal

TEST LAB

43

AU-4 Justification (1)


1

N e g a tiv e ju s tif ic a tio n o p p o r tu n ity


( 3 b y te s )
4

0 0 0

P o s itiv e ju s tific a tio n o p p o r tu n ity


( 3 b y te )
9

H1

H2

N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D

pointer value

I : Increment bit

D : Decrement bit
N : New data flag bit

Negative justification control


invert five D-bits accept majority vote
Positive justification control
invert five I-bits accept majority vote

TEST LAB

44

AU-4 Justification (2)


- Positive Justification start of VC-4
H1 Y

Y H2

H3 H3 H3
n-1 n

n n+1 n+1
Frame 1

125 s

pointer value (n)


H1 Y

Y H2

H3 H3 H3
n-1 n

n n+1 n+1
Frame 2

250 s

pointer value (I bits inverted)


H1 Y

Y H2

H3 H3 H3

positive justification
n-1 n

start of VC-4 (new)

n n+1 n+1
Frame 3

375 s

pointer value (n+1)


H1 Y

Y H2

H3 H3 H3
n-1 n

n n+1 n+1
Frame 4

TEST LAB

500 s

45

AU-4 Justification (3)


- Negative Justification -

start of VC-4
H1 Y

Y H2 1

1 H3 H3 H3
n-2 n-1 n-1 n-1 n

n n+1 n+1
Frame 1

125 s

pointer value (n)


H1 Y

Y H2 1

1 H3 H3 H3
n-2 n-1 n-1 n-1 n

n n+1 n+1
Frame 2

H1 Y

Y H2 1

pointer value (D bits inverted)


start of VC-4 (new)
negative justification
n-2 n-1 n-1 n-1 n

250 s

n n+1 n+1
Frame 3

375 s

pointer value (n-1)


H1 Y

Y H2 1

1 H3 H3 H3
n-2 n-1 n-1 n-1 n

n n+1 n+1
Frame 4

TEST LAB

500 s

46

1.12 STM-1

Overhead
Mapping

TEST LAB

47

STM-1 Frame Structure and SOH


9 bytes

261 b ytes

R SO H
A U P TR
STM-1 PAYLOAD
MSOH

S ec tion O verhead

A 1
B1
D 1

A1

B2
D 4
D 7
D 10
S1

B2

Z1

A1

B2

Z1

A2 A2
A2
J0
E1
F1
D 2
D 3
A U P o in te r( s )
K1
K2
D 5
D 6
D 8
D 9
D 11
D 12
Z2
Z2 M 1 E2

R SO H

M SO H

: bytes reserved for national use

TEST LAB

48

Function of SOH (1)


Framing
Regenerator section trace
check
Data communication channel
Order wire
User channel
Error monitoring
APS signaling
Synchronization status
A 1
Section
status
A1 A1
J0
A 2 reporting
A2
A 2
B1
D 1
B2
D 4
D 7
D 10
S1

B2

Z1

B2

Z1

E1
F1
D 2
D 3
A U P o in t e r ( s )
K1
K 2
D 5
D 6
D 8
D 9
D 11
D 12
Z2
Z2
M 1 E2
: bytes reserved for national use

(A1, A2)
(J0)

regenerator section connection

(D1-3)
(D4-12)
(E1)
(E2)
(F1)
(B1)
(B2)
(K1,2)
(K2)
(S1)
(M1)

R SO H

RDI

regenerator section DCC, 192 kb/s


multiplex section DCC, 576 kb/s
accessible at regenerators
accessible at multiplexers
64 kb/s clear channel
regenerator section BIP-8
multiplexer section BIP-24N
automatic protection switching
also used as MS-AIS and MS-RDI
indication of quality level
REI (count of BIP-24N)
; Remote Defect Indication
(formerly FERF, Far End Receive

Failure)
SO H
REI
; Remote Error Indication
(formerly FEBE, Far End Block Error)
MS
; Multiplex Section
TEST
49
DCC LAB
; Data Communication Channel

Function of SOH (2)


Framing
Regenerator section trace
Data communication channel
Order wire
User channel
Error monitoring
APS signaling
Synchronization status
Section status reporting
A1
B1
D1

A1

B2 B2
D4
D7
D10
S1 Z1

A2 A2 A2 J0
E1
F1
D2
D3
AU Pointer(s)
B2 K1
K2
D5
D6
D8
D9
D11
D12
Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 E2
A1

(A1, A2)
(J0)
(D1-3)
(D4-12)
(E1)
(E2)
(F1)
(B1)
(B2)
(K1,2)
(K2)
(S1)
(M1)

RSOH

regenerator section connection check


regenerator section DCC, 192 kb/s
multiplex section DCC, 576 kb/s
accessible at regenerators
accessible at multiplexers
64 kb/s clear channel
regenerator section BIP-8
multiplexer section BIP-24N
automatic protection switching
also used as MS-RDI
indication of quality level
REI (count of BIP-24N)

; Remote Defect Indication


(formerly FERF, Far End Receive Failure)
REI
; Remote Error Indication
MSOH
(formerly FEBE, Far End Block Error)
MS
; Multiplex Section
bytes reserved for national use
DCC LAB
; Data Communication Channel
TEST
50

RDI

Section and Path Trace Method


Node A
LPT

HPT

MST

Node B
RST

RST

MST

HPT

LPT

RST
J0: Section trace
VC-4 POH (J1: Path trace)
VC-3 POH(J1: Path trace)
VC-12(J2: Path trace)
RST: Regenerator Section Termination MST: Multiplex Section Termination
HPT: High Order Path Termination
LPT: Lower Order Path Termination

Path Trace

Node -A
: Used

Node -B
Path Trace
: Used

Transmit path trace : 123-565656

Transmit path trace : ABCDEFG

Path Trace expected value

Path Trace expected value

: ABCDEGF
Received value

: ABCDEFG

: 123-565656
Received value

TEST LAB

: 123-565656

51

Section Trace(J0)
Node B

Node A
R
S
T

R
S
T

R
S
T

Node C

R
S
T

R
S
T

R
S
T

Terminated Section of
Section Trace

Terminated Section of
Section Trace

RST: Regenerator Section Termination

TEST LAB

52

Principle of BIP 8
1121 * * * K1 * * * 81 12 22 * * * K2 * * * 82

#n
Block

1i 2i * * * Ki * * * 8i

1n 2n * * * Kn * * * 8n
1 2 * * * ** K * * * * 8
# n+1
Block

B1 byte
n

Ki =
1

even - - - - - K=0
odd - - - - - K=1

TEST LAB

53

BIP Computing Area

RSOH

RSOH
AU PTR

MSOH

counted
after scrambling

#n

A U PTR

M SOH

counted
before scram bling

B1
B1 renewed at every regenerator

# n+1

B2 B2 B2
B2 renewed only at m ultiplexer

BIP 8 for Regenerator Section

BIP N x 24 for Multiplex Section

TEST LAB

54

Higher-Order POH Functions (VC-3, VC-4)


Path error monitor
Path status report

(B3)
(G1)

Path trace

(J1)

Signal label

(C2)

Path user channels


APS signaling

(F2, F3)
(K3)

Position indicator
Network operator byte

(H4)
(N1)

VC-3 / VC-4

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3

V C-3 / VC-4
pa yload

BIP-8
REI (Remote Error Indication)
count of error (BIP-8 results)
RDI (Remote Defect Indication)
receiving path AIS, signal failure
path trace mismatch
verification of VC connection
user programmable, 15 characters
indication of VC composition
unequipped, equipped-non-specific,
TUG structure, locked TU, ATM,
async. 34M or 45M, async. 140M,
MAN (DQDB), FDDI
64 kb/s clear channels
automatic protection switching at the
higher order path level
multiframe position for the VC-1, VC-2
for tandem connection maintenance

N1

REI; formerly FEBE (Far End Block Error), RDI; formerly FERF (Far End Receive Failure)

TEST LAB

55

TU-12 multiframe indication byte


VC-3/VC-4
POH Portion

(V4)

H4(00)

VC-3/VC-4 Payload

9 rows

PTR(V1)

H4(01)

VC-3/VC-4 Payload

PTR(V2)

H4(10)

VC-3/VC-4 Payload

1
X
X
X
X

2
X
X
X
X

3
1
1
1
1

H4 bits
4 5 6
1 X X
1 X X
1 X X
1 X X

7
0
1
1
1

8
1
0
0
1

Frame No
0
1
2
3

Time
0
500s TU-n multiframe

X: Bit reserved for future international standardization. Its content


shall be set to 1" in the interim.

PTR(V3)

H4(11)

VC-3/VC-4 Payload

(V4)

H4(00)

VC-3/VC-4 Payload

In H4(X Y), X Y represent bits 7 and 8 of H4

TEST LAB

56

Path Trace (J1)


Node B

Node A

L
P
T

Node C

Cross
connection

c
b
d

L
P
T

Terminated Section of J1 (J2) Path Trace


LPT: Lower Order Path Termination
[It will change to HPT(High Order Path Termination) when VC-4 J1 is used]

TEST LAB

57

Tandem Connection
B Network (Operator Administrative area)

A Network

C Network

VC

VC

MS

RS

RS
RS
MS
Tandem Connection
Path

B3 monitor

Error count
N1 byte in VC

MS

RS : Regenerator Section
MS: Multiplex Section

B3 monitor

Error detection (for all VCs in a bundle)


Data link (for the first VC in the bundle)

Compare
Error in TC

* The Tandem Connection is applicable to a single VC or bundled VCs.

TEST LAB

58

Functions of POH (VC-1x, VC-2)


V5

J2

Path error monitor


Path status report

(V5)
(V5)

BIP-2
REI (Remote Error Indication)
count of error (BIP-2 results)
RFI (Remote Failure Indication)
RDI (Remote Defect Indication)
receiving path AIS, signal failure

Signal label

(V5)

Path access point identifier

(J2)

indication of VC composition
unequipped, equipped-non-specific,
asynchronous, bit synchronous,
byte synchronous, equipped-unused
verification of VC connection
user programmable, 15 characters

Network operator byte


APS signaling

(N2)
(K4)

125s

N2

K4

BIP-2
1

500s

REI
3

RFI
4

Signal Label
5

V5 byte

RDI
8

for tandem connection maintenance


automatic protection switching at the
lower order path level

REI ;
RDI ;
RFI ;

former FEBE (Far End Block Error)


former FERF (Far End Receive Failure)
formerly this bit was assigned to Path Trace

TEST LAB

59

Table for SAPI & API


CRC of previous 16 multiframe for J1

maximum 15 characters (ex. Tokyo-Osaka #21)


1 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 J1

(Space)

&

_ (Under Bar)

(Apostrophe)

(Colon)

(Semicolon)

<

>

(Comma)

(Hyphen)

(Period)

0 x x x x x x x
(T)

J1

0 x x x x x x x
(o)

J1

0 x x x x x x x
(k)

J1

0 x x x x x x x
(#)

J1

0 x x x x x x x
(2)

J1

0 x x x x x x x
(1)

J1

125s

2ms
example : VC-4 or VC-3 case

Total 94 characters plus space

TEST LAB

60

End-to-End Maintenance Signal


Low Order Path Section
High Order Path Section
Multiplex Section
Regenerator
Section
LOVC

HOVC

Regenerator
Section
REG

LT
LOS
LOF

LT

HOVC

LOVC

LOS
LOF

LOP

LOP

AIS

AIS
AIS

AIS
AIS

RDI (FERF)

AIS

RDI (FERF)
BIP-8

RDI (FERF)

BIP-8

BIP-24N

BIP-8

REI (FEBE)

REI (FEBE)

BIP-2

REI (FEBE)
MUX
Terminal Equipment

generation

TEST LAB

detection

61

Mapping 2Mbps Signal into VC-12


V5
R

V5
R

V5
R
TS0

32 bytes

32 bytes

TS1 to 15
TS16
TS17 to 31

R
J2
C1C 2O O O O R R

R
J2
10OOOORR

R
J2
R
TS0

32 bytes
140
bytes

R
N2
500 s C1 C2 O O O O R R

35 bytes
125 s

TS1 to 15
TS16
TS17 to 31

32 bytes
R
N2
10OOOORR

32 bytes

32 bytes

R
K4
C1 C2 R R R R R S 1
S2 I I I I I I I

R
K4
10RRRRRR

31 bytes + 7 bits

32 bytes

TS 0

R
N2
R
TS0
TS1 to 15
TS16
TS17 to 31
R
K4
R
TS0
TS1 to 15
TS16
TS17 to 31

Asynchronous

Bit Synchronous

I ;
O;
C;
S;
R;

information
overhead
justification control
justification opportunity
fixed stuff

* The latest recommendation deleted


bit synchronous mapping.

R
Byte Synchronous

TEST LAB

62

Mapping 34Mbps Signal into VC-3


J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
Z3
K3
Z5

T1

3 rows

T2

3 rows

T3

R
C 1 , C2
S 1, S 2
I

3 rows
125s

84 bytes

:
:
:
:

Fixed stu ffing bit


Justification control bit
Justification opportunity bit
Information bit

VC-3 POH

3x 8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I C 3x8 I

3x8 I

3x 8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I C 3x8 I

3x 8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I C 3x8 I

3x8 I

3x 8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I C 3x8 I

3x 8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I C 3x8 I

3x8 I

3x 8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

3x8 I

=R RR RR RR R

= R R R R R R C1 C 2

TEST LAB

AB

= R R R R R R R S1 S2 I I I I I I

63

A B8
I

Mapping 140Mbps Signal into VC-4


STM-1
1 byte

SOH

VC-4
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

PTR
SOH

POH W

;
;
;
;
;

in fo r m a tio n
o v e rh e a d
ju s t ifi c a tio n c o n tr o l
ju s t ifi c a tio n o p p o r tu n it y
f ix e d s t u f f

W
X
Y
Z

20 blocks of 3 bytes

POH
1

I
O
C
S
R

13 bytes

=
=
=
=

I I I I I I I I
C R R R R R OO
R R R R R RRR
I I I I I I SR

12 bytes
96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

TEST LAB

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

96 I

64

Mapping ATM Cell Into VC-4


V C -4

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
VC-4 POH

header
A T M c e ll
53 bytes

TEST LAB

65

VC-12 (2 Mb/s) to VC-4 (STM-1)


27 0 = 2 61 + 9
S OH
9

STM-1

AU PTR
S OH

125 s

AU-4

AU PTR

125 s
26 1 = 86 x 3 + 3
P
9 O S S
H

VC-4

P TR

(NPI)

1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 1

1 2 3

125 s

x3
86 = 12 x 7 + 2

TUG-3

P TR

N
P
I

(1)

(2)

1 2

7 1 2

(3)

(4) ~ (11)

7 1 2

x7

7 1 2

V1
36

9
1

x3

125 s

V2

125 s
36

V3

PTR

TU-12

125 s

12 = 4 x 3
P TR

TUG-2

(12)

36
V C 12

125 s

TEST LAB

36
500 s

66

Mapping of VC-12 into VC-4

TEST LAB

67

VC-3 (34 Mb/s) to VC-4 (STM-1)

TEST LAB

68

Scrambler
data
+

clock

D Q

D Q

D Q

D Q

D Q

D Q

D Q

C S

C S

C S

C S

C S

C S

C S

scrambled
data

set = frame pulse


scrambler output

modulo 2 addition
A + B =

+ 1 =

+ 0 =

+ 1 =

+ 0 =

not scrambled
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0

1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
.
.
.

1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
.
.
.

1
2
3
.
.
.
.
.

scrambled

1111111000000100 - - - -

SOH

TEST LAB

Payload
Pay
l oad

1111111000000100 - - - -

69

E1 PDH Signal Extraction from STM-1


9 bytes
9 H1* * H2 * * H3 * *
Rows

261 bytes
AU PTR
J1

P
V C -4 O S S
H

261= 86x3+3
PTR

(N P I)

123 123 123

4 bytes
V1

9
Row

123

V1

V5

36

35

V2

9
Row V5

86=12x7+2

9 H1* * H2 * * H3 * *
Rows

J1

PTR

N
P
I

TUG-3 S

(1 )

1 2

(2 )
71 2

(3 )
712

(4 ) ~ (11 )
71

(1 2 )
7 1 2

9
Row

12=4x3
9 H1* * H2 * * H3 * *
Rows

J1

PTR

J1

4
PTR

4
TU-12

STM-1 Frame

VC-12
TU-12
(4x9 frame)

TEST LAB

36

9
Row

TUG-2

V2

V3

144
TS

V4

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
9 H1* * H2 * * H3 * *
Rows

34
2

J2

V5

V3

35
140
TS

N2

35

4
36

K4

TU-124 Multiframes
(4x9 Frame)

C-12

V4

35

36
VC-12
4 Multiframes

TU-12
frame in a row

70

2.048Mbit/s
Information

1.13 Contiguous & Virtual Concatenation


NE-A

STM-16
AU-4#1

STM-4

AU-4#2

NE-B

STM-1

STM-1
AU-4#1
AU-4#2

AU-4#3

AU-4#3

AU-4#4

AU-4#4

NE-C

STM-16

NE-D

STM-1

AU-4#1

STM-4c

VC-4-4c
AU-4-4c

AU-4#2
AU-4#3

AU-4-4c

AU-4#4

Contiguous
Concatenation

Virtual
Concatenation

TEST LAB

Contiguous
Concatenation

71

Virtual Concatenation
For the transport of payloads that do not fit efficiently into
the standard set of virtual containers (VC-3/4/12)
VC concatenation can be used. VC concatenation is
defined for:
VC-3/4- to provide transport for payloads requiring
greater capacity
than one Container-3/4;
VC-12- to provide transport for payloads that require capacity greater
than one Container-12.

TEST LAB

72

Contiguous Concatenation of X VC-4s


(VC-4-Xc, X=4, 16, 64, 256)

261X

9X
3

RSOH

AU-4-4c PTRs

MSOH

STM-N
VC-4 POH

261X

1
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

Fixed
Stuff

261N

9N

C-4-Xc

RSOH

AU-4-4 PTRs

MSOH

STM-N
X-1

VC-4-Xc

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

261N

C-4-N

VC-4-N

VC-4 POH
VC-4 POH

Concatenated VC-4-Xc

VC-4-N

TEST LAB

73

AU-4 Pointer and Concatenation Indication


a) Nine AU-4 pointer bytes

H1

1*

1*

H1

H2

H3

H3

H3

H2

b) Normal AU-4 pointer

N N N N S S I D I D I D I D I D

c) Concatenation indication

1 0 0 1 U U 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(H1, H2) = AU-4 pointer, H3= pointer action byte , Y=(100UU11)


U=Unspecified, 1*=(11111111)
N = New data flag bit, S= size bit, I= increment bit, D= decrement
bit, U=Unspecified

TEST LAB

74

Virtual concatenation of X VC-3/4s


(VC-3/4-Xv, X=1.256)
a) VC-3-Xv Structure
1

b) VC-4-Xv Structure
X x 84

C-3-#X

C-4-#X

125s

1
1 J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
9 N1

1
1 J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
9 N1

X x 260

125s

85
85

VC-3-Xc

VC-3#1

VC-3#X
125s

125s

1
1 J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
9 N1

1
1 J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
9 N1

261
261

VC-4-Xc

VC-4#1

TEST LAB

VC-4#X
125s

125s

75

Virtual Concatenation Multiframe Structure


a) Mulltiframe indicator MFI1 Configuration
(from Frame 0 to 15)
No used
Bit No in H4

MFI2(MSB)

MFI X

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Frame
Frame
Frame

b) Mulltiframe indicator MFI2


( from Frame 0 to 255)

Bit No in H4

MFI2(LSB)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0
1
2

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
1
0

Frame
Frame
Frame

0
1
2

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
1
1

1
0
1

Frame 14
Frame 15

1
1

1
1

1
1

0
1

Frame
Frame
Frame
Frame
Frame

126
127
128
129
130

0
0
1
1
1

1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0
0

Frame 254
Frame 255

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

0
1

TEST LAB

Sequencce
indiccator
SQ LSB
(bit 5-8)

76

Sequencce
indiccator
SQ MSB
(bit 1-4)

VC-3/VC-4-Xv multiframe and sequence indicator

C-4/3-Xc
X

C-4/3-Xc

MFI1:0
MF12_MSB:0
MFI1:0
MF12_MSB:0
MFI1:1
MF12_LSB:0
MFI1:1
MF12_LSB:0

MFI1:15
MFI1:15
MFI1:0
MF12_MSB:0
MFI1:0
MF12_MSB:0
MFI1:1
MF12_LSB:1
MFI1:1
MF12_LSB:1
SQ:X-1
SQ:0

TEST LAB

77

VC-12-Xv Structure
1

X34

1
2
3
4

1
1 V5
2 J2
3 N2

C-12#Xc
500s

1
1 V5
2 J2
3 N2
4 K4

35
35

4 K4

VC-12#Xv
500s
VC-12#X
500s

VC-12#1

TEST LAB

78

Capacity of virtually concatenated VC-12-Xv

If carried in

Capacity

In steps of

VC-12-Xv

VC-3

1 to 21 2176 kbit/s to 45 696 kbit/s

2176 kbit/s

VC-12-Xv

VC-4

1 to 63 2176 kbit/s to 137 088 kbit/s

2176 kbit/s

VC-12-Xv

Unspecified

1 to 64 2176 kbit/s to 139 264 kbit/s

2176 kbit/s

TEST LAB

79

VC12 Extended Signal label byte coding - in K4 bit 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
MFAS

Extended Signal Label


MSB

LSB

0 R R R R R R R R R R R R
MFAS: Multiframe Alignment Signal
0: Zero
R: Reserved bit

b12 b13 b14 b15

b16 b17 b18 b19

Hex
code

0000

0000

00

0000

0111

07

0000

1000

08

Mapping under development

0000

1001

09

ATM mapping

0000

1010

0A

Mapping of HDLC/PPP framed signal

0000

1011

0B

Mapping of HDLC/LAPS framed signals

0000

1100

0C

Virtually concatenated test signal, O.181


specific mapping

0000

1101

0D

Flexible Topology Data Link mapping

1111

1111

FF

Reserved

MSB

LSB

Interpretation
Reserved

TEST LAB

80

K4 bit 2 multiframe: K4 (b2)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Frame count

Sequence indicator

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
R: Reserved bit

TEST LAB

81

1.14 Overhead Byte Functionality


SOH

VC-3/4
POH

VC-1/2
POH

A1, A2
B1, B2
J0
D1... D3
D4..D12
E1, E2
F1
K1, K2
S1
M1

Frame synchronization
Parity bytes for transmission error monitoring
Regenerator section trace
Regenerator section DCC
Multiplex section DCC
Order wire for voice communication
User channel for maintenance purposes (data, voice)
Automatic protection switching (APS)
Synchronization status message
MS-REI (remote error indication)

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2, F3
H4
K3
N1

Higher order path trace


Path parity byte for error monitoring
Signal Label (composition of payload)
Path status and performance
Path user channels
Payload specific byte
Automatic protection switching (APS)
Network operator byte (Tandem Connection Monit.)

V5
J2
N2
K4

Error check, path status, signal label


Lower order path trace
Network operator byte (Tandem Connection Monit.)
Automatic protection switching (APS)

TEST LAB

82

Embedded Overhead Bytes

A2

J0
F1
D3
1 H3
K2
D6
D9
D12
M 1 E2

X
X

X
X

H3

H3

Media dependent bytes


X Reserved for national use

VC-3/4 POH
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

VC-11/12/ 2 POH
V5
J2
N2
K4

RSOH
Pointer

SOH: Section overhead


POH: Path overhead

MSOH

P O H

AU - PTR

STM-1 SOH
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2
B1
E1
D1
D2
H1 Y
Y H2 1
B2 B2 B2 K1
D4
D5
D7
D8
D10
D11
S1

Payload

The overheads (SOH, POH) are used for maintenance and


supervision of the SDH transmission network.

TEST LAB

83

Functions of Regenerator Section Overhead

A1
B1
D1

A1 A1 A2 A2 A2
E1
D2
AU - Pointer
B2 B2 B2 K1
D4
D5
D7
D8
D10
D11
S1
M1

J0
F1
D3
K2
D6
D9
D12
E2

Frame Alignment

Section Trace

(A1, A2)

(J0 Identficationof regenerator


source)

Parity check

Data communication channels

Voice communication channels

(B1 calculated by regenerator and multiplexers)

(D1...D3, F1 between regenerators)

(E1 between regenerators)

TEST LAB

84

Functions of Multiplexer Section Overhead


A1
B1
D1

A1 A1 A2 A2 A2
E1
D2
AU - Pointer
B2 B2 B2 K1
D4
D5
D7
D8
D10
D11
S1
M1

J0
F1
D3
K2
D6
D9
D12
E2

Parity check (B2)


Alarm information (K2)
Remote error indication (M1,K2)

Automatic protection switching


(K1, K2 Bytes)

Data communication channels


(D4 to D12 between multiplexers)

Clock source information (S1)


Voice communications

channels (E2 between multiplexers)


TEST LAB

85

Functions of Path Overhead


VC-3/4 POH
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K4
N1

VC-11/12/2
POH
V5
J2
N2
K4

Parity check
B3, V5/ BIP-2 calculated by path
terminating point

Alarm and performance information


(V5, G1)

Structure of the VC
Signal label C2

Multiframe indication for TUs (H4)

User communications channel


between path elements (F2, F3)

Identification of the Path Source


(Path Trace J1, J2)

TEST LAB

86

Frame Areas Covered by Parity Bytes


Parity bytes providing a means to supervise the transmission
quality of a life STM-N signal !
RSOH
Payload
MSOH

RSOH
AU-PTR

Payload

MSOH

RSOH
Payload
Payload
MSOH

TEST LAB

B1:
- Supervision of the
whole STM-1 frame
- Covers the regenerator
sections of a transmission system
B2:
- Covers the multiplex
sections (from network
node to network node)

B3:
- Covers the transmission
paths from beginning to
the end (tributary to
tributary)

87

Pointers
The pointer technology provides a means to accommodate
timing differences at SDH networks.
The pointer indicates the start of the payload within a STM-1
frame.
STM-1

VC-4 POH

AU-Pointer
TUPTR

VC-4

VC-12
VC-12
POH

TEST LAB

88

1.15 SDH Layer Model


General view of Path Section designations

PDH
ATM
IP

SDH
multiplexer

SDH
Regenerator
SDH

SDH

Regenerator
Section

#
Crossconnect

SDH

SDH
multiplexer

Regenerator
Section

Multiplex Section

Multiplex Section

Path

TEST LAB

89

PDH
ATM
IP

1.16 Elements of SDH Network

Regenerator (Reg.)
Terminal Multiplexer (TM)
Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)
Digital Cross Connect (DXC)

TEST LAB

90

Regenerator (Reg.)

STM-N

Regenerator

STM-N

Regenerator, Amplifies the optical signal after


converting back to electrical and generates a new
optical signal of the same format Reshaping & timing
of data stream

TEST LAB

91

Terminal Multiplexer (TM)

PDH
SDH

Terminal
Multiplexer

STM-N

It combines the Plesionchronous and synchronous input


signals into higher bit rate STM-N Signal.

TEST LAB

92

Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM)


Add / Drop
Multiplexer

STM-N

STM-N
PDH

SDH

The Add And Drop Multiplexer (ADM) passes the (high rate) STM-n
through from his one side to the other and has the ability to drop or
add any (low rate) tributary. The ADM used in all topologies

TEST LAB

93

Digital Cross Connect (DXC)

STM-16
STM-4
STM-1

STM-16
STM-4
STM-1

140 Mbit/s
34 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s

140 Mbit/s
34 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s

Cross - Connect
A digital cross connect is an equipment which has the
capability of interconnecting tributaries
TEST LAB

94

Digital Cross Connect (DXC)


Digital Cross Connect:
A

digital cross connect is an equipment which has the


capability of interconnecting tributaries

An

Agg to Agg connection, a trib to aggregate connection


and a tributary to tributary connection is also possible in
case of a Digital Cross Connect

TEST LAB

95

SDH Network Topologies

Terminal
Multiplexer
(TM)

Regenerator

Terminal
Multiplexer
(TM)

Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)

Terminal
Multiplexer
(TM)

Tributaries

Tributaries

Point-to-Point Network

Terminal
Multiplexer
(TM)

TEST LAB

Tributaries

Tributaries

Chain Network

96

Ring Network
Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)
Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)

Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)

Tributaries

Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)

Tributaries

Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)
Tributaries

Add Drop
Multiplexer
(ADM)
Tributaries

TEST LAB

97

Tributaries

Tributaries

1.17 Automatic Protection Switching (APS)


APS redirects the traffic on to prepared back-up lines if the path
is physically interrupted.
This should take place automatically and as quickly as possible < 50msec)
Two kinds of APS are used, depending on the network structure:
Ring switching (MS SPRING to G.841 and T1.105.1)
Linear switching (Linear MSP to G.783 and T1.105.1).

Network elements use bytes K1 and K2 (SOH/TOH) to


communicate during switching process.

TEST LAB

98

Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring normal traffic from Node


A D
Unidirectional
Fiber 1

A
W

P B

Unidirectional
Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE C

NODE F
NODE E

NODE D

Working Line

Protection Line

Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring Working and Protection


Failure
Unidirectional
Fiber 1

Unidirectional
Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE C

NODE F
NODE E

NODE D

Working Line

Protection Line

Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring


Unidirectional
Fiber 1

A
W

P B

Unidirectional
Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE C

NODE F
NODE E

NODE D

Working Line

Protection Line

Unidirectional Line-Switched Ring


Unidirectional
Fiber 1

Unidirectional
Fiber 1

NODE A

NODE B

NODE C

NODE F
NODE E

NODE D

Working Line

Protection Line

1.18 SDH Management


SDH has enhanced management capabilities :
Alarm/Event Management
Configuration Management
Performance Management
Access and Security Management

TEST LAB

103

SDH Alarm Structure

Error performance monitoring

Pointer adjustment information

Remote failure indications (RFI)

Remote Defect Indications ( RDI )

Signal Loss

New Data flag indication

Synchronization source information

Path status
Path trace
Remote error indications (REI)

TEST LAB

104

Defect and Failure

A defect is a detection of an alarm such as loss of


signals , loss of frames. AIS loss of excessive errors

A failure is a defect that persists beyond a maximum


time allocated. It is used to access
to integrate
Automatic Protection Switching ( APS ).

TEST LAB

105

Loss Of Signals (LOS)

This alarm is raised when the STM-N level drops below


the threshold at which a BER of 1 in 1000 is detected

It could be due to cut cable, excessive attenuation of the


signal or an equipment fault

The LOS state will clear when 2 consecutive framing


patterns are received and no LOS condition is detected

TEST LAB

106

Out of Frame (OOF)

This situation occurs when 4, or in some


implementations, 5 consecutive SDH frames are
received with invalid framing patterns(A1 and A2
bytes)

The maximum time to detect OOF is therefore 625Ms

The OOF clears when consecutive SDH frames are


received with valid framing patterns
TEST LAB

107

Loss Of Frame (LOF)

The LOF occurs when the OOF state exists for a


specified time in msecs

If OOFs are intermittent,the timer is not reset to zero


until an in frame state persists continuously for
specified time in msecs

As the framing bytes are there in Regenerator section


overhead(RSOH) this alarm is sometimes known as
RS-LOF

TEST LAB

108

Loss Of Pointer (LOP)

The LOP state occurs when n consecutive invalid pointers


are received or n New Data Flags(NDF) are received(other
than in a concatenation indicator), where n=8,9 or 10

The LOP state is cleared when 3 equal valid pointers or 3


consecutive AIS indications are received.This alarm is very
rare in steady state because the pointer is either valid or is all
1s

An AIS indication is all 1s pattern in the pointer


bytes.Concatenation is indicated when the pointer bytes are
set to 1001XX1111111111 I.e NDF enabled(H1 and H2 bytes
for AU LOP; v1 and v2 bytes for TU LOP)

TEST LAB

109

1.19 Summary

In this chapter we studied the following topics :


1.

PDH & SDH Hierarchy

2.

Mapping ,Aligning, Framing &Multiplexing

3.

Functions of over head bytes

4.

SDH layer model

5.

SDH Network Topology

6.

SDH Management

TEST LAB

110

Chapter-2
SDH Synchronization

TEST LAB

111

SDH Synchronization
Page No
2.01

Synchronization Network

114

2.02

SSU Concept

115

2.03 Network Synchronization Hierarchy .

116

2.04 External Clock

117

2.05 Line Clock

118

2.06 Internal clock

119

2.07 Regenerator (Through clock)

..

120

2.08 Clock distribution in SDH Network

121

2.09 Synchronization Source of NE (1)

..

122

TEST LAB

112

SDH Synchronization
Page No
2.10

Reference O/ P from NE

2.11

Synchronization status byte in STM frame ..

124 --125

2.12

Quality level indication by SSM

126 -- 127

..

2.13 Example of Clock source switching LINE & Normal .

123

128 --136

2.14 Hold over Free function of oscillator

..

137

2.15

ITUT Recommendations

138

2.16

Summary

..

139

TEST LAB

113

2.01 Synchronization Network


Primary Reference Clock
long term:

PRC

Cesium (Stratum 1)

requ : 1 x 10 -11
typ : 5 x 10 -12

Rubidium (Stratum 2) requ :


typ :

SSU

SSU

SEC

SEC

SEC

SDH
Equip.

SDH
Equip.

SDH
Equip.

holdover 24h:

1.6 x 10 -8 , 1 x 10-10
4 x 10 -11 , 2 x 10-11

Synchronization Supply Unit

TEST LAB

SDH Equipment Clock

114

2.02 SSU Concept


Synchronization Supply Unit System
Single master timing supply for each office
SSU connected to timing references from higher accuracy
office in timing hierarchy
SSU outputs 2Mbit/s or 2MHz & composite clock
references to all equipment in office
Provides frequency & phase synchronized references

TEST LAB

115

2.03 Network Synchronization Hierarchy


(PRIMARY)

(SECONDARY)

PRC
G.811

PRC
G.811

SSU-A
G.812 T

SSU-B
G.812 L

SSU-B
G.812 L

SETS
G.813

SETS
G.813

SETS
G.813

SSU-A
G.812 T

SSU-A
G.812 T

SSU-B
G.812 L

SETS
G.813

SETS
G.813

TEST LAB

SSU-B
G.812 L

SETS
G.813

TSG: Timing Signal Generator

SSU-B
G.812 L

SETS
G.813

SETS
G.813

116

2.04 External Clock


A

External Clock

PRC

or

SSU

SSU

External Clock

D
Ring or Linear System

B
External Clock

SSU
Synchronization Distribution
Network

C
External
Clock

TEST LAB

SSU

117

2.05 Line Clock


PRC
or
SSU

External
Clock

Line Clock

Line Clock

D
Ring or Linear System

C
:

Extracted Clock
Component of
Line Signal

Line Clock

TEST LAB

118

2.06 Internal Clock


A

Internal Clock

Internal Clock

D
Ring or Linear System

B
Internal Clock

Holdover or
Free-run w/o ref.

Internal Clock

TEST LAB

119

2.07 Regenerator (Through Clock)

REGEN
Outgoing Signal

STM-N
Incoming Signal

Incoming Signal

STM-N
Outgoing Signal

TEST LAB

120

2.08 Clock Distribution in SDH Network


SSU

External Clock

SSU

Line Clock

Line Clock

Line Clock

SDH
Island

Line Signal (STM-N)

External Clock

Clock Signal
Impairement in Clock Signal
( jitter, wander, etc. )

Line Clock

Internal Clock (Free Run) Line Clock

TEST LAB

121

2.09 Synchronization Source of NE (1)


External-in
External-out
(from SSU) (to SSU or other NE)
1
2
1
2
Selector

STM-N
West

East
Line 2
Line 1
Tributary 1 2
Selector

STM-N

Internal
hold-over
Line 3

free run

Tributary
Tributary
2Mb/s PDH
STM-N

TEST LAB

122

2.10 Reference Output from NE


External-in
External-out
(from SSU) (to SSU or other NE)
1
2
1
2
Selector

STM-N
West

East
Line 2
Line 1
Tributary 1 2
Selector

STM-N

Internal
hold-over
Line 3

free run

Tributary
Tributary
2Mb/s PDH
STM-N

TEST LAB

123

2.11 Synchronization Status Byte in STM-1 Frame


9 bytes
A1

A1

RSOH

A1
B1
D1

A2 A2 A2 J0
E1
F1
D2
D3
A U P o in t e r ( s )

B2

M SOH

B2 B2
D4
D7
D10
S1 Z1

K1
D5
D8
D 11
Z2 Z2

Z1

K2
D6
D9
D 12
M 1 E2

261 bytes

STM-1 PAYLOAD

: bytes reserved for national use

Bit No.

S1 byte

b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8
Unassigned SSM Field

TEST LAB

124

Synchronization Status Massage(SSM)


Description
Layer 1 Traceable
Quality Unknown

Clock
Type
PRC
G.811
_______

(Existing Sync. Network)

Layer 2 Traceable

Layer 3 Traceable
Equipment Internal
Clock(4.6 ppm)
DON'T USE
for SYNC

G.812
Transit
(SSU- A)
G.812
Local
(SSUDNU B)
G.813- op.1
SEC
DNU

Quality
Level

S1 bits 5- 8

0010

0000

0100

1000

1011

1111

TEST LAB

125

2.12 Quality Level Indication by SSM (S1 Byte)

G.811
Primary

G.812
Transit

Q=1

Q=1

A1

B1

Q=3

B1'

C1

Q=3
forward

TEST LAB

Q=3
D1
D2

C2

B2

Q=6
backward

Q=1

Q=6
backward

126

Reference Selection
EXT IN 1
EXT IN 2
Incoming
STM-N
Internal Clock
(Free run)

Single
Highest
Quality?

No

Select
Highest
Priority?

Holdover
Synchronous
2M Tributary

Yes
Equipment
Clock

TEST LAB

127

2.13 Example of Clock Source Switching


- Normal State EXT 1
Q=1
P=1

(G.811)

EXT 2
Q=1
P=2
Q=S1=6
P=4

West

Q=S1=1
P=2

Q=S1=1
P=15
(unused)

East

Q=5
P=3

East

Q=5
P=3

Q=S1=1
P=1

D
West

West

B
C

Q=S1=1
P=1
East

Q=S1=6
P=2

Q=S1=1
P=1

Q=5
P=3
East

Q=S1=6
P=2

West

Q=5
P=2
TRIB 2
TRIB 1
Q=3 (G.812-T) Q=3
P=3 SSU-A P=4

TEST LAB

128

Line Failure
- Occurrence of a failure -

Q=5
P=4
West

East

East

(Q=6)
P=1

A
D

West

B
C

West

East

Q=5
P=1

Q=5
P=3
East

Q=6
P=2

West

TEST LAB

129

Line Failure
- Transit state (1) -

Q=5
P=4
West

Q=1
P=1

East

East

(Q=6)
P=1

A
D

West

West

B
C

Q=3
P=1
East

Q=5
P=1

Q=5
P=3
East

Q=3
P=2

West

Q=6
P=2
Q=3
P=3

TEST LAB

130

Line Failure
- Transit state (2) Q=3
P=4
West

Q=1
P=2

East

East

(Q=6)
P=1

A
D

West

West

B
C

Q=3
P=1
East

Q=6
P=1

East

Q=3
P=2

West

Q=2
P=2
Q=3
P=3

TEST LAB

131

Line Failure
- Final state Q=2
P=4
West

Q=1
P=2

East

Q=6
P=15
(unused)

East

(Q=6)
P=1

D
West

West

B
C

Q=6
P=1
East

Q=6
P=1

East

Q=1
P=2

West

Q=1
P=2
Q=3
P=3

TEST LAB

132

Failure in the Master Node


Q=6
P=4

Q=5
P=2

Q=5
P=1

Q=5
P=1

Q=6
P=2

Q=6
P=2

Q=3
P=3

TEST LAB

133

Failure in the Master Node


- Transit state (1) -

Q=5
P=2

Q=5
P=1

Q=3
P=1

Q=5
P=1

Q=6
P=2

Q=3
P=2

Q=3
P=3

TEST LAB

134

Failure in the Master Node


- Transit state (2) -

Q=3
P=4

Q=5
P=1

Q=3
P=15

Q=6
P=1

Q=3
P=1

Q=6
P=2

Q=3
P=2

Q=3
P=3

TEST LAB

135

Failure in the Master Node


- Final state EXT1
Q=1
P=1

EXT2
Q=1
P=2
Q =S1=3
P=4

SEC

Q=S1=3
P=2

Q=5
P=3

SEC

Q =S1=3
P=15
(u n u s e d )

~ QP == 35

Q=S1=6
P=1

~ QP == 35

Q=S1=3
P=1

SEC
Q=5
P=5

SEC

Q =S1=6
P=1

Q=S1=3
P=2

Q =S1=6
P=2
T R IB 1
Q=3
P=3

T R IB 2
Q=3
P=4

TEST LAB

136

2.14 Holdover & Free-run Function of Oscillator


Output
(2.048Mbit/s)

PLL looped circuit


Frequency
Divider

PH
COMP A/D

Input
(8kHz)

Frequency
Divider

D/A VCXO A/D

Holdover
circuit

Without Holdover
function
Slave State

With Holdover
function
Free-running
State

Holdover State

[ fof ]

No. 1
No. 2

Within 24H

f[t]
fo
0

t0
Reference
supply
failure

t1
Reference
supply recovery

TEST LAB

t2

(Time)

137

2.15 ITU-T Standards


SDH has been standardized by ITU-T.
CCITT (International Consultative Committee on Telephony &
Telegraphy) Blue book recommendations
G.707, G.708 & G.709 covering the SDH standards.
G.707 - SDH Bit Rates
G.708 - Network Node Interface for the SDH
G.709 - Synchronous Multiplexing Structure
G.781 - (Formerly G.smux-1) Structure of Recommendations on
Multiplexing Equipment for the SDH
G.782 - (Formerly G.smux-2) Types and General Characteristics
of SDH Multiplexing Equipment
G.783 - (Formerly G.smux-3) Characteristics of SDH Multiplexing
Equipment Functional Blocks
G.784 - (Formerly G.smux-4) SDH Management

TEST LAB

138

2.16 Summary

In this chapter we studied the following topics :


1.

Synchronization concept

2.

Different types of clocks we are using

3.

Clock distribution in the SDH network

4.

Quality level indication of the clock

5.

Line failure in Transit state and final state

6.

Function of Hold over Free run function of the oscillator

TEST LAB

139

Chapter-3
New Generation SDH

TEST LAB

140

New Generation SDH


Page No
3.01

New Generation SDH

142

3.02

Emergence of New Interfaces

..

143 --149

3.02

Virtual Concatenation

150 --167

3.03

Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme

..

168 --176

3.04

Generic Framing Procedure

177 --191

3.05

Application

..

192 -- 195

3.06

Standards

196 -- 197

3.07

Abbreviations

198 199

3.08

Summary

200

TEST LAB

141

3.01 New Generation SDH

GFP :Generic Framing Procedure


LCAS:Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
Tutorial: Principles and Applications

TEST LAB

142

3.02 Emergence of new type of Interfaces


ESCON :-Enterprise Systems Connection :It is an IBM
standardized protocol for the interconnection of IT equipment. Bit
rate=200Mbps .Marketing name for a set of IBM & vendor
products that interconnect S/390 computers with each other &
with attached storage , locally attached work stations & other
devices using optical fiber technology.
Fiber Channel: ANSI standardized protocol for mainly server to
server,and server to storage communication to predominately
transport IP data with bit rates up to 4Gbps

TEST LAB

143

Emergence of new type of Interfaces


FICON:-Fiber connectivity: ANSI standard basing physical
interface to connect computers and servers in SAN;advancement
of ESCON standard.
DVB Standards:- Video broadcasting signals

TEST LAB

144

Going into Details


Campus B
Ethernet
FICON

Ethernet

SONET/
SDH

SONET/
SDH
Optical Core

SONET/SDH

Campus A

Network

SONET/
SDH

Storage
Servers

DWDM
Edge NE
Core NE

Fibre
Channel

Lets zoom in!


TEST LAB

Remote
Servers

145

New SONET/SDH

Edge
Operator
Adaptation

Ethernet
Ficon
Escon
Fibre
Channel

Native Interfaces

Edge

GFP

VC

LCAS

Link
Generic
Virtual
Frame
Concatenation Capacity
Adjustment
Procedure
Scheme
LAPS

SONET MUX/DEMUX

Customer

Core

SONET/
SDH

Thats New SONET/SDH


TEST LAB

146

The Building Blocks of Next-Gen Sonet/SDH


GFP
Provides an elegant framing procedure with low overhead and support for
both packet services and storage services

Virtual Concatenation
Improves on current models of contiguous concatenation by supporting
much finer granularity of circuit provisioning and management from the edge
of the network. Right-sized pipes for packet services (Ethernet, in
particular). Both higher order (STS1 granularity) and low order (VT1.5 level)
are available, supporting a range of high- and low-speed service
assignments.

LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme)


A tool to provide operators with greater flexibility in provisioning virtual
concatenation groups (VCGs), adjusting their bandwidth in service and
providing flexible end-to-end protection options

TEST LAB

147

Customer needs Ethernet


Problem: How can we efficiently transport Ethernet over
an existing SONET/SDH network?
Mbit/s

Customer 3 = 100M

100
75

Typical
Ethernet Traffic
Connections

Customer 2 = 60M

50

Ethernet Packet

25

Customer 1 = 10M

time
3
4
1
2
Example: For 10M available SDH - Containers are...
VC-12

...too small !

2.176 Mbit/s

OR

VC-3

48.38 Mbit/s
TEST LAB

... inefficient
20%

148

SDH Line Rates


Transport
10M Ethernet over SDH?
10 M

5x

Standard
Containers
are inefficient!

SDH Payload Sizes


C-11
1.600 Mbit/s
C-12
2.176 Mbit/s
C-2
6.784 Mbit/s
C-3
48.384 Mbit/s
C-4
149.760 Mbit/s

Cant 5 x VC-12 be concatenated?


Contiguous
Concatenation
only large containers!

Contiguous Concatenation
C-4-4c
0.599 Gbit/s
C-4-16c
2.396 Gbit/s
C-4-64c
9.584 Gbit/s
C-4-256c
38.338 Gbit/s

TEST LAB

149

3.02 Virtual
Concatenation

TEST LAB

150

Virtual Concatenation (VC or Vcat)


Yes, we can - using Virtual Concatenation!
VC provides
a scheme to build right-sized containers
with SONET or SDH containers
with a fine granularity

Standardized in ITU-T G.707 and ANSI T.105


Nomenclature:

VTn-Xv STS-m-Xv
Virtual Container n
Number of
Virtual
n=1.5, 2,3,6 ,m=1, 3c concatenated Concatenation
containers
TEST LAB
151

VC Nomenclature

VC-n -X v
Virtual Container n
n=4, 3, 2, 12, 11
Defines the type of virtual
containers, which will be
virtually concatenated.

Number of
virtually
concatenated
containers
All X Virtual Containers
form together the
Virtual Concatenated
Group (VCG)

Indictor for
Virtual
Concatenation
v = virtual
concatenation
c = contiguous
concatenation

Virtual Concatenated Group (VCG) of X VC-n containers!

TEST LAB

152

High and Low Order VC


High Order Virtual Concatenation
refers to virtually concatenated...
VC-4

containers

VC-3

Low Order Virtual Concatenation


refers to virtually concatenated...
VC-2
VC-12
VC-11

containers
TEST LAB

153

VC-4-Xv Granularity
VC-4

Minimum

Maximum

Example High Order VC:


VC-4
Container Size 150,3 Mbit/s
VC-4
Payload Size
149,76 Mbit/s
VCG Granularity

VCGs:
VC-4-1v
VC-4-2v

Payload Size
Payload Size

149,76 Mbit/s
299,52 Mbit/s

VC-4-7v

Payload Size

1048,3 Mbit/s

VC-4-256v Payload Size

38338 Mbit/s

TEST LAB

VCG Payload
Capacity

154

VC-12-Xv Granularity
VC-12

Minimum

Maximum

Example Low Order VC:


VC-12
Container Size 2,240 Mbit/s
VC-12
Payload Size
2,176 Mbit/s
VCGs:
VC-12-1v Payload Size
VC-12-2v Payload Size

VCG Granularity

VC-12-5v Payload Size

10,88 Mbit/s

VC-12-64v Payload Size

139,26 Mbit/s

TEST LAB

2,176 Mbit/s
4,352 Mbit/s

VCG Payload
Capacity

155

Concatenation?
Contiguous Concatenation
Offers concatenated payloads in fixed, large steps
One towing truck (POH) for all containers
All containers are on one path thru the network
C4

C4

C4

C4

Virtual Concatenation
Contiguous Concatenation
C-4-4c
599.040 Mbit/s
Offers structures
in a fine granularity
C-4-16c
2.396
Gbit/s
Every container
has its own towing
truck
(POH)
C-4-64c
9.584 Gbit/s
Every container
might take a different
path
VC-4 #4

C-4-256c
VC-4 #3

VC-4-4c

38.338 Gbit/s
VC-4 #2
VC-4 #1

TEST LAB

VC-4-4v

156

CC: VC-4-Xc Container


Overhead N x 9 bytes

Payload N x 261 bytes

RSOH

STM-N

MSOH

J1
B
3
C
2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K
3
N

Fixed Stuff

AU-4 Pointer

C-4-Xc

VC-4-Xc

X -1
X x 261 bytes

VC-4-Xc, where X=4, 16, 64, 256

TEST LAB

157

VC: VC-4-Xv Container


Overhead N x 9 bytes

Payload N x 261 bytes

RSOH

STM-N

AU-4 Pointer

J1
J1

MSOH

J1
B
3
C
2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K
3
N
1

B
3
C
2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K
3
N

B
3
C
2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K
3
N

VC-4
VC-4
VC-4
1

261 bytes

X frames

VC-4-Xv, where X = 1..256

TEST LAB

158

SDH Concatenation
STM-16 with VC-4-4c
Contiguous
concatenation

VC-4-1

VC-4-2

VC-4-3

VC-4-4

VC-4-5

VC-4-6

VC-4-7

VC-4-8

VC-4-9

VC-4-10

VC-4-11

VC-41-2

VC-4-13

VC-4-14

VC-4-15

VC-4-16

RSOH
AU-4 Pointer
MSOH

STM-4 with VC-4-2v


Virtual
concatenation

RSOH

VC-4-1

VC-4-2

VC-4-#1

AU-4 Pointer
VC-4-3

VC-4-4

MSOH

VC-4-#2

VCG = Virtual Concatenation Group

TEST LAB

159

VC Granularity
Nomenclature

Granularity

Payload Capacity

VC-4

VC-4-Xv

149M

149M - 38.3G

VC-3

VC-3-Xv

48M

48M - 12.7G

VC-2

VC-2-Xv

6.8M

6.8M - 434M

VC-12

VC-12-Xv

2.2M

2.2M - 139M

VC-11

VC-11-Xv

1.6M

1.6M - 102M

TEST LAB

160

Transporting Concatenated Signals


Contiguous Concatenation
C-4

C-4

C-4

C-4

C-4

C-4

C-4

C-4

One Path
NE

C-4

C-4

C-4

C-4

NE

VC-4-4c

Core Network

Virtual Concatenation
Path 1

Differential Delay
VC-4
#1
VC-4
#2

VC-4
#1
VC-4
#1

VC-4
#1

VC-4
#2

VC-4
#2

Path 2

VC-4
#2

TEST LAB

VC-4-2v

161

VC Rate Efficiencies
Data Rates

Efficiency w/o VC

using VC

Ethernet (10M)

VC3 20%

VC-12-5v 92%

Fast Ethernet (100M)

VC-4 67%

VC-12-46v 100%

ESCON (200M)

VC-4-4c 33%

VC-3-4v 100%

Fibre Channel (800M) VC-4-16c 33%

VC-4-6v 89%

Gigabit Ethernet (1G)

VC-4-7v 85%

VC-4-16c 42%

Example:
100M Ethernet
8x E1 Services
2x 10M Ethernet

VC-12-46v
VC-12-5v
VC-12-5v

STM-1
= 64 x VC-12

More services integrated- by using VC!


TEST LAB

162

Virtual Container Indicator


Problem:
How to distinguish between VCG members of one group?
Solution:
Give each member an individual number plate!
Sequence Indicator (SQ)
VC-4

SQ=0

VC-4

SQ=1

VC-4

SQ=2

VC-4

SQ=3

Result: VCG members can now be distinguished and sorted!

TEST LAB

163

Time Stamp Mechanism


Problem:
How do we know that members arriving together started together?
Solution:
Give each VCG an individual number
Frame Counter (FC)
VC-4

SQ=0
SQ=0

SQ=0

SQ=0

SQ=0

VC-4

SQ=1
SQ=1

SQ=1

SQ=1

SQ=1

VC-4

SQ=2
SQ=2

SQ=2

SQ=2

SQ=2

VC-4

SQ=3
SQ=3

SQ=3

SQ=3

SQ=3

FC = 3
0
1
2

FC = 2
0
1

FC = 1
0

TEST LAB

FC = 0

164

VC & LCAS Control Packet


Frame
Counter

MFI

VCG
LCAS
LCAS
LCAS
LCAS
LCAS
Sequence Control
Source Resequence
Error
Member
Indicator Commands Identifier AcknowProtectio
Status
ledgement
n
SQ

Virtual
Concatenation
Information

CTRL

GID

RS-Ack

MST

CRC

LCAS Information

Information packets exchanged between the two


edge network elements to adjust the bandwidth.

TEST LAB

165

Where are the VC bytes?


High Order VC
Information in H4 Byte
16 frame Multi-Frame

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1

VC-3 / VC-4
out of
VC-3-Xv / VC-4-Xv

Low Order VC
Carried in one bit in K4-Byte
32 frame Multi-Frame
V5
VC-2 / VC-1x
out of
J2
N2 VC-2-Xv / VC-1x-Xv
K4

TEST LAB

166

Challenges ahead...
How can path bandwidth be increased or decreased?
Dynamic Bandwidth Provisioning
..bring an additional truck on the road..

VC-3 #2

VC-3 #1

VC-3 #?
How can we ensure QoS for data services?
VCG - Protection one VC container fails - the whole Virtual Concatenation
Group (VCG) fails!

VC

-4

#2

VC-4 #3

TEST LAB

VC-4 #1
FAILED

167

3.03 Link Capacity


Adjustment Scheme
(LCAS)

TEST LAB

168

Bandwidth Provisioning - today


Seattle

Chicago

Boston
New York

Columbus
San Francisco
San Jose
Los Angeles

Location A

Kansas City

Denver

Washington

Atlanta
Dallas
Houston

Location B

Orlando

50Mbit/s Ethernet Private Line (VC-3-1v/ STS-1-1v)


The customer now requires 100Mbit/s
Operator manually sets up a 2nd path
using the network management system
100M = VC-3-2v / STS-1-2v

But: Traffic will be interrupted to bring 100M into service!!

TEST LAB

169

LCAS Overview
Extension for
Virtual Conc.

Add/Remove
bandwidth
uninterrupted

Link
Capacity
Adjustment
Scheme

Handshake
Protocol
between edge
NE

carried in
H4/K4 byte

End-to-end
Real-Time
Communication

Standardized ITU-T G.7042, referred by ANSI

TEST LAB

170

LCAS - Add Bandwidth hitless


Seattle

San Francisco
San Jose

t Link Chicago
e
n
r
NE
Boston
e
Eth
M
0
0
New York
1
Columbus
l
o
c
o
t
Washington
S ProKansas City
Denver LCA

NE

Los Angeles

Atlanta

Location B

Dallas

Location A
Houston

Orlando

Operator installs VC & LCAS edge equipment


Operator manually provisions add. 50M path
LCAS protocol runs between the two edge NE!
NE negotiate - when the additional path gets valid and into
service!
LCAS Succeeds A connection with 100M is in service!

TEST LAB

171

VC & LCAS Control Packet


Frame
Counter

MFI

VCG
LCAS
LCAS
LCAS
LCAS
LCAS
Sequence Control
Source Resequence
Member
Error
Indicator Commands Identifier AcknowStatus Protection
ledgement
SQ

Virtual
Concatenation
Information

CTRL

GID

RS-Ack

MST

CRC

LCAS Information

Information packets exchanged between the two


edge network elements to adjust the bandwidth.

TEST LAB

172

The Details
Information
Direction
Source Sink

MFI

SQ

Multi-Frame Indicator is an counter


to distinguish several VCGs* from each other
necessary to compensate for Differential Delay
Sequence Indicator is an counter
to differentiate individual VC-n containers within a VCG*
to re-sequence VC-n containers at the termination point in case that
differential delay occured

LCAS Control Words are


the actual commands which will show the status of containers from a
CTRL

VCG* initiate bandwidth changes


FIXED - container in NON-LCAS mode
ADD - container which will be added to a VCG
REMOVE - container which will be removed from a VCG
NORM - container as part of an active VCG
EOS - last container of an active VCG
DNU - container with failures(do not use)
= Virtual Concatenated Group
TEST*VCG
LAB
173

The Details
Information
Direction
Source Sink

GID

Group Identification Bit is


an additional verification mechanism to secure that all
incoming VCG members belong to one group

RS-Ack

Re-sequence acknowledgement is
an mechanism, where the sink reports to the source the
detection of any additions/removals to/from the VCG

MST

Member Status Field is


an mechanism, where the sink reports to the source which
VCG members are currently and correctly received

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check is a


protection mechanism to detect bit errors in the Control Packet

TEST LAB

*VCG = Virtual Concatenated Group

174

Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme


Enables Value
added services

Cost Efficient
New NE necessary
only at the edge
Transparent to
core network

Bandwidth on demand
Soft Protection
99.999% up-time

LCAS
BENEFITS
Flexible &
scalable
Offers variable VC
bandwidth in realtime!

Restoration
Virtual Concatenation
link protection &
recovery

TEST LAB

175

Challenges ahead
Efficient & suited mappings for all diverse data clients!
...one mapping fits all...?!?

SONET/SDH

Rate adaptation between asynchronous clients and


synchronous transport network

Asynchronous
Rates

Synchronous
Rates

TEST LAB

176

3.04 Generic Framing


Procedure (GFP)

TEST LAB

177

GFP Overview
Data Encapsulation
for various
services

Rate
Adaptation
Mechanism

Generic
Frame
Procedure

Asynch.
clients over
synchronous
networks

Standardized
ITU-T G.7041
referred by
ANSI
TEST LAB

178

GFP - Layer Model

Clients

Ethernet

IP/PPP

Fibre Channel

Others

GFP - Client Specific Aspects


(payload dependent)

GFP

GFP - Common Aspects


(payload independent)

Transport

SONET/SDH
VC-n Path

OTN
ODUk Path

TEST LAB

Others

179

GFP Frame
Core Header contains the
length of the payload area
and start of frame info
and CRC-16 error detection
& correction
Length 4 byte

GFP Payload Area transports


higher layer specific
information
Length 4 to 65535 byte

Core Header
Payload
Headers
Client
Payload
Payload
Area
Information
Optional
Payload FCS
8 bit

Payload Headers gives type


of client and supports client
specific management
procedures
Includes CRC detection &
correction
Length 4 to 64 byte
Client Payload Field contains
client frames (GFP-F) or
client characters (GFP-T)

Optional Payload FCS


protects the client payload
information field
CRC-32 Length 4 byte

GFP gets scrambled before transmission!

TEST LAB

180

GFP Operation Modes


GFP-F (Framed Mapped):
For packet oriented clients,00 e.g. Ethernet
One Client Packet = packed in one GFP frame (1:1)
Minimal overhead
GFP-T (Transparent Mapped):
Client characters are directly mapped in GFP-T
frames e.g. Fibre Channel
Fixed length GFP frames
Minimal Latency
GFP IDLE Frame:
Rate Adaptation (stuffing)
GFP Management Frame:
under study
TEST LAB

181

GFP Operation Modes


variable

GFP-F

Ethernet Frame

GFP

GFP GFP Eth.

FrameGFP GFP GFP Eth

Frame by Frame

1GigE

LE Ethernet Frame

IDLE Eth. Frame

IDLE

Eth

Block by Block

GFP-T

GFP

Transparent

GFP

Transparent

GFP

Transparent
fixed

GFP

GFP Header or IDLE frames

TEST LAB

GFP

182

GFP

GFP-F Client vs. Transport Rate


GFP-F
Constant Transport Rate

Variable Client Rate


Mbit/s

t
Ethernet
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
IP
PPP

F
I
F
O

M
a
p
p
e
r

IDLEs

Mbit/s

GFP-F Mapper

t
GFP-F IDLEs
Client

TEST LAB

184

GFP-T Client vs. Transport Rate


GFP-T
Constant Transport Rate

Constant Client Data Rate


Mbit/s
100 %

t
Effective Payload
Client IDLEs
Fibre Channel
ESCON
FICON
Gigabit Ethernet
10 GigE
Anything!

Decoder
/ Coder

M
a
p
p
e
r

Mbit/s
100+x %

GFP-T Mapper

t
GFP Overhead
Client IDLEs
Effective Payload

TEST LAB

185

Ethernet to GFP-Framed
Up to 10M
Ethernet Stream
Core Header

GFP Packet

Payload

10M
7.5M
5M
2.5M

4t

Pure Ethernet

GFP-F Packet
Result

PLI
cHEC
Payload

2
2
X

GFP-IDLE Packet
00hex
00hex
00hex
00hex

Scrambling!

Constant Stream

TEST LAB

186

GFP-Framed to VC
GFP-Framed
Packet Stream
10M

Byte-Interleaving

7.5M
5M
2.5M
1

GFP Stream

GFP Frames
in VC containers

VC-12
#1

VC-12
#2

VC-12
#3

VC-12
#4

VC-12
#5

Transport
Transport Thru the Network

TEST LAB

187

Generic Frame Procedure


Reliable

Expandable

Easy & stabile


algorithm
Header
Correction

with no need for


new transport
equipment

GFP
BENEFITS
Compatible
works with basically
any higher layer
service and lower
layer network!

New
Opportunities
Technological &
Economical

TEST LAB

188

GFPs Case in the Carrier Network


Simple multiservice adaptation and compatibility with existing transport networks:
robust and efficient packet transport.
Uniform, deterministic mapping of packet, storage, and future services to global
Sonet/SDH transport protocols: interoperable
ITU-T standard.
Efficient network resource utilization: low GFP overhead and compatible with
Sonet/SDH transmission network management
Data-Friendly: GFP-F frame mode can support a multiplexing capability at the
packet level, aggregating multiple client streams into a single TDM channel.
Layer 2 independent: Supports RPR, other L2 protocols (Ethernet MAC
information is preserved end-to-end); supports native storage protocols (Fibre
Channel, etc.).
Converges next-generation services with existing infrastructure investment:
enables network consolidation and cost savings.

TEST LAB

189

And what about LAPS?


Much more limited

Competitive
standard for
GFP

capabilities
than GFP
Link
Access
Procedure
SDH

Only for SDH,


Only for CC

Similar to PoS/
HDLC

Standardized ITU-T X.85 & X.86, Asian Initiated Standard.

TEST LAB

190

New SDH - the evolution of SDH


Data Clients - Ethernet, Fibre Channel & others
GFP - frames the data & adapts the rates
VC - offers right sized pipes in fine granularity
LCAS - makes VC easy & flexible on demand

Result - the evolution:

Ficon
Escon
Fibre
Channel

GFP

VC
?

Generic
Frame
Procedure

Virtual
Concatination

LCAS
Link
Capacity
Adjustment
Scheme

TEST LAB

MUX/DMUX

Ethernet

Native Interfaces

SONET/SDH is flexible & data aware!

SONET/
SDH

191

3.05 Applications

TEST LAB

192

Bandwidth on demand
Bandwidth Call-by-Call
Network Management

VC-12-3v

NG
Customers LAN

LCAS
+VC-12
Transport Network

NG
ISP

Customer
rents a 6M Internet connection (VC-12-3v)
calls to get additional 2M!
Operator
will provision additional VC-12 path
..and will hitless add it to existing connection via LCAS!

TEST LAB

193

Bandwidth on demand
Bandwidth on Schedule

900M

Location A

100M

100M

100M

NG

Transport Network

900M

NG

900M

Location B

Offer a fixed bandwidth schedule:


24/7 - Virtual Local Area Network service at 100M Ethernet
Every night for one hour - additional 900M ESCON service for
data backup

New revenue opportunities at low traffic hours!


TEST LAB
194

Bandwidth on demand
Automatic Bandwidth Allocation - pay as you grow!
3rd VC-12

Ethernet Traffic

2nd VC-12
1st VC-12
1

Variable
VCG capacity

Automatic Bandwidth Allocation:


Automatically, pre-provisioned VC capacity will be activated
No paid, but unused link capacity for the customer
Customized SLA possible!

Optimal bandwidth for the customer for min. $$


New revenues with pay per use & over-subscription!
TEST LAB

195

3.06 Standards

TEST LAB

196

References
ITU-T
G.707/Y.1322 Network Node Interface for SDH (10/2000)
G.709 Network Node Interface for Optical Transport Networks
G.7041/Y.1303 Generic Frame Procedure (12/2001)
G.7042/Y.1305 LCAS for Virtually Concatenated Signals (11/2001)
X.85 IP over SDH using LAPS
X.86 Ethernet over LAPS

ANSI
T1.105 Synchronous Optical Network
Virtual Conc.
LCAS (also refers to ITU-T G.7042)

GFP refers to ITU-T G.7041


IEEE
Ethernet: 802.3

TEST LAB

197

3.07 Abbreviations

TEST LAB

198

Abbreviations
CC: Continguous Concatenation
cHEC: Core Header Error Check
CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check
EOF: End of Frame
EoS: Ethernet over SONET
ESCON: Enterprise Systems Connection
FCS: Frame Check Sequence
FD: Full Duplex
FICON: Fibre Connection
GFP: Generic Frame Procedure
GFP-F: Frame mapped GFP
GFP-T: Transparent GFP
GMPLS: Generalized Mulitprotocol Label
Switching
IP: Internet Protocol
LAN: Local Area Network
LAPS: Link Access Procedure SDH
LCAS: Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
MAC: Media Access Control

MAN: Metropolitan Area Network


MFI: Multi Frame Indicator
MSOH: Multiplexer Section Overhead
NE: Network Element
OTN: Optical transport Network
OSI: Open System Interconnect
PDU: Protocol Data Unit
PLI: PDU Length Indicator
PoS: Packet over Sonet
PPP: Point-to-Point Protocol
RSOH: Repeater Section Overhead
SAN: Storage Area Networks
SDH: Synchronous Digital Hierachy
TCP: Transport Control Protocol
TDM: Time Division Multiplexing
VC: Virtual Concatenation
VC-xc: Virtual Container
VCG: Virtual Container Group
WAN: Wide Area Network

TEST LAB

199

3.08 Summary

In this chapter we studied the following topics :


1.

Types of New Interfaces

2.

Different types Concatenation

3.

Types of Framing procedures in GFP

4.

Layer topology of GFP

5.

How the band width can be adjusted by using LCAS Protocol

TEST LAB

200

Chapter-4
DWDM

TEST LAB

201

DWDM
Page No
4.01

WDM Basic Introduction

204 -- 205

4.02

Disadvantages of the Technology

..

206

4.03

Classification

207

4.04

Infrared Spectrum

208

4.05

Wave length Allocation of DWDM

..

209 211

4.06

Main Components in DWDM

212 -- 220

4.07

Need of Amplifier

..

221 -- 225

4.08

Types of optical Amplifier

..

226 228

4.09

Configuration of EDFA & Raman amplifier .

TEST LAB

229 --246

202

DWDM
Page No

4.10

Amplifier Vs Regenerator

247--248

4.11

Electrical Regeneration

249 251

4.12

Live Function in OADM

..

252253

4.13 Optical Supervisory Channel

254 255

4.14 Measurement Parameters

256261

4.15 Performance Degradation factors

262264

4.16 CMD & PMD( chromatic & Polarized dispersion) .

265 270

4.17 Fiber Non linearity & automatic power reduction ..

271 281

4.18 CWDM Vs DWDM

282 284

4.19 Summary

285

TEST LAB

203

4.01 WDM Basics Introduction


WDM Wavelength Division
Multiplexing
The ability to use different wavelengths in a
single fiber, to split and to combine them.

DMUX

MUX
TEST LAB

204

Why DWDM ?
a) Overcome fiber exhaust / lack of fiber availability
problems (Better utilization of available fiber)
b) Space & Power savings at intermediate stations
c) Easier capacity expansion
d) Cost effective transmission
e) No O-E-O conversion delays
f) Wave length leasing instead of Bandwidth leasing

TEST LAB

205

4.02 Any Disadvantages of this Technology ?


Yes of course
a) Multi channel failure due to line
failure
b) Requirements for more deliberate design of
Dispersion management,
gain profile management
& launched power due to broader Wavelength
range
to be handled
TEST LAB

206

4.03 WDM Classification


WDM Classification is based on the Channel spacing
between 2 Wave lengths
Channel spacing > 200GHz is called CWDM
Channel spacing > 100 GHz is called WDM
Channel spacing < 100GHz is called DWDM
Channel spacing < 25GHz is called UDWDM
100 GHz is equal to 0.8 nm
TEST LAB

207

4.04 Infrared Spectrum


O-Band

E-Band

1260-1360nm

1360-1460nm

1460-1530nm

1530-1565nm

1565-1625nm

CWDM

Future
DWDM

DWDM

DWDM

CWDM

S-Band

C-Band

TEST LAB

L-Band

208

4.05 Wavelength allocation for DWDM


(ITU-T G.692)

C-Band (1530 1562nm):


Also called conventional band or 1550 band
L-Band (1574 1608nm):
Also called Long wavelength band or 1580nm band
The channel central frequencies are allocated in equal
frequency spacing of 100 GHz or 0.1 THz.
All the channel central frequencies are anchored to the
193.1 THz reference. The channel central wavelength
corresponding to the reference frequency is 1552.52 nm.
TEST LAB

209

Channel
number
1530.33
1531.12
1531.90
1532.68
1533.47
1534.25
1535.04
1535.82
1536.61
1537.40
1538.19
1538.98
1539.77
1540.56
1541.35
1542.14
1542.94
1543.73
1544.53
1545.32
1546.12
1546.92
1547.72
1548.52
1549.32
1550.12
1550.92
1551.72
1552.52
1553.33
1554.13
1554.94
1555.75
1556.56
1557.36
1558.17
1558.98
1559.79
1560.61
1561.42
1562.23

Carrier
frequency
(nm)

196.0
195.9
195.8
195.7
195.6
195.5
195.4
195.3
195.2
195.1
195.0
194.9
194.8
194.7
194.6
194.5
194.3
194.2
194.1
194.0
193.9
193.8
193.7
193.6
193.5
193.4
193.3
193.2
193.1
193.0
192.9
192.8
192.7
192.6
192.5
192.4
192.3
192.2
192.1
192.0
191.9

Carrier
wavelength

C40
C39
C38
C37
C36
C35
C34
C33
C32
C31
C30
C29
C28
C27
C26
C25
C24
C23
C22
C21
Tone ch.
C20
C19
C18
C17
C16
C15
C14
C13
C12
C11
C10
C09
C08
C07
C06
C05
C04
C03
C02
C0
1

Wavelength allocation in C-Band

(THz)

Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in Rec. G. 692.
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation & maintenance support.
3. C13 is the Centre Wavelength

TEST LAB
210

Channel
number
1574.54
1575.37
1576.20
1577.03
1577.86
1578.69
1579.52
1580.35
1581.18
1582.02
1582.85
1583.69
1584.53
1585.36
1586.20
1587.04
1587.88
1588.73
1589.57
1590.41
1591.26
1592.10
1592.95
1593.79
1594.64
1595.49
1596.34
1597.19
1598.04
1598.89
1599.75
1600.60
1601.46
1602.31
1603.17
1604.03
1604.88
1605.74
1606.60
1607.47
1608.33

Carrier
frequency
(nm)

190.4
190.3
190.2
190.1
190.0
189.9
189.8
189.7
189.6
189.5
189.4
189.3
189.2
189.1
189.0
188.9
188.8
188.7
188.6
188.5
188.4
188.3
188.2
188.1
188.0
187.9
187.8
187.7
187.6
187.5
187.4
187.3
187.2
187.1
187.0
186.9
186.8
186.7
186.6
186.5
186.4

Carrier
wavelength

L01
L02
L03
L04
L05
L06
L07
L08
L09
L10
L11
L12
L13
L14
L15
L16
L17
L18
L19
L20
Tone ch.
L21
L22
L23
L24
L25
L26
L27
L28
L29
L30
L31
L32
L33
L34
L35
L36
L37
L38
L39
L40

Wavelength allocation in L-Band

(THz)

Note 1: Optical carriers are allocated on ITU-T 100 GHz (0.1 THz) grid in Rec. G. 692.
2: Tone channel is dedicated for operation & maintenance support.

TEST LAB
211

4.06 Main Components in DWDM


1) Transponder
2) Omux/Odmux
3) Optical Amplifier
4) OADM
5) Regenerator

TEST LAB

212

Transponder
A device that takes an optical signal, performs electrical
3R regeneration & re-transmits the signal in optical form
In to Wavelength grid as per G.192
It allows any Wavelength as input to DWDM
For every input Wavelength, one transponder is required
Its very useful for Wavelength leasing, as customer can
Send any wavelength

TEST LAB

213

Transponder

OADM

Transponders in
Terminal

Transponders in
OADM
TEST LAB

214

Mux/Transponders in DWDM

Fibre

2.5 Gb/s

10Gb/s

Full
transparency

Colored SDH
I/Fs

M
U
X

TRP

SAN

TRP

PDH

TRP

ATM

TRP

GbE

TRP

SDH /
SONET

TRP

Digital
Video

ECISDH

TEST LAB

215

KEEP ALIVE function in Transponder

TX

LOS

Shut-Down
Keep-alive

LOS

TXShut-Down
Keep-alive

RX

TX

RX

TX
SDH

SDH

TXA
Interruption
TX

RX

TX

SDH

RX

SDH

A transponder continuously outputs signal when it detects LOS.


(If a transponder shut down its output when it detects LOS, output of TXAMP at
Term Node may not correspond to sudden change of waves, so that
system may have an interruption.)

TEST LAB

216

Block Diagram of Transponder (2.5G Term)

Tx-Side

TX-E/O
ALM/Cont

CLK

LBO

Lambda OUT
(to OMUX)

DATA

RSOH
Monitor
OPT IN
(from Client)

TX-O/E
ALM/Cont

Control Circuits

BUS

Rx-Side

OPT OUT
(to Client)

RX-E/O
ALM/Cont

CLK

DATA

RSOH
Monitor
RX-O/E

Lambda IN
(from ODMUX)

ALM/Cont

TEST LAB

217

Omux/Odmux
Various Transponder outputs (Wavelengths) will be
provided as Inputs to Mux. Each input is equipped with A
selective filter of certain Wavelength. The output of these
filters are coupled to a Single Mode fiber
At the Receiver end, these Wavelengths are separated
again by a Demux & directs them to individual
Transponders
Both Mux & Demux are identical components,
only difference is that they are driven in opposite
direction
TEST LAB

218

DWDM Nodes - Optical Multiplexer (OMUX)

Wavelengt
h
n
(n(n1)
2)

Channe
l #n

#(n#(n1)
2)

Client

100 GHz

3
2
1

Aggregate Signal
over n-channels
with wavelengths
ranging from 1 to
n.

#3
#2
#1

OMUX

(n1)

Transmi
t
Amplifie
r
(TXA)

Channel spacing is
100 GHz and even.

TEST LAB

219

DWDM Nodes - Optical Demultiplexer (ODMUX)

Wavelengt
h
n
(n(n1)
2)

Channe
l #n

#(n#(n1)
2)

Client

100 GHz

3
2
1

Aggregate Signal
over n-channels
with wavelengths
ranging from 1 to
n.

#3
#2
#1

ODMUX

(n1)

Receive
Amplifie
r
(RXA)

Channel spacing is
100 GHz and even.

TEST LAB

220

4.07 Need of Amplifier


Receiver

Transmitter

Electrical
signal

~1 mW

80 km of fiber
0.25 dB/km

~10 W

Electrical
signal

There should be enough optical power at the receiver


for error free detection
Bit Error Rate (BER), typically less than 10-12
To travel long distances, we need to amplify or regenerate
the optical signal
TEST LAB

221

Optical Amplifier
Where do we require Optical Amps ?
a) Booster/Post Amp
Boosts the signal at Transmitter end to compensate relatively
low output power of laser transmitters

b) Line Amp
Used at regular intervals to compensate fiber transmission
loss

c) Pre Amp
Boosts signal prior to Optical detectors to increase the Rx
sensitivity
TEST LAB

222

Applications
Booster amplifiers for boosting optical power into the fiber
For boosting power before splitting into many branches in
CATV
Preamplifiers for increasing receiver sensitivity
In line amplifiers for periodic compensation of loss
For overcoming losses at cross connect, add/drop etc.

TEST LAB

223

Optical amplifiers in light wave systems


Tx

Rx

Booster amplifiers

Tx

Rx

Preamplifiers

Tx

Rx

TEST LAB

In-line
amplifiers

224

Typical Point To Point Optical Link

Rx

Tx

Signal Power

Post Amplifier

Line Amplifier

Pre Amplifier

Receiver Sensitivity
Link Length

TEST LAB

225

4.08 Types of Optical Amplifiers

Two Types of optical amplifiers available


1.

Solid state Optical Amplifiers

2.

Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Fiber Amplifiers

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers ( EDFAs )

Raman Amplification ( RA )

TEST LAB

226

Erbium doped fiber amplifier


Amplified signal

Weak signal
~1550 nm
WDM
EDF

Components:
Doped fiber
WDM coupler
Isolator
Pump laser

Isolator

980 nm pump

TEST LAB

227

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers


An Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier consists of a short length of
optical fibre doped by small controlled amount of the rare earth
element erbium
This rare earth element contributes in the amplification process in
presence of pump signal
Pump laser excites erbium ions which give extra energy to signal
Principle of operation is similar to principle of a laser

TEST LAB

228

4.09 Configuration of EDFA


The typical configuration of the EDFA consists of:
Optical pump source
WDM coupler
Er+ doped fiber
Isolators

TEST LAB

229

Configuration of EDFA

TEST LAB

230

Erbium doped
fiber
Core of the fiber doped with erbium
Conc. ~ 40 - 400 ppm
Absorption at 980/1550 nm ~ 5.5/5.2 dB/m
Fiber NA ~ 0.2 0.3
Cut off wavelength ~ 930 nm
MFD ~ 5.5 m at 1550 nm

Er doped
region

TEST LAB

231

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers


An Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier consists of a short length of
optical fibre doped by small controlled amount of the rare earth
element erbium
This rare earth element contributes in the amplification process in
presence of pump signal
Pump laser excites erbium ions which give extra energy to signal
Principle of operation is similar to principle of a laser

TEST LAB

232

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier


Pumping with 980nm laser is more effective than 1480nm
pumping
Commonly used in submarine systems, and increasingly on
land
Amplification possible at many wavelengths around 1550nm
Gain profile is not flat from the EDFA and need some flatting
mechanism

TEST LAB

233

Principle of Operation
An optical amplification is done with the help of an optical pump
laser of selective wavelength
Erbium ions are excited by the pump signal and reached to the
higher energy states
Erbium ion at high-energy state will stimulated by the signal needs
amplification leads these ion return to a lower-energy called
ground energy state
During this transition these ion emits a radiation of similar to the
signal

TEST LAB

234

Principle of EDFA Amplification

TEST LAB

235

Principle of Amplification in EDFA

TEST LAB

236

C & L band of EDFA

TEST LAB

237

Raman Fiber Amplifier


Basic principle of Raman fiber amplifier is Stimulated Raman
Scattering (SRS)
When stronger optical pump interacts with the medium generates
new signal (a Stokes wave) in same direction
New generated frequency is lesser then the pump frequency
by13.2 THz
In normal fiber this effect is very small and it takes a relatively long
length to have significant amplification

TEST LAB

238

Raman Amplification

TEST LAB

239

Raman Amplification(Contd..)
o A Raman amplifier uses intrinsic properties of silica fiber to obtain signal
amplification,this means transmission fiber can be used as a medium for
amplification
o An amplifier working on the principle of Raman amplification is called a
Distributed Raman Amplifier(DRA)

TEST LAB

240

Raman Amplifier(Principle)
The physical property behind DRA is called SRS.this
occurs when a sufficiently large pump wave is colaunched at a lower wavelength than the signal to be
amplified
Raman gain strongly depends on pump power and
frequency offset between pump and signal
Amplification occurs when the pumped photon gives
up its energy to create a new photon at the signal
wavelength plus some residual energy which is
absorbed as phonons(vibrational energy)
TEST LAB

241

Raman Amplifier(Principle)

o As there is a wide range of vibrational states above ground state,a broad range
of possible transitions are providing gain
o Raman gain increases almost linearly with the wavelength offset between signal
and pump peaking at about 100nm and then dropping rapidly with increased
offset

TEST LAB

242

Advantages of Raman Amplifier over EDFA

Low Noise Build up


Simple design,as direct amplification is achieved in the optical fiber and no
special transmission medium is required
Flexible assignment of signal frequencies,as Raman gain depends on the
pump wavelength and not on a wavelength sensitive material
parameter,such as emission cross section of dopant in the Erbium Doped
Fiber(EDF)
Broad gain bandwidth is achievable by combining Raman amplification
effect of several pump waves that are placed carefully in wavelength
domain

TEST LAB

243

Disadvantages of Raman Amplifier over EDFA


Not only specially launched pump waves but also but also
some of the WDM channels may provide power to amplify the
other channels this would result in power to amplify other
channels and thus cross talk leading to de-gradation
Degrading effects like Raman scattering and backward
Rayleigh scattering also affects the performance

TEST LAB

244

Comparison of Raman Amplifier and EDFA


Characteristic

Doped-Fiber Amplifier

Raman Amplifier

Amplificatio
n Band

depends on dopant

depends on availability of pump


wavelengths

Amplificatio
20 nm,more for multiple dopants/fibers
n Bandwidth

48 nm, more for multiple pump


waves

Gain

20 dB or more, depending on ion


concentration, fiber length, and pump
configuration

411 dB, proportional to pump


intensity and effective fiber length

Saturation
Power

depends on gain and material constants

equals about power of pump waves

Pump
Wavelength

980 nm or 1480 nm for EDFAs

100 nm lower then signal


wavelength at peak gain

TEST LAB

245

Raman Fiber Amplifier


From this phenomenon signal of lower frequency then pump gets
amplified and the optimal amplification occurs when the difference in
wavelengths is around 13.2 THz
Any signal lower then pump can be amplified but the efficiency will
not be the same for all
Efficiency can be improved by adding an FBG (Fibre Bragg Grating)
reflector for the pump wavelength
Thus any frequency can be generated from this phenomenon

TEST LAB

246

4.10 Amplifier Vs. Regenerator


Optical amplifier, amplifies an optical signal without changing it to
electrical signal
Repeaters, Amplifies the optical signal after converting back to
electrical and generates a new optical signal of the same format
Reshaping & timing of data stream

TEST LAB

247

Amplification Vs. Regenerator

Regenerator

TEST LAB

248

4.11 Electrical
Regeneration
Long haul fiber optic systems use repeaters or regenerators
LD

PD

3R
1

Regeneration with
retiming and reshaping
Limited by speed of electrical
Single wavelength only
Capacity upgradation difficult and expensive
TEST LAB

249

Interaction between atom and


light
An atom or an ion is characterized by discrete energy levels
Interaction process between an atom and radiation
Spontaneous
emission
Stimulated
emission

Absorption

E2
E1
E2
E1
E2
E1
TEST LAB

250

Optical
amplification
Attenuation
E2
E1

Amplification
E2
E1

Optical amplification by using population inversion


TEST LAB
251

4.12 KEEP ALIVE function in OADM


LOS

TX
LOS

Shut-Down
Keep-alive

RX

LOS

TX
SDH

RX
RXA

SDH

TXA
Interruption

TX

RX

TX

SDH

RX

SDH

transponder continuously outputs signal when it detects LOS.

(If a transponder shut down its output when it detects LOS, output of TXAMP at
Term Node may not correspond to sudden change of waves, so that
system may have an interruption.)

TEST LAB

252

KEEP ALIVE function in OADM

Output Power Level

RXAMP Output Power Level

RXAMP Output Signal

RXAMP keeps
total output power
level.

RXAMP keeps
total output power
level.
With Keep Alive
Signals

Failure

No Signal

Failure
Without Keep Alive

ASE

ASE

Time

RXAMP

continuously outputs signal when it detects LOS.

(If RXAMP shut down its output when it detects LOS, output of TXAMP at
Full-OADM Node may not correspond to sudden change of waves, so that
system may have an interruption.)

TEST LAB

253

4.13 Optical Supervisory Channel


(OSC)

OSC

is the dedicated engineering service channel defined in ITU-T Rec. G. 692.

ITU-T Recommendation G.692 assigns (151010) nm or (198.51.4) THz for the


OSC frequency or wavelength.

While the 1510 nm is convenient for C-band, another supplier-proprietary OSC


wavelength such as 1630 nm can be assigned for L-band.
The OSC transmits the line supervisory or engineering service information such
as the number of traffic channels installed and order wire traffic etc

TEST LAB

254

Block Diagram of Amplifier (TX AMP)


EDFA

INPUT

EDFA

OUTPUT

GEQ
SV-IN
Pumping
Laser-1

Pumping
Laser-6
Pumping
Laser-7

INPUTMON

Pumping
Laser-8

IN
MON

Pumping Laser-1
Pumping Laser-6,7,8

980nm
1480nm

OUTPUTMON
OUT
MON

REF
MON

SV
MON

GEQ:Gain Equalizer
30/33 dB amplifier applies pumping laser-8

TEST LAB

255

4.14 DWDM networks: Measurement Parameters


T

Purely optical parameters (all channels)


P, , OSNR

=> OSA

Quality parameters (related to a single channel)


Logical-Layer parameters:
LOS, LOF, B1, B2, FEC (G709)

=> BERT

Physical-Layer parameters (S/N):


bit error rate, jitter, wander,Q-factor

TEST LAB

=> BERT, Q-meter

256

DWDM System Parameters

TEST LAB

257

Performance Monitoring using SDH Frame

Layer 3

IP
IP
Router
Router

IP
IP
Router
Router

Layer 2

Layer 1

DWDM

DWDM

B1
Monitor

B1
Monitor

SDH

Layer 0

Frame

SDH

n
w/ 3R

SDH
n
w/ 3R

Frame

TxTPND
Short Reach
OPT Interface

Frame

RxTPND

Performance Guarantee
for Optical Layer
Long Reach
Termination

TEST LAB

Short Reach
OPT Interface

258

Transmission Performance - Measure


As a digital transmission system, transmission
performance of a WDM system is assessed by data
transmission errors in bit-error ratio (BER).
Two causes of transmission errors:

1.Optical noise, referred to as the amplified


spontaneous emission (ASE), created and
accumulated in the optical amplifiers used as ILAs.
2.Waveform distortion created in the optical fibers.
Generally, the effect by ASE is predominant over that by
the waveform distortion.

TEST LAB

259

Gain Profile Management (1)


The gain profile management regulates the gain profile, or the
gain-to-wavelength characteristics, to meet the BER
requirements of the individual channels.
The gain profile of an optical amplifier covering a range of wavelength
generally exhibits uneven characteristics as shown simply below.

Power level

WDM signal input


to AMP

AMP gain-WL
characteristics (Uneven
gain profile)

WDM signal output from


AMP (Uneven ch-signal
levels)

Wavelength(WL)

TEST LAB

260

Gain Profile Management (2)


Purpose of the gain profile management is to compress, or
equalize, the wavelength-dependent gain variation into
acceptable limits using GEQ.

Power level

WDM signal input


to AMP

AMP gain-WL
characteristics (Uneven
gain profile)

GEQ gain-WL
characteristics

Wavelength(WL)

(AMP + GEQ) gainWL characteristics

WDM signal output from


AMP (Even ch-signal levels)

TEST LAB

261

4.15 Performance Degradation Factors


Factors limiting the transmission distance
OSNR (20dB for 2.5Gb/s, and 26dB for 10Gb/s)
Attenuation (optical fiber)
Chromatic dispersion
PMD (polarized mode dispersion)
Non-linearity effects

Solutions
Narrow-band laser sources
Optical amplifier EDFA
Dispersion compensation
PMD (unsolved) Controlled in fibre at source

TEST LAB

262

Performance Degradation Factors


The BER performance of a DWDM channel is determined by OSNR, which is
delivered by the receiver.
This acceptable OSNR is delivered through a relatively sophisticated
analysis of signal strength per channel, amplifier distances, and the
frequency spacing between channels.
OSNR POUT L NF 10 Log N 10 Log h vv 0
POUT: Per channel output power(dBm)
L:

Attenuation between two amplifiers (dB)

NF : Noise figure of amplifier(dB)


N:

number of spans

10 Log [h vv 0 = - 58 dBm 1.55m, 0.1nm spectrum width)


The total transmit power is limited by the present laser technology and fiber
non linearities .The key factors are the span (L) and the number of spans(N).

TEST LAB

263

Performance Degradation Factors


OSNR POUT L NF 10 Log N 10 Log h vv 0

POUT: Per channel output power(dBm)


L:

Attenuation between two amplifiers (dB)

NF : Noise figure of amplifier(dB)


N:

number of spans

10 Log [h vv 0 = - 58 dBm 1.55m, 0.1nm spectrum width)


The total transmit power is limited by the present laser technology and
fiber non-linearity's
The key factors are the span (L) and the number of spans(N).

TEST LAB

264

4.16 Chromatic Dispersion


Adverse Effects on Performance
Transmission errors caused by the pulse waveform
distortion due to the pulse transition point dispersion.
Pulse width=a
Pulse width=b<a

Time Slot
Transmitted pulse

Transmission
fiber cable

Time Slot
Received pulse

Effective pulse width of the received signal is reduced due to the


transition point dispersion.
The reduction in the effective pulse width can cause transmission
error.

TEST LAB

265

Chromatic Dispersion Effects

electrical signal

dispersion (different velocities for different wavelengths)

Optical
Light Source
t
t
(LaserDiode) continuous light signal Modulator modulated light signal

(line signal)

center wavelength

(frq.)

Spectrumof continuous light

(frq.)

Spectrum of modulated light

TEST LAB

266

Chromatic Dispersion Effects Counter measures


Dispersion Management
The dispersion management compensates the received signal for
the dispersion accumulated over a fiber transmission line to
meet the BER requirement.
Objective for the accumulated chromatic dispersion depends on
the bit rate of the channel signal, for example;
8,000 ps/nm for 2.5 Gbps channel signal, or
300 ps/nm for 10 Gbps channel signal.

Typical chromatic dispersion coefficient of a single-mode fiber


(SMF) is;
+18 ps/(nmkm) in 1550 nm region.

TEST LAB

267

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


x

Velocity:V1

V1 > V2

Velocity:V2
y

DGD

Fiber

Fiber without
PMD
Fiber with PMD
Propagation without or with PMD

TEST LAB

268

Polarized Mode Dispersion (PMD)


x

Ideal fiber

y
Actual fiber

PMD = delay time

In

in
s
a
cre

ER
B
g

Caused by the eccentric and asymmetrical characteristics


of the fiber.
Causing the same effect as by the chromatic dispersion.
No way to reduce or compensate it for the time being.

TEST LAB

269

Dispersion Compensation Fiber

The popular methods are dispersion compensation fibers and


chirp gratings
DCF provide negative dispersion in 1550nm
CFBG reflect different wavelengths introducing different
delays in different frequencies
Polarization mode dispersion
Different polarizations travel with different group velocities
Distribution of signal and the energy over different SOP slowly
changes with time

TEST LAB

270

4.17 Fiber Nonlinearities


Fiber nonlinear ties limit the performance of any fiber optic
transmission systemincluding DWDM.
Nonlinearities fall into two groups:
Scattering phenomena
- SBS Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
- SRS Stimulated Raman Scattering
Refractive index phenomena
- SPM self-phase modulation (Intra-channel)
- CPM cross-phase modulation (Inter-channel)
- FWM four-wave mixing
Nonlinearities can be avoided by limiting the total transmit
power.

TEST LAB

271

Optical Fiber Non-linearity Kerr Effects


Phenomenon

Description

Effects on
Signals

SPM

The fiber
depending
strength.

XPM

The fiber refractive index varies Spectrum


depending
on
the
strengths
of broadening.
coexisting optical signals.
Waveform
distortion.

FWM

Spurious optical signals are generated Beat noise.


due to the third-order cross modulation Waveform
among the different wavelength optical distortion.
signals.

refractive index
on the optical

TEST LAB

varies Spectrum
signal broadening.
Waveform
distortion.

272

Optical Fiber Non-linearity Example


Four-wave Mixing (FWM)
Power (db)

S1

f
213

U1
f
113

f1- 2f

f
123
f
112

S2

U2
U3
U4

f1- f

f
312
f
223

f1

U5

S3

f
132

U6
U7

f2

f
332
f
321

f
221

U8

f
231

f3

U9
U10

f
331

U11

f3+ f

U12

f3+ 2f

Frequency

Undesired optical signals U1 to U12 generated by FWM


from 3 equally-spaced signals S1 to S3 with frequencies
f1, f2 and f3, respectively.

TEST LAB

273

Optical Signal/Noise Ratio (OSNR)


The BER performance of a DWDM channel is determined by
OSNR, which is delivered by the receiver.
This acceptable OSNR is delivered through a relatively
sophisticated analysis of signal strength per channel, amplifier
distances, and the frequency spacing between channels.

OSNR POUT L NF 10 Log N 10 Log h


vv 0
POUT: Per channel output power(dBm)
L: Attenuation between two amplifiers (dB)
NF : Noise figure of amplifier(dB)
N: number of spans
10 Log [h vv 0 = - 58 dBm 1.55m, 0.1nm spectrum width)

The total transmit power is limited by the present laser technology and
fiber non-linearity's
TEST
274
The key factors are the span (L) and
the LAB
number of spans(N).

TX
TX

OFA

OFA

p=
a
T

d
20

(1

)
%

OFA

Pch = 3 dBm

OFA

TX

DWDM Demux

TX

DWDM Mux

Link Budget Calculation


RX
RX
RX
RX

Pch = -17 dBm


Pch = -21 dBm ==> signal

to low for 10G

P in
P in

Dynamic ranges:
OQM-201 (all data rates)
1 port 10G (OC-192/STM-64)
1 port up to 2.5G (OC-3/STM-1)
1 port up to 2.5G (OC-12/STM-4)
1 port up to 2.5G (OC-48/STM-16)

P out

BERT, Q-meter

Channel selector
with low intersion loss
e.g. 4 dB
-14 dBm to -4 dBm
-14 dBm to -3 dBm
-28 dBm to -8 dBm
-28 dBm to -8 dBm
-18 dBm to 0 dBm

TEST LAB

275

How to access and monitor live DWDM networks ?


Channel Isolation
Terminal A

Terminal B

Mon Tx

OA

Mon Tx

OA

Mon Tx

...

Mux

...

OADM

OA

OTU

OA

Demux

OTU

OADM

Mon Tx

BER Test
Q-factor analysis
of the channel

Spectral Analysis

Channel isolation

TEST LAB

276

Test and Measurement Equipment for DWDM

OA

OA

Mon Tx

Report generation

Mon Tx

OADM

OA

Mon Tx

OA

Mon Tx

...

M
u
x

...

Terminal

OADM

Demu
OTU
x

OTU

Terminal

EDFA channel
amplifier
OSA + DWDM
channel isolator
Sonet/ SDH
Analyzer,
Q-factor meter

,OSNR, P, BER, Q

TESTModular
LAB platform

277

Fiber Characterization before DWDM installation

Insertion loss and optical budget measurement


ORL measurement
Splice/Connector measurement
Length measurement
Attenuation profile measurement

TEST LAB

278

DWDM Field Testing


Automatic Power Reduction (APR)
APR is an important function for automatic shutdown of optical output
when the system detects fiber-cut.
Necessary for safety maintenance.
LOC-OTS
T1

Txpnd

APR
R1

Rxpnd

TERM

CUT

IL1

R2
T2

APR
LOC-OTS

TEST LAB

Rxpnd
APR
Txpnd

IL2

TERM

279

Automatic Power Control


TxPND

OMUX

TXAMP

ILAMP

RXAMP

ODMUX

RxPND
O-E-O

O-E-O
ED
FA

PD

O-E-O

LD

OSC
1510nm

ED
FA

OSC

LD 1510nm

PD

ED
FA
O-E-O

PD

PD

AWG

APC

OSC AGENT

O-E-O

APC

APC

OSC AGENT

AWG

OSC AGENT

O-E-O

PD

INTF

TERM

SC

SC

SC

ILAMP

TERM

OMUX detects incoming optical signals


Informs how many active channels to ILAMPs and Remote Terminal
Via Optical Supervisory Channel @1510nm
Easily upgrade TxPND cards

TEST LAB

280

Protection Switching function


Protection Switching function with optic coupler is supported.
Optical UWPSR(Uni-directional Wavelength-Path Switched
Ring)
Unprotected operation is also supported at each wavelength.
In this case, node capacity is doubled.

TPND

TPND

TPND

TPND

Coupler

Router
Protection scheme for premium service
offering

Configuration for high capacity unprotected


service.

TEST LAB

281

4.18 Comparison of CWDM and DWDM Technologies

TEST LAB

282

0
16
1

15
9

15
7

0
15
5

0
15
3

10
15

90
14

0
14
50
14
70

14
3

0
14
1

13
90

0
13
7

0
13
5

0
13
3

0
13
1

0
12
9

12
7

CWDM Channel Grid ITU-T G.694.2

DWDM:
driven by longhaul networks, expensive, high transparency,
superior scalability
CWDM:
limited to Max 16/18 channels, 40-100Gbps fiber capacity
remote storage, intra-enterprise, high speed data transfer
owned/leased fibers, local carriers

TEST LAB

283

DWDM Vs CWDM

TEST LAB

284

4.19 Summary
In this chapter we studied the following topics :
Types of Bands used in DWDM
2.

No of Wavelengths used in DWDM

3.

Types of Modules used in DWDM Like Transponder ,Amplifiers,Mux & DMUX

4.

Difference between Amplifier & Regenerator

5.

Parameters that effect the DWDM System performance

6.

Chromatic dispersion and Polarized mode dispersion

7.

How Four Wave Mixing that Effect the dwdm system performance

8.

Difference between DWDM & CWDM

TEST LAB

285

Chapter-5
SDH & DWDM Products

TEST LAB

286

SDH & DWDM Products


Page No
5.01 ECI equipment

290

5.02 XDM features

..

291 -- 292

5.03 Card Descriptions

293 --302

5.04 XDM Highlights & interfaces

..

303 --306

5.05 XDM 100 Applications

307--310

5.06 XDM 100 Architecture

311 --321

5.07 Protection Mechanism

..

322 --325

5.08 XDM1000 Shelf veiw

..

326 --328

5.09 XDM -2000

TEST LAB

329

287

SDH & DWDM Products


Page No
5.10

XDM-500

330 --342

5.11

XDM-400

343

5.12

Ethernet solution

344 347

Alcatel Products
5.21

Alcatel products

5.22

1642 Edge Multiplexer

352 --356

5.23

1642 Traffic port sub system

357 --360

5.24

1642 Add drop feature

..

5.25

Main product feature

TEST LAB

348 --351

361
362--364

288

SDH & DWDM Products


Page No
5.26

1662 SMC Product

..

365 --369

5.27

Traffic port subsystem & Applications .

370 381

5.28

1660 SM Product features

..

382 385

5.29

1696 Metro Span Applications

..

386 390

5.30

1696 OADM Features & Applications

..

391394

5.31

Optical Amplifier

395396

5.32

Optical layer protection

97 404

5.33

TMN Architecture

..

405 410

5.34

Summary

TEST LAB

411

289

5.01 ECI Equipment

ECI XDM 2000

ECI XDM 400

ECI XDM 100


ECI XDM 1000
Micro XDM

ECI XDM 500

Micro LAN

TEST LAB

290

5.02 SDM-1
1

The -SDM-1RD is the reduced version of the product. It supports up


to eight E1 tributaries and is non-expandable

The -SDM-1 is the standard multiplier. It supports up to 21 E1


tributaries
3
The -SDM-1E module is up gradable from 21 E1 to 63 E1 tributary
interfaces via Tributary Expansion (TEX) cards. Adding a TEX card causes no
interruption to live network traffic and can be performed at any
time.
2

Channel 22 is used for DCC Cross connect and also used for
Traffic

STM 1 interface modules


a.Optical short-haul 1310nm (35km)
b.Optical long haul 1550 nm (100km)
c.Electrical

.
TEST LAB

291

-SDM-1 Main Features


1.

Automatic path protection switching

2.

Automatic performance monitoring

3.

NVM (Non Volatile -Memory) card for


software and configuration back up

4.

Dual input power

5.

Variety of timing sources

6.

Alarm in/out connectors


TEST LAB

292

5.03 Card Descriptions

MAC

Main Card

CDB

Control Daughter Board

TEX

Tributary Extension card

TEST LAB

293

Main Card (MAC)

Houses two O/E modules


Which provide the SDH line interface
Houses the timing module unit (TMU)
Houses 21x2Mbps electrical modules,
which provide PDH tributary lines.

TEST LAB

294

Control Daughter Board (CDB)

Control the system and communicates


with the E-NM
Houses the NVM (Non Volatile
Memory) module
Houses the power supply
Houses the LEDs for displaying local
alarms
TEST LAB

295

Tributary Extension (TEX) Card

Optical card
Provides additional Tributaries
Provides physical PDH interfaces
for 2/34/45 Mbps

TEST LAB

296

Tributary Extension (TEX) Card

Power (2sources)
21x2Mbps
tributaries

Alarm In/out
Debug port

CLK In/out

Alarm indicators
NVM
RJ-45
Ethernet connector

Aggregate
connections

TEST LAB

297

XDM Capabilities

Configurable system
TM-Terminal Multiplexer
DXC
DWDM (XDM 200/400/500/1000/2000)
ADM

TEST LAB

298

Common Cards Description

XDM Multiplexer Control Processor (XMCP)


Main Equipment Control Panel (MECP)
High / Low Level Cross Connect (HLXC)
XDM input Filter Unit (XINF)
XDM Fan Control Unit (XFCU)
I/O Cards.
TEST LAB

299

Example: XDM-1000
X-INF
Modules cage
ECB
MEPC
HLXC-L

HLXC-R
XMPC
X-FCU

TEST LAB

300

Light soft connectivity


Client
Micro
XDM

XDM
1000

EMS-1
For XDM

NMS-SERVER
Blade 2000-SUN

XDM
500

Other
Vendor MTNM
TEST LAB

EMS
SYMCOM
Micro
LAN
301

MSPP in the Access Added Values


Low cost miniature MSPP that combines Ethernet flexibility with
SDH/SONET reliability
Single access platform for all service types (reduced network cost)
One edge node suits all types of applications
Single management system for all services
Cost-effective network infrastructure
Flexible and scalable platform that enables a Build- as-You-Grow
approach in the Access arena
Future ready

TEST LAB

302

5.04 The XDM-100 Highlights

Miniature Multi-propose SDH network element

Non-blocking 128 STM-1/OC-3 streams

High/Low order granularity matrix with an overall capacity


of 20 Gbps

Supports ring, chain, mesh network topologies

Supports SDH and SONET

CWDM colored interfaces ( optional )

Belongs to the XDM family

TEST LAB

303

The XDM-100 Interfaces


E1 (up to 168 per shelf per 21 E1s card)
Up to 252 per shelf per 63 E1s card (roadmap)
E3, DS-3 (up to 24 per shelf and 3 per module)
10/100BaseT (16 per shelf and 8 per module )
100FX (8 per shelf and 4 per module )
GbE (4 per shelf and 2 per module )
Electrical and optical STM-1/OC-3 (up to 48 per shelf and 4 per module)
STM-4/OC-12 (up to 8 per shelf and 2 per module)
STM-16/OC-48 (up to 4 per shelf and 1 per module)
CWDM colored transceivers (optional)

TEST LAB

304

Ethernet Layer 2 Services by XDM-100


Ethernet layer 2 services platform via special Ethernet module
Multipoint-to-multipoint transparent LAN services
Shared capacity used for multiple users, ensuring cost-effective
statistical multiplexing.
QoS guarantees

TEST LAB

305

Ethernet by XDM-100 Advantages

Provides Ethernet with carrier-class reliability

Wide variety of protection schemes

Carrier-class operation and management

Comprehensive service measurement ensures customer SLA

Framework for various service offerings

Ethernet traffic is carried over existing SDH/SONET infrastructure exploiting


resources, footprint and operational efforts.

TEST LAB

306

5.05
The XDM-100 Applications

TEST LAB

307

XDM-100 in the Metro Access


Metro access transmission sub-network

TM-1/4/16, dual homing, Multi terminal 1/4/16,


expansion shelf for XDM-1000 & XDM-2000
Redundant or Non-redundant ADM1/4/16 (OC-3/12/48)
Consolidation of multiple services
Provides more efficient scaling in the Metro Access

Metro
Access

TDM

Metro
Core

FE

Metro
Access

GbE TDM

TDM

FE

GbE TDM

TEST LAB

TDM

FE
TDM

FE

308

XDM-100 Network Termination


Local Access sub-network

Redundant ADM1/4/16 (OC-3/12/48)


Multi-ADM-1/4
Multi-service Aggregation
Provides more efficient scaling and service collection
for private networks of corporate / enterprises

GbE TDM

Local
Access

TDM

TEST LAB

FE

309

XDM-100 in the Cellular RAN


Cellular Networks
RNC/ Hub BTS / Node B

XDM-500
XDM-400

ADM-1/4/16
Multi-ADM-1

Small Size
Outdoor installation

Multiple STM-1 Links


or STM-4
STM-1

XDM-100
N x E1s

uSDM-1
STM-1

N x E1s

BTS
BTS

TEST LAB

BTS

310

5.06
The XDM-100 Architecture

TEST LAB

311

The XDM-100 Layout


MXC-A

I/O Modules:

Multiplexe
r
Cross
Connect
&
Control

PIM, SIM, EISM

SDH/SONET
Aggregate
modules
(SAM)

MXC-B

ECU
External Control Unit

TEST LAB

FCU100
Fan Control Unit

312

XDM-100
1.

Simple, add or replace plug-in modules. This can be performed while


the system is in operation, without affecting traffic in any way.

Optimization of aggregate module assignment. Two aggregate modules


are associated with each Main Cross-connect Control (MXC) card. Each
module supports a bandwidth of up to 2.5 Gbps.

Optimization of tributary I/O slot assignment. Eight slots can


accommodate different I/O modules (PIM, SIM and EIS-M).

In-service scalability of SDH links.An optical connection operating at a


specific STM rate can be upgraded from STM-1 to STM-4or STM-16.

5 XDM-100supports mesh,ring,star,and linear topologies.All system


configurations are controlled by a single network
management system with end-to-end service provisioning, from E1 to
STM-16 to DS-3.

TEST LAB

313

XDM-100
6 The XDM-100 can be configured to operate as:Single ADM/TM

7.Aggregates traffic arriving over Ethernet, E1, E3, DS-3 and STM-1/4 signals
directly over STM-1/4/16

8.

Multi-ADM/TM

Can be configured as a Terminal Multiplier (TM) with a single port for the
line aggregates, as an ADM with two aggregate ports

9. Is suitable for indoor or outdoor installations

10. Supports an extended operating temperature range up to 55 C

TEST LAB

314

MXC Functionality

The XDM-100 Main Cross-Connect and Control (MXC) card performs all the
XDM-100 cross-connect, timing, multiplexing and power functions, including:
1

Multiplexer control and traffic processing. The processor controls all


multiplexer functions.

Input power filtering (INF) and DC/DC conversion. Each card accepts two
power input sources,
SDH traffic cross-connection (via an 192x192 STM-1 switch). The switch
switches aggregate and tributary interface traffic. The actual used capacity
is
128 x 128 STM-1 equivalents.

TEST LAB

315

MXC Functionality
Multiplexer timing unit. A full featured XDM TMU.
DCC routing and handling of 32 DCC channels.
Each MXC card also has a nonvolatile flash memory (NVM).
For reliability purposes, a redundant pair of main cross-connect control
cards
(MXC-A and MXC-B) may be configured, with A being the active
card and B the protection card.

TEST LAB

316

PIM (PDH Input/Output) Modules


The function of the PIM module is to link PDH interface signals to the XDM100's cross-connect matrix (MXC).
The XDM-100 supports PIM modules for different bitrates: 2 Mbps (E1), and 34
Mbps (E3), 45 Mbps (DS-3) .

SIM (SDH Input/Output) and SAM (SDH


Aggregate) Modules
SIM Modules
The XDM-100 supports the following SDH tributary interfaces:
4 x STM-1 electrical interfaces
4 x STM-1 optical modular interfaces
2 x STM-1 electrical and 2 x STM-1 optical modular interfaces

2 x STM-4 optical modular interfaces


TEST LAB

317

SAM Modules
SDH aggregate for bitrates from STM-1 up to STM-16. The following
types of SAM modules are supported:
4 x STM-1 electrical interfaces
4 x STM-1 optical modular interfaces
2 x STM-1 electrical and 2 x STM-1 optical modular interfaces
2 x STM-4 optical modular interfaces
1 x STM-16 optical, modular interface

TEST LAB

318

SAM Modules
XDM-100 enables flexible assignment of the above I/Os. Any combination of
I/O cards is allowed, provided the total matrix capacity is not exceeded.
Shelf interfaces capacity

TEST LAB

319

The XDM-100 Schematic View


IM1

IM2

IM3

IM4

IM5

IM6

IM7

IM8

2x48Vin

MXC-A

SAM

A1

2x48Vin

MXC-B

SAM

B1

SAM
SAM

ECU

I/O Modules:
PIM, SIM, EISM

A2
FCU

B2

100

Display

SAM = SDH Aggregate Module


SAM1_4E
4 x STM-1 E
SAM1_4O
4 x STM-1 O
SAM1_4O/E
2 x STM-1O + 2 x STM-1E
SAM 4_2
2 x STM-4
SAM16_1
1 x STM-16

IM = Interface Module
PIM2_21 21x unframed E1
PIM2_63 63x unframed E1
(double slot) - roadmap
PIM345-3 3 x E3/DS3/STS-1
SIM1_4/E 4 x STM-1 E
SIM1_4/O 4 x STM-1 O

EIS-M = 6 x 10/100BaseT + 2 x 10/100/1000M

TEST LAB

320

The XDM-100 + TPU


TPU = Tributary Protection Unit (TPU)
TPU

TPM1

TPM2

TPM3

TPM4

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

I6

I7

I8

TCF

I/O Modules:
PIM, SIM, EISM

2x48Vin

MXC-A

A1

A2

2x48Vin

MXC-B

B1

B2

ECU

FCU
100

Display

TEST LAB

321

5.07 Equipment Protection and Redundancy


The XDM-100 offers:
1:1 and 1:3 I/O protection schemes for 2/34/45Mbps
and STM-1/OC-3 electrical I/O
1+1 matrix protection
Common control redundancy
Timing unit redundancy
Power supply redundancy

TEST LAB

322

Traffic Protection Mechanisms


The XDM-100 offers:
1+1 Path Protection / UPSR, BPSR
SNCP
MSP Linear / APS 1+1
MS-SPRing / BLSR

TEST LAB

323

XDM-100 Control Interfaces

10/100 Ethernet for management

Serial port for local manager (RS-232)

External timing (T3/T4)

External Alarms port

Orderwire

OHA (future)

USB for management or DB backup ( Future Option )

TEST LAB

324

The XDM-100 in the RAN


XDM-500

Fully Protected Aggregator of


traffic from BTS or Node Bs

Small Size Non-Blocking


grooming & consolidation

XDM-500

Multiple STM-1 Links


or STM-4

Anywhere installation
Supporting Ethernet L2
services for Wireless LAN
uSDM-1

STM-1

XDM-100
N x E1s

STM-1

N x E1s

BTS
BTS

TEST LAB

BTS

325

5.08 XDM 1000 Shelf


view
11 CCP slots
for electrical
I/Os or optical
modules

2 slots for
xMCP control
cards

12 x I/O slots
for PDH, SDH,
DATA or DWDM
cards

2 slots for
XC matrices
or DWDM
modules

TEST LAB

XDM1000
Extended
Shelf
326

IO8

IO7

TEST LAB

HLXC-R

IO9
IO10
IO11
IO12

XMPC

XMPC

IO1
IO2
IO3
IO4
IO5
IO6

HLXC-L

MEPC

MIO11

MIO10

MIO9

MIO8

MIO7

MIO6

MIO5

MIO4

MIO3

MIO2

MIO1

XDM-1000 SHELF DIAGRAM

327

Capacity

Bitrate
2Mbps
34Mbps
45Mbps
STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64

XDM-1000 12 I/O
Port per card
slots 11Modules
84
924
8/16
88/176
8/16
88E/176E/172O
8/16
88E/176E/192O
4
48
1/2
12/24
1
6
TEST LAB

328

5.09 XDM 2000 Shelf view

2 slots for
xMCP control
cards
12 x I/O slots
for SDH, DATA
or DWDM
cards

2 slots for
XC matrices
or DWDM
modules

XDM2000
Optical Shelf
TEST LAB

329

5.10 XDM 500 Shelf view

4 CCP slots for


electrical I/Os or
optical modules

2 slots for
xMCP
control
cards

6 x I/O slots
for PDH, SDH,
DATA or
DWDM cards

2 slots for XC
matrices or
DWDM
modules

XDM500
Regular Shelf
TEST LAB

330

TEST LAB

5
6

1
2
3

MECP

MO4

MO3

MO2

MO1

HLXC-R

XMCP

XMCP

HLXC-L

XDM-500 SHELF DIAGRAM

331

XDM-500 SHELF

Bitrate Port per card


2Mbps
34Mbps
45Mbps
STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64

84
8/16
8/16
8/16
4
1/2
1

XDM-500 6- I/O
slots 4-Modules
336
32/64
32E/64E/96O
32E/64E/96O
24
6/12
2

TEST LAB

332

XDM -PROTECTION

Path Protection
Sub Network Connection Protection :SNCP
Multiplexer Section protection
a. MSP-Liner
b. MS-Shared protection ring

TEST LAB

333

XDM Hardware Protection

1 + 1 for HLXC
1:1 for xMCP
1:n for electrical I/Os (Slot 6 for E3,DS3 )
1:1 for Sync unit
1+1 for Sync I/p and o/p
1+1 for power supply
2+1 units for xFCU
TEST LAB

334

XMPC :Card Features

XDM Main Control Processor


The card is main controller of the XDM
Double microprocessor
XRAM Daughter board and Flash memory card
Includes Real Time Clock for the NE

TEST LAB

335

MECP-Main Equipment Control Panel

Provides fast-Ethernet HUB for management


Includes alarm indicators on the front panel
Controls XRAM indications and the I/O alarms

TEST LAB

336

MEPC LEDs

Item
LED
LED
LED
LED

Designation
CRITICAL
MAJOR
MINOR
WARNING

Status Function
RED Critical alarm indication
ORANGE Major alarm indication
YELLOW Minor alarm indication
WHITE Warning alarm indication
TEST LAB

337

HLXC Card :Main Features


High order and low order cross-connect L-Left ,R-Right
The HLXC is the cross-connect card of the XDM
Supports 192/384 STM1s traffic cross connections
Supports SONET
Houses the Timing Unit (TMU)

TEST LAB

338

XDM Timing Unit :TMU

Part of the HLXC


1:1 Hot standby protection

Up to four of the following timing references can


Be monitored simultaneously by each XDM.

2MHz external timing sources (T3)


2Mbps external timing sources (T3)
STM-n Line timing from any SDH interface card
PDH line timing
Local internal CLK
TEST LAB

339

XDM Fan Control Unit (XFCU)

XDM contains 3 XFCU units


Each XFCU is equipped with 2 independent
Power fans
Provides maximum airflow
Provides full equipment redundancy

TEST LAB

340

XDM Input Filter Unit (XINF)


Provides filtering and environmental noise
suppression
Connects the two power lines into a single output
Provides indication of voltage source presence
Provides line power transmit protection against
voltage spikes
Holds-up line voltage to bridge short interrupts of the
voltage source
Provides over and under voltage protection.
TEST LAB

341

External Connection Board :ECB

SLIP interface for management

Debug connector

Orderwire interface

T3/T4 Interfaces

TEST LAB

342

5.11 XDM 400 Shelf view

2 CCP slots
for electrical
I/Os or
amplifiers

5 x I/O slots for PDH,


SDH, DATA cards or
amplifiers

2 slots for
xMCP
control
cards
2 slots for
XC matrice

XDM400
Low cost
Compact Shelf
TEST LAB

343

5.12 ECIs Ethernet Solutions


Concatenated STM-4c/16c/64c or OC-12c/48c/192c for IP and
ATM
DIO Data I/O card - GbE layer 1 and GbE over optics
EIS: XDM FE and GBE layer 1 & 2 card
ASM ATM Service Matrix
Lan/ : Fast Ethernet layer 2 and E1 access

TEST LAB

344

But what about the legacy networks ?


Most Legacy Networks do not support concatenated signals !

The solution

Virtual Concatenation !

X
X

TEST LAB

345

But what about the legacy networks ?


The solution
solution -The

Virtual Concatenation
Concatenation !!
Virtual

1
1
2
3
4

1
2

1
3
4

2
2

3
4

1
2
3

4
2 3 2 1
3
4

Towards the Network regular VC4s


Towards the clients Contiguous Concatenation

TEST LAB

346

BroadGate LAN

16xE1or
21xE1I/Fs

2xFEor
6xFEI/Fs

Next Generation ADM-1


with FE L1/2 services
TEST LAB

2xSTM1o

347

5.21 ALCATEL - Products

TEST LAB

348

Alcatel Optical Multi-Service Nodes


Alcatel 1660 SM
Metro Edge/CoreSTM-16 to 64, Eth, GbE, Packet Ring

Alcatel 1662 SMC


STM-1/4/16, Eth, GbE, PR

Compact Metro Edge

Low End CPE

STM-1, Eth

TEST LAB

349

OMSN family concept

Very compact, high density hardware


Minimization and reuse of commercial items
Synergy in spares, repairs, training

Symmetric architecture => Flexibility in all topologies


All the STM-n ports are functionally equivalent (no more aggregate and tributary)
Termination of multiple SNCP rings or MS-SPRings (Stacked Ring Configuration)
Full cross-connect capability in all configurations

High availability
Protection mechanisms (equipment protection, MSP, SNCP, MS-SPRing)

Optical features (DWDM interworking, Intra office to Very Long haul


applications)
Common Network Management platform (for different technologies)

TEST LAB

350

Multi-Service concept in OMSN: ISA


Integrated data-aware features: ATM, Ethernet, GigE, Packet Ring, IP/MPLS transport and
aggregation functions on proper data layer
Multi-Service SDH as confluent platform
Optimal resource utilisation

Single network infrastructure for aggregation and transport of voice and data
reduces CAPEX and OPEX

Incremental introduction of new competitive services by adding modules when and where needed
scalable, fast provisionable

Carrier Grade solution: protects high revenues on traditional services, maximizes revenues on new
services

ISA-ATM

Gb switch

ISA-Eth 10/100 rate-adaptive transport


ISA-GbE

1000 rate-adaptive transport

ISA-PR Packet Ring


ISA-PR_EA Packet Ring Edge Aggregator

TEST LAB

351

5.22 1642 Edge Multipexer

TEST LAB

352

1642 Edge Multiplexer Sub system


The Equipment consists of the following sub systems.
1.SDH VCi cross connection Matrix,
2.Clock Reference
3.Equipment Control,
4. 2 x STM-1 Interfaces
5.Traffic port subsystem
6.Auxiliary and Overhead sub system
7.Power sub system

TEST LAB

353

SDH Cross-Connect Subsystem


The 1642 Edge Multiplexer SDH cross-connect is built upon a non-blocking
matrix that can interconnect VC3s and VC12s between any SDH and PDH
ports accessing the system.
Several types of connections may be established, such as:
unidirectional point-to-point
bi-directional point-to-point
unidirectional point-to-multipoint
SNCP Drop & Continue
The capacity of the matrix is up to 6x6 STM-1 equivalent ports at the Low
Order VC level
(378 X 378 VC12s).

TEST LAB

354

Clock
reference

The synchronization subsystem provides the timing reference required


by all components in the network element and represents the SDH
Equipment Clock (SEC). The subsystem performs the functionality
identified by the ITU-T recommendation G.783 as SDH Equipment
Timing Source (SETS). The SETS function is realized by the SDH
Matrix unit. A functional view of the SETS function in 1642 Edge
Multiplexer is given

TEST LAB

355

Control subsystem
The control subsystem realizes the Synchronous Equipment
Management Function (SEMF) defined by ITU-T Recommendation
G.783. It communicates with external management systems through a
standard QB3 CMIP interface.
The management information model is compliant to the ITU-T G.774
series of recommendations.Communication with the local craft
terminal is also based on the same interface.
The control subsystem is responsible for applying the configuration
requested by the element manager or craft terminal and to report the
status of the equipment as well as alarm and performance information.
It is also responsible to drive automatic protection switching. 1642
Edge Multiplexer has a Centralized control architecture, built upon a
two-level model:
Equipment Controller (EC) for DCC networking, CT/OS interface and data-base
management
Shelf Controller (SC) for provisioning, alarm detection, performance monitoring.

TEST LAB

356

5.23 Traffic port Subsystem


SDH and PDH traffic ports are available through the
following units:
8x2Mbit/s Retiming unit (Coaxial Interface)
8x2Mbit/s unit (2mm Interface)
28x2Mbit/s unit (2mm Interface)
1x34Mbit/s unit
1x45Mbit/s unit
INTERFACES
1xSTM-1 optical unit
6xE/FE unit

TEST LAB

357

Alcatel 1642 Edge Multiplexer: Multi-service CPE solution


Network interfaces: STM1
6x6 STM-1 equivalent full non-blocking SDH matrix
(LO) in all configurations
Traffic interfaces
2Mbit/s (112 max)
34M (4 max)
45Mbit/s (4 max)
155Mbit/s (6 max)
10/100M Ethernet (24 max)

En

ter
p ri
ne
tw se
ork

Metro access network

2 Mbit/s
STM-1

34/45 Mbit/s
155 Mbit/s
10/100 Ethernet

Metro CPE

TEST LAB

358

Alcatel 1642 Edge


Multiplexer
Advantages

Full-ADM capabilities at end-customer premises:


It can be used to deliver 2Mb/s and Ethernet/Fast Ethernet
leased lines as well as higher-end services such as 34Mb/s,
45Mb/s, STM-1.
ADM-1 card supports
2 x STM-1interfaces,

control functions.
for 2Mb/s services

SDH matrix,
clock reference and equipment

4 slots dedicated to traffic ports,

The system can be configured for example as STM-1Terminal


Multiplexer with 8x2Mb/s plus 6 x Ethernet/Fast Ethernet for
office interconnect services or as STM-1 ADM with 112x2Mb/s.

TEST LAB

359

Alcatel 1642 Edge


Multiplexer
Applications
The 1642 Edge Multiplexer can be used for transmission over
G.652, G.653 and G.654 fibers. The
main applications can be identified in the following areas:
Delivery of SDH/Ethernet services to customer premises
Local and metropolitan rings
point to point links with intermediate drop/insert and/or regeneration
stations;

TEST LAB

360

5.24 Alcatel 1642 Edge Multiplexer


Add Drop Features

The ADM-4 and ADM-16 units provide the following functionality:


2xSTM-1 optical/electrical or 2xSTM-4 or 1xSTM-1 + 1xSTM-4
or 1xSTM-16 (SFP)
Matrix Function (32x32 for Compact ADM-4 at Low Order and
High Order level or
64x64 STM-1 for Compact ``ADM-16
at Low Order VC level)
CRU Function
Equipment Controller Function
All electrical traffic ports can be optionally protected in N+1
configuration.

TEST LAB

361

5.25 Alcatel 1642 EM - Main product Features


ISA
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet

Network protection

SNCP at all VC layers


Dual Hubbing or Ring configurations

Management:
Local/Remote craft terminal
OS through DCN or LAN interface

Powering from AC mains through


external AC/DC converter and battery backup

Slim mechanics for customer premises (desktop/wall-mount)

TEST LAB

362

1642 EM: Mechanical Architecture


Each slot can contain
1 STM-1 board
8 E1 board
28x E1 board
1 E3/DS3 board
6 E/FE board

FAN

Tributary slot

Tributary slot

Tributary slot

Tributary slot

PS

CMCB board

Interfaces:
2x STM-1
One 2M clock input/output
Q3 Ethernet, F,
Housekeep,Orderwire,
Auxiliary

-48V DC power interface


board
or
220V AC power interface
board

TEST LAB

363

1642 Edge Multiplexer Mechanical Layout

TEST LAB

364

5.26 Alcatel 1662 SMC


The equipment consists of the following subsystems:
SDH VCx Cross-Connect subsystem
Clock Reference subsystem
Equipment Control subsystem
Compact ADM interfaces
Protection of central functions
Traffic port subsystem
Integrated ATM switch/Ethernet subsystem
Auxiliary and overhead subsystem
Power subsystem

TEST LAB

365

Alcatel 1662 SMC


The Alcatel 1662 SMC operating at 155 (STM-1), 622 (STM-4) and 2488
(STM-16) MBit/s bit rate.
It can be configured as Multi Line Terminal Multiplexer, as an
Add/Drop Multiplexer or as small cross-connect for applications in
linear links, rings, and meshed networks.
The traffic ports can be 2Mb/s, 34Mb/s, 45Mb/s, 140Mb/s, STM-1
electrical and STM-1 / STM-4 / STM-16 optical.
A non-blocking matrix function allows full access to 64xSTM-1
equivalent payloads at the Low Order VC level.

TEST LAB

366

Alcatel 1662 SMC Plug in Cards


The plug-in cards can be of the following types:
63x2Mbit/s unit
3x34/45Mbit/s switchable unit
4x140Mbit/s-STM-1 switchable electrical unit
4xSTM-1 electrical unit
4xSTM-1 electrical/optical unit 1
1xSTM-4 optical unit
1xSTM-16 optical unit
ISA-ATM switch unit (4x4 VC-4 or 8x8 VC-4 unit)
ISA-Ethernet rate adaptive unit
ISA-Gigabit Ethernet rate adaptive unit
Packet Ring Edge Aggregator 4xE/FE
Packet Ring Edge Aggregator 1xGbE
2xSTM-1 or STM-4 optical + central functions unit (named Compact
ADM-4 unit)
1xSTM-16 optical SFP + central functions unit(named Compact
ADM-16 unit)

TEST LAB

367

Alcatel 1662 SMC

The equipment consists of the following subsystems:

SDH VCx Cross-Connect subsystem


Clock Reference subsystem
Equipment Control subsystem
Compact ADM interfaces
Protection of central functions
Traffic port subsystem
Integrated ATM switch/Ethernet subsystem
Auxiliary and overhead subsystem
Power subsystem

TEST LAB

368

Alcatel 1662 SMC Cross-Connect Subsystem

Alcatel 1662 SMC SDH cross-connect is built upon a non


blocking matrix that can interconnect AU4s, TU3s and TU12s
between any SDH and PDH ports accessing the system.
Several types of connections may be established, such as:
Unidirectional point-to-point
Bi-directional point-to-point
Unidirectional point-to-multipoint
SNCP Drop & Continue
MS-SPRing Drop & Continue
The capacity of the matrix is up to 96x96 STM-1 equivalent
ports at the High Order VC level and up to
64x64 STM-1 equivalent at the Low Order VC level
(4032VC12s).

TEST LAB

369

5.27 Traffic Port Subsystem


21 x 2Mb/s unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 21x2Mb/s units and 8
21x2Mb/s access modules in the shelf.
Possible configurations:
Unprotected 8+0
2 x (N+1,N<=3) EPS protection
63 x 2Mb/s unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 63x2Mb/s units and 8
21x2Mb/s or 63x2Mb/s access modules in the shelf.
Possible configurations:
Unprotected 8+0
2 x (N+1,N<=3) EPS protection

TEST LAB

370

Traffic Port Subsystem


3 x 34Mb/s / 45Mb/s unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 3x34M/45M units and 8
3x34Mb/s or 3x45Mb/s access modules.
Possible configurations:
Unprotected 8+0
7+1 EPS protection
4 x (1+1) EPS protection
M x (N+1) EPS protection
4 x 140Mb/s / STM-1 unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 4x140/155Mb/s units and 8
4x140/155Mb/s access modules.
4 x STM-1 electrical / optical unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 4xSTM-1 units.
1 x STM-4 optical unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 1xSTM-4 units.

TEST LAB

371

Traffic Port Subsystem


4 x STM-1 electrical unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 8 4xSTM-1e units and 8
4x155Mb/s electrical access modules.
Possible configurations:
Unprotected 8+0
7+1 EPS protection
4 x (1+1) EPS protection
M x (N+1) EPS protection
1 x STM-16 optical unit
Alcatel 1662 SMC can house up to 4 1xSTM-16 units.

TEST LAB

372

Clock Reference Subsystem


The synchronization subsystem provides the timing reference required by all
components in the network element.The subsystem performs the
functionality by SDH Equipment Timing Source (SETS). The SETS
function is realised by the SDH Matrix function. The SETS accepts
synchronization inputs from a number of sources:
STM-n lines
2Mb/s traffic ports
1x2MHz / 2Mb/s external input
Internal oscillator
The SETS function produces two outputs. The NE clock reference is used as
internal timing source and to time the outgoing SDH STM-n signals. One
external 2MHz or 2Mb/s output is generated as a possible source for external
devices. Up to 6 candidate references may be selected among all STM-n and
2Mb/s traffic ports in the system. One 2MHz or 2Mb/s external input and
one output are available.When configured as 2Mb/s, the external I/Os can
carry the SSM timing marker information.

TEST LAB

373

1662 SMC: Physical View


2Mbit/s
boards

63xE1
access
120
Ohm
HM

HS or
LS PROT
card

21xE1
access
75 Ohm
1.0/2.3

STM1/4/16
plug ins

CONGI

Compac
t ADM
1/4 or
16

TEST LAB

374

Alcatel 1662 SMC :Optical Metro Access


Applications
Network interfaces:
STM1/4/16
Coloured STM-16
Integrated boosters (from 10 up to 17 dBm)

96x96 STM-1 (HO) and 64x64 STM-1 (LO) equivalent full non-blocking
SDH matrix
ATM and Ethernet(PR/MPLS) Switches
Traffic interfaces

STM-1/4 and 16
2Mbit/s, 34Mbit/s, 45Mbit/s and 140Mbit/s
GbE
E/FE

TEST LAB

375

1662 SMC: Main Features


Network:

SNCP
2f-MS spring on STM-16 (up to 2 rings terminated in the same node)
D&C functionality
MSP 1+1 STM-1/STM-4
MSP 1:N on STM-1/STM-4 (max N=7)
AU4-4c and AU4-16c cross-connection

QoS:
Performance monitoring according to G.784, G.826, G.821
POM (LO/HO), TCM

TEST LAB

376

ATM switching modules


application

TEST LAB

377

1662SMC with ISA ATM Architecture

TEST LAB

378

air fow

622M
622M
622M
622M
622M
622M
622M
622M

or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or

SYNTH-B

#1:
#2:
#3:
#4:
#5:
#6:
#7:
#8:

SYNTH-A

ACCESS #5
ACCESS #6
ACCESS #7
ACCESS #8
CONGI/SERGI

PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT

<12U
CONGI
ACCESS #1
ACCESS #2
ACCESS #3
ACCESS #4
1.2G
1.2G
1.2G
1.2G
1.2G
1.2G
1.2G
1.2G

1662 SMC: Mechanical Architecture


Free for cable/fiber handling
Depth = 120mm (standard for access

347mm

FAN
Depth = 259mm (standard for port)

Free for air circulation

21

TEST LAB
379

1662 SMC: Compact STM-16 Access Aggregation


Up to 504 E1 in one shelf
For massive voice service penetration
areas

HUB node

STM16 ring

STM1/4 ring

STM1/4 ring
STM1/4 ring
Compact ADM solutions

TEST LAB

380

Alcatel 1660 SM
STM-1/4/16 Multi-Service Metro Node

96 VC-4 HO, 64 VC-4 LO SDH fabric

ATM switch Packet Ring/MPLS

4 x STM-16, 16 x STM-4, 64 x STM-1

378 x 2Mbit/s in a single shelf (up to 1512 2Mbit/s in a 600mm deep rack)

Ethernet, GbE rate-adaptive

4/3/1 DXC

2 Mbit/s
STM-1

34/45 Mbit/s

STM-4

140 Mbit/s

STM-16

10/100 Ethernet
GigE

Metro Edge

TEST LAB

381

5.28 Alcatel 1660 SM - Product Features


ISA:
1.2Gb/s ATM cell switch, Ethernet, GbE, Packet Ring/MPLS

AU4-4c and AU4-16c concatenation


Full EPS protection on traffic ports and centralized units
Network protections:
MSP on STM-n ports, SNCP at all VC layers
2fibers MS-SPRing at STM-16 in one shelf
D&C functionality

Full Performance Monitoring support


Coloured 2.5G to DWDM and integrated optical amplifier
4 x Any
GE, ESCON, FICON, Fibre Channel etc.

Integrated CWDM
Upgradeable to 10 Gbit/s

TEST LAB

382

Alcatel 1660 SM: Layout

CONGI A
SERVICE
CONGI B

CONGI A:

CONGI B:

EQUICO
MATRIX A

MATRIX B

650

SERVICE:
MATRIX :
EQUICO :

STM-16

STM-16

STM-16

19

STM-16

Remote alarms, Station


alarms, Housekeeping, QB3
(10base2 and 10baseT),
Q2/RQ2, Power A
Remote alarms,
Housekeeping, Power B
AUX and Synch interfaces
96x96 STM-1 Matrix & CRU
Equipment Controller

Traffic units except STM-16


ATM Matrix
LAN interfaces
Traffic units except 2Mbit/s
ATM Matrix
LAN interfaces
Electrical access modules
2xSTM-1 Optical Access Module
Electrical protection for High Speed
interfaces

TEST LAB

383

1660SM Rel 4 Rel 5


Direct Evolution of an established product
(1660SM @2.5G):
Reuse of current back panel @ 2.5Gb/s
Extended matrix both on HO and LO
HO 384x384 VC4 eq.
LO 256x256 VC4 eq.

New line ports at 10Gb/s


improve single slot bandwidth (4x)
Guarantee backward compatibility with existing HW

TEST LAB

384

Alcatel 1660 SM: Applications


BRAS

Enterprise
HQ

RN
C

STM-n
FC

G
E

SP Central Office
Exchange/GW

STM-n

GE

G
E

1660
SM

1660
SM
STM-16
1660
SM

STM4
Eth

1660
SM
STM-4/16

GE
E1

Enterpris
e Branch

CWDM 2.5G

Node-B

1660
SM
FC

1660
SM STMGE 1

Eth

ESCO
N

SA
N
DSLA

Broadband PoP M

TEST LAB

ASP/ISP

385

5.29 1696 Metro


Span
The 1696 Metro Span provides managed and
protected channels for transport services such
Synchronous Transmission Services
(SDH/SONET):
STM-1/OC-3, STM-4/OC-12, STM-16/OC-48, STM64/OC-192

Switched Data Services


ATM 155, 622 and 2488 Mb/s

Data Centre Services:


ESCON, FICON, Fibre Channel (FC, 2FC), Digital Video

LAN Services:
TEST LAB
FDDI, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet

386

1696 Metro Span key


features
1.Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)
2.Up to 32 optical channels

3.100 GHz (0.8 nm) channel spacing based on ITU-T G.692


standardized frequencies
4.Universal 3R multi-rate transponder accepting all bit rates
between 5.100Mb/s and2.5Gb/s (MCC: Multi-Clock Channel
Card)
5.4xAny TDM module combining any mix of up to 4 client
signals (100 Mb/s-1.25Gb/s) into a 2.5 Gb/s optical channel,
compliant to the SDH/Sonet framing standard (STM-16/OC48)
6.18 dB span budget without optical amplifier for Metro
Access applications
7.Optical amplification for Metro Core applications
8.8 ch. + 8 ch. + 8 ch. + 8 ch. modular hub node structure
9.Low loss 1 ch., 2 ch. 4 ch.
and 8
ch.
TEST
LAB

387

1696 Metro Span key


features

TEST LAB

388

Network Topology
The 1696 Metro Span supports a wide range of network
topologies:
Point-to-point
Point-to-point with linear add-drop
2-fiber ring with single hub-node
Fully meshed 2-fiber ring
Inter-connected rings with drop and continue

Example of metropolitan 2-fiber ring network

TEST LAB

389

Hub node
Hub nodes are designed to provide a node architecture
that can be upgraded in-service up to 32 channels with
individual access to all channels. They consist of four 8
channel multiplexers/demultiplexers that can be combined
in a modular way.

TEST LAB

390

5.30 OADM
node
The 1696 Metro Span supports 1 ch., 2 ch., 4 ch. and
8 ch. optical add and drop multiplexers.These OADMs
are designed to provide a solution for small size
add/drop nodes, minimizing optical loss for the
optical channels in transit. The maximum loss of a 4
ch. OADM for the pass through channels is 4 dB
(including optical supervision). OADMs of different
types can be cascaded in a modular way to achieve
cost-optimized solutions on day one and future
fexible upgrades.

TEST LAB

391

Multi-Clock Card
(MCC)
This Multi-Clock Card is a bi-directional 3R-transponder
that supports all bit rates from 100 Mb/s to 2.5 Gb/s:
e.g. Fast Ethernet, FDDI, ESCON, Digital Video, STM1/OC-3, STM-4/OC-12,Fiber Channel (FC), 2FC, Gigabit
Ethernet, 2 Gigabit Ethernet, STM-16/OC-48.
MCCs are also available without optical receiver and
transmitter on the client side to reduce cost for pure
opto-electronic regeneration.
MCCs support non-intrusive performance monitoring
for SDH/SONET signals, based on the B1byte.
MCCs have a 3 200 ps/nm tolerance to chromatic
dispersion, corresponding to 160 km on standard
single-mode fiber (G.652).
MCCs support an on-board variable optical attenuator
to adjust their output optical power.

TEST LAB

392

Flexible
OADMs

Both multi-rate transponders (MCCs) and 10 Gb/s


transponders (OCC10) support an onboard electrical
matrix that can be remotely configured by the
Network Manager so that the transponders can be
used for the following applications:
- Traffic add/drop
- O/E/O regeneration
- Drop and continue
- Local or remote loop back (for testing & fault
identification)

TEST LAB

393

Flexible
OADMs
The matrix can be configured initially so that the
transponder can add and drop traffic at node A and,
later on, be reconfigured so that the same transponder
provides a regenerated pass through in node A and the
traffic can be added and dropped in another node

TEST LAB

394

5.31 Optical
amplifiers

The 1696 Metro Span amplifiers provide optical


amplification over the entire C-band.
Both Metropolitan and Regional amplifiers come as a singleslot card supporting a preamplifier and a booster. This card
fits into the 1696 Metro Span shelf together with
transponders (4xAny concentrators, MCCs or OCC10s) and
mux/demux or OADMs.

TEST LAB

395

Optical
amplifiers

A single shelf can therefore host a complete 16 channel


terminal with 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s channels with an
optical amplifier or an amplified 8 channel OADM (8 ch.
East + 8 ch. West).

TEST LAB

396

5.32 Optical Layer Protection


The main features of the optical protection supported by the 1696
Metro Span are:
Detection and protection switching on optical loss < 50ms
Applicable for point-to-point, linear add-drop links and ring
configurations
Optical protection can be independently configured on a perwavelength basis

TEST LAB

397

O-SNCP/UPSR Protection
O-SNCP/UPSR Protection with the 4xAny TDM concentrator
can be implemented either with or without redundancy of
the 4xAny card.

Optical protection options with 4xAny TDM


concentrator

TEST LAB

398

Remote Spur: 4xANY


In the case of a remote 4xAny, there is no need for an
OADM because the data signal is
carried by a black & white 1310nm wavelength. The
SPV channel is inserted/extracted
to/from the 1310nm data signal with the SPV_F_C card.
The SPV signal is managed by the
SPVM board.
The 1310nm data signal acts as client of the MCC in the
main ring.

TEST LAB

399

Remote Spur: 4xANY + MCC


The 4xAny is connected in the Metro Span Compact to a
MCC, so the data signal is carried by a colored 15XYnm
wavelength.
The SPV channel is inserted/extracted to/from the 15XYnm
data signal with the SPV_F_C card. The SPV signal is
managed by the SPVM board.
The 15XYnm data signal acts as client of another MCC in
the main ring or it can enter directly in the ring if the
power budget is sufficient.

TEST LAB

400

Remote Spur:
4xANY + Protected MCC (dual hubbing)
The 4xAny is connected in the Metro Span Compact to an
OPC card protecting two MCCs cards. Two SPV channels are
inserted/extracted to/from the 15XYnm data signals with
two SPV_F_C cards. The two SPV signals are managed by
one SPVM board.
The two 15XYnm data signals acts a client of other two
MCCs in the main ring or they can enter directly in the ring
if the power budget is sufficient.

TEST LAB

401

Remote Spur:
4xANY + Protected MCC (dual hubbing)
OADM 1 channel
When in a node its requested only an OADM 1 channel, the
use of a Metro Span Compact gives a footprint-optimized
configuration.

Line Terminal 2 Channels (2 MCCs)


When a 2 channels Line Terminal is requested, the use of
a Metro Span Compact gives a footprint-optimized
configuration.

TEST LAB

402

Line Terminal 2 Channels (1 MCC + 1 4xANY)

The line terminal can also support two different data


channels, one from the 4xAny board (B&W) and one from
the MCC (colored). The SPV_F_1310_1550 board enable to
insert/extract the SPV channel so that the fiber carries 3
wavelengths: 1510nm, 15XYnm, 1310nm.

TEST LAB

403

SPV Manager

In the case in a node its necessary only to extract the


supervision channel, the use of a Metro Span Compact
gives a footprint-optimised configuration.

TEST LAB

404

5.33 Alcatel TMN architecture


1356NT

1355BonD

1355VPN
IOO, ISN

1354SY

1354NP

1353DCN

1354RM

1354BM

1353SH

STM-1
ADM

STM-16

Multi-Service Network

DXC Radio WDM SDH ATM Ethernet

TEST LAB

405

Element Manager Layer: 1353SH


Element Manager
Manager for
for OMSNs,
OMSNs, OMSGs
OMSGs ,,
Element
WDM, SDH,
SDH, MWs
MWs and
and Submarine
Submarine
WDM,
Equipment, Data
Data Cards
Cards
Equipment,
Main Features:
Features:
Main
>
>
>
>
>
>

NE Configuration
Configuration
NE
(provisioning,commissioning)
(provisioning,commissioning)
NE Software
Software download
download (feature
(feature upgrade
upgrade
NE
on NEs)
NEs)
on
NE Alarm
Alarm Surveillance
Surveillance (NE
(NE maintenance)
maintenance)
NE

NE Performance
Performance Data
Data Collection
Collection
NE
(Quality of
of Service)
Service)
(Quality
TEST LAB
>
Security Management
Management
> Security
>
>

406

1353SH GUI interface

Equipment view

Card view

TEST LAB

407

Network Management Layer: 1354RM


>End-to-end
End-to-end path
path management
management
>

Path provisioning
provisioning
Path
Path protection
protection provisioning
provisioning
Path
>Path
Path alarms
alarms management
management
>

Path alarm
alarm handling
handling
Path
>Path
Path performance
performance data
data collection
collection
>

Quality of
of service
service
Quality
(path lifetime,
lifetime, threshold
threshold crossing,)
crossing,)
(path
Security Management
Management
Security
TEST LAB

408

1354RM GUI interface

TEST LAB

409

Northbound interfaces
IOO:

TEST LAB

Upper Layer OSS

ISN

IOO

NML
NML
1354RM
1354RM
EML
EML
1353SH
1353SH

Alarm
Alarm
Surveillance
Surveillance

ASCII format based on TCP/IP, it


permits to an External OS to retrieve
the network alarms (e.g. path alarms)
elaborated by 1354RM.
Raw PM data, elementary alarms, NE
inventory data are available as well via
Ioo, taken from 1353SH
ISN: ASCII format based on TCP/IP , it
provides
A Service Management Layer view and
it permits to an external OS:
to manage paths
(creation/deletion/retrieval)
To manage PM and retrieve PM data
Aggregated on path basis
To perform Network Resource
inventory

410

5.34 Summary
In this chapter we studied the following topics :
ECI equipment

Micro XDM features Card Descriptions XDM Highlights & interfaces

XDM 100 Applications XDM 100 Architecture , Protection Mechanism, XDM1000 Shelf veiw
XDM 2000
Alcatel Products
SMC Product , Traffic port subsystem & Applications , 1660 SM Product features

1696 Metro Span Applications, 1696 OADM Features & Applications, Optical Amplifier
Optical layer protection,Architecture

TEST LAB

411

Chapter-6
Transmission Network Architecture

TEST LAB

412

Transmission Network Architecture


Page No
6.01

Protection Switch Architecture & Basics

414 423

6.02

Types of Ring Systems

424 425

6.03

SNCP / 2 Fiber UPSR

..

426 428

6.04

4 Fiber MSSP

..

429 432

6.05

2 Fiber MSSP

433 438

6.06

4 / 2 Fiber

..

439 440

6.07

Inter Locked Ring

441 448

6.08

Ring Architecture

449 453

6.09

Summary

454

TEST LAB

413

6.01 Protection Switch Architecture


(Basics)
Path protection switch (PPS) / Line protection switch (LPS)
1+1 protection switch / 1:N (1:1) protection switch
Stand-by Line Access (SLA)
Unidirectional switch / Bi-directional switch
Unidirectional ring / Bi-directional ring
Revertive switch / Non-revertive switch
Manual switch operation
Wait to restore (WTR) time

TEST LAB

414

Path protection switch Line protection switch


P a th (V C -n )

Working

L in e ( S T M -n )

P a th S W

P a th S W

P a th S W

P a th S W

Protection

Path Protection Switch (PPS)


Working

Protection
equivalent

L in e S W ( e q u i v a l e n t )

L in e P r o te c tio n S w itc h (L P S )

TEST LAB

415

1+1, 1:1 and 1:N Protection Switch


1+1
Protection
Switch

TX

1:1
Protection
Switch

TX

TX

TX
TX

1:N
Protection
Switch

TX

TX
TX

Working
Protection

Working
Protection

Working 1
Working 2

Working N
Protection

RX
RX
RX
RX
RX
RX

RX
RX

Note : only one direction is shown.

TEST LAB

416

Stand-by Line Access (SLA)


Normal Traffic

TX

TX

Working

RX

Protection

RX

Extra Traffic

Normal Traffic

TX

TX

Working

RX

Protection

RX

Extra Traffic service


is stopped.
Extra Traffic

Note : only one direction is shown.

TEST LAB

417

Unidirectional Switch and Bidirectional Switch


Unidirectional Switch
TX
RX

RX
Working

TX
RX

TX
RX

Protection

TX

Bidirectional Switch
TX
RX

RX
Working

TX
RX

TX
RX

Protection

TEST LAB

TX

418

Unidirectional Ring and Bidirectional Ring

Unidirectional Ring

Bidirectional Ring

The drawing shows the traffic routing under normal (no failure) condition.

TEST LAB

419

Revertive Switch and Non-reverteve Switch


Reverteve Switch
Working Line

normal

Protection Line

failure

normal

normal

failure

Non-reverteve Switch
Working Line

Protection Line

normal

failure

normal

normal

failure

Traffic flow

TEST LAB

420

Manual Switch Operation


1.

MSW

Manual Switch

2.

(SF)

Signal Failure

3.

FSW

Forced Switch

4.

LKOW

Lock Out of Working

4.

LKOP

Lock Out of Protection


Note: Larger number has higher priority.

TEST LAB

421

Hold-Off & Wait to Restore (WTR) times

Working Line

normal

failure

Protection Line

normal

normal
HOLD OFF time

WTR time

Traffic flow

TEST LAB

422

Ring Architecture
East

West
Node C
East

West

STM-N
Node B

Node A

East

West

TEST LAB

423

6.02 Types of Ring System


PPS

2-fiber

Subnetwork Connection Protection Ring (SNCP-ring)


(2F-UPSR)

Unidirectional
Ring / Switch
LPS

2-fiber

MS Dedicated Protection Ring


(2F-ULSR)

(for further study, G.841)

Ring System
PPS

2-fiber

Subnetwork Connection Protection Ring (SNCP-ring)


(2F-BPSR)

Bidirectional
Ring / Switch

4-fiber

(for further study, G.841)

4F MS Shared Protection Ring (MS-SP ring)


(4F-BLSR)

LPS
2-fiber

2F MS Shared Protection Ring (MS-SP ring)


(2F-BLSR)

LPS:Line Protection Switch (MS protection)


PPS:Path Protection Switch (VC trail protection)
MS:Multiplex Section

TEST LAB

424

Subnetwork Connection Protection (SNCP) Ring


(2 Fiber Uni-directional Path Switch Ring - UPSR)

TEST LAB

425

6.03 SNCP(Unidirectional Ring) / 2F-UPSR (1)

TEST LAB

426

SNCP (Unidirectional Ring) / 2F-UPSR (2)

TEST LAB

427

Subnetwork Connection Protection (SNCP)

TCP

PPS

Any Physical Structure


(Mesh,Ring or Mixed)

PPS

Aggregate - Aggregate
PPS

TCP

Case 1

Tributary

Path

Aggregate - Tributary
PPS
TCP

PPS

Any Physical Structure


(Mesh,Ring or Mixed)

PPS

CP

Tributary

TCP

Case 2
Path

SNC-P

Trubutary - Tributary
PPS

SNC

Tributary 1 Tributary 2

TCP

CP

PPS

Any Physical Structure


(Mesh,Ring or Mixed)

PPS

CP

TCP

TCP : Termination Connection Point


CP : Connection Point

Case 3
SNC

Path

SNC-P

SNC

TEST LAB

428

6.04 4-Fiber Multiplex Section Shared


Protection (MS-SP) Ring
(4 Fiber Bi-directional Line Switch Ring - BLSR)
- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

429

4 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4F-BLSR (1)


- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

430

4 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4F-BLSR (2)


- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

431

4 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4F-BLSR (3)


- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

432

6.05 2-Fiber Multiplex Section Shared


Protection (MS-SP) Ring
(2 Fiber Bi-directional Line Switch Ring BLSR)
- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

433

2 Fiber MS-SPRing / 2F-BLSR (1)


- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

434

2 Fiber MS-SPRing / 2F-BLSR (2)


- Terrestrial Application -

TEST LAB

435

Node ID Map of 4F/2F MS-SPRing

TEST LAB

436

MS-SPRing Misconnection and Squelch Control


C-F

A-F
with AIS

Squelch Control

E-F

MS-SP switch

A-C
A-F
with AIS

A-E

F
E

A
on the same channel
of the STM-N.

F
A

E
on the same channel
of the STM-N.

A- C

C-F

misconnection

working channel
protection channel

no misconnection

TEST LAB

no

yes

A-E
no

A/D
at C ?
yes

VC-4
path ?

E-F

no

A/D
at C ?
yes

no AU AIS
for individual AU
at B and D

no TU AIS

AU AIS TU AIS

for individual TU
at A, E and F

The ring-switch is applied after


AU AIS insertion at B and D.
For VC-12/3, AU AIS is inserted
at B and D first, then it is
stopped
after
TU
AIS
completion, in order to avoid
short term misconnections.

437

Squelch Table of MS-SPRing


MS-SP
Ring

STM-N

Node ID No.

West

STM-N
East

Node ID No.
West

STM-N
East

Node ID No.
West

East

VC-4 (VC organized AU) through


(at intermediate nodes)

AU-4 #m

AU-4

VC-3/VC-12
in AU-4

VC-4 (VC organized AU)


through

AU-4 #n
VC-3/VC-12
Add/Drop

AU-4 #m
()i

AU-4 Path

AU-4 #m
AU-4 #n

(k)

AU-4 #n
West
?1
?2

AU-4 #m

(j)

AU-4 #n

Squelch Table

AU-4 #m

VC-3/VC-12
all through

East
k
j

AU-4 #n

AU-4 #m
AU-4 #n

West
-*
i

East
-*
k

AU-4 #n

AU-4 #m
AU-4 #n

West
i
j

East
?3
?4

* VC-4 cross connect level requires


no squelch table.

AU-4 through node : The node where VC-4 cross connect level is applied to the AU-4.
AU-4 termination node :The node where VC-3/VC-12 cross connect level is applied to the AU-4 in question,
regardless cross connections, either all through or several add/drop connections.

TEST LAB

438

6.06 4/2-Fiber Multiplex Section Shared


Protection (MS-SP) Ring
(4/2 Fiber Bi-directional Line Switch Ring - BLSR)
- Transoceanic Application -

TEST LAB

439

4/2 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4/2F-BLSR


- Transoceanic Application -

TEST LAB

440

6.07 Inter Locked Ring (ILR)

Secondary
node

Secondary
node

No. 1 Ring

No. 2 Ring

Primary
node

Primary
node

link failure

TEST LAB

ring failure

441

Inter Locked MS-SPRing (1)


(P-S Connection: on working channel)

TEST LAB

442

Inter Locked MS-SPRing (2)


(P-S Connection: on working channel)
MS-SP Ring No.2

MS-SP Ring No.1

B
Secondary node
working
protection

A
SS
SS

Primary node

TEST LAB

443

Inter Locked MS-SPRing (3)


(P-S Connection: on protection channel)

TEST LAB

444

Inter Locked MS-SPRing (4)


(P-S Connection: on protection channel)

TEST LAB

445

Inter Locked MS-SPRing


(SNCP Ring - SNCP Ring)

TEST LAB

446

Double Failure on Link and Ring (SNCP/ILR)


unprotected bouble failure
Secondary
node

Secondary
node

SNCP ring
or
MS-SP ring

SNCP ring

Primary
node

PPS

Primary
node
protected bouble failure

TEST LAB

447

Inter Locked Ring (SNCP - MS-SP)

TEST LAB

448

6.08 KLK SNT VSB New STM16 Ring


KLK&VSB Config3;SNT Config1 of H1&H2 order

STM16 Ring
XDM100
SNT

XDM1000
VSB

XDM1000
KLK

TEST LAB

449

STM4 Cell Site Access Rings


Homed on CC XDM 1000 at KLK & SNT

Bowenpally ECI Nacharam ECI


XDM 100
XDM 100

Hitech ECI
XDM 100

STM 4 Cell Site


Acess ring 1
homed to KLK

Cross Connect
XDM 1000
At KLK

XDM
2000

XDM
2000

SNT
KLK SNT
DWDM Ring

KLK

Towlichowki ECI
XDM 100

Cross Connect
XDM 1000
At SNT

STM 4 Cell
Site Acess
ring 2
homed to
SNT

nallakunta ECI
XDM 100

TEST LAB

450

STM16 , STM 4, STM1 Rings connected in either cascaded or


homed on to Cross connect XDM 1000

DWDM Ring
XDM 1000

XDM 1000

STM1 Rings on STM1


Tribs
STM 4 Rings on STM4 Tribs
STM 16 Rings on STM 16 Tribs

STM1 Rings on STM 1


Tribs
STM 4 Rings on STM 4 Tribs
STM 16 Rings on STM 16 Tribs

TEST LAB

451

Formation of Bubble Rings In Order

Nacharam MW
STM1 ECI bubble
Ring

Bowenpally MW
STM1 ECI+Lucent
bubble Ring

Hitech MW STM1
ECI bubble Ring

Hitech ECI
XDM 100

Bowenpally ECI
XDM 100

STM 4 Cellsite Acess


Ring 1 homed to KLK

XDM 1000
At KLK

ECI
DWDM
KLK

KLK SNT
DWDM Ring

ECI
DWDM
SNT

Towlichowki ECI
XDM 100

XDM 1000
At SNT

Nacharam ECI
XDM 100

STM 4 Cell Site Acess


ring 2 homed to SNT

nallakunta ECI
XDM 100

Towlichowki
Nallakunta fibre+
MW STM1 ECI
bubble Ring

bubble Ring 2
MW STM1 ECI
Towlichowki
bubble Ring 1
MW STM1 ECI

TEST LAB

452

DMR RING Network Using FOTS Mux

15 / 18 GHz PDH MW

BTS

BTS
BTS

15 / 18 GHz
SDH
Microwave Ring

BTS

BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS

MSC/
/BSC
7/8 GHz PDH / SDH MW
BTS

BTS

BTS

15 / 18 GHz
SDH
Microwave Ring

BTS
BTS

BTS

7/8
GHz
PDH
/
SDH
MW

15 /
18
GHz
PDH
MW

BTS
BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS

TEST LAB

453

6.09 Summary
In this chapter we studied the following topics :
Protection Switch Architecture & Basic
Types of Ring Systems
SNCP / 2 Fiber UPS
4 Fiber MSSP
2 Fiber MSS
4 / 2 Fiber
Inter Locked Ring
Ring Architecture

TEST LAB

454

Chapter-7
Network Management System

TEST LAB

455

Network Management System


Page No

7.01

NEC NMS Management Functions

457 464

7.02

DCC & Interfaces

465 471

7.03

ECI Management Functions

..

472 480

7.04

Summary

481

TEST LAB

456

7.01 NEC NMS - Management Functions


Functions
System
Navigation

Content
Using the Graphic User Interface for Ease of Operation

Configuration
Management

Provisioning, Identification, and Control of the SDH


Network Equipment and Services (Managed Objects)

Fault
Management

Detection, Isolation, and Correction of Reported SDH


Network Equipment and Services Abnormal Operation

Performance
Management

Evaluate and Report the SDH Network Equipment and


Services Performance Behavior

Security
Management

Create IDs, Passwords, and assigned privileges for


authorized User/Operator access.

System
Management

Required Actions to Ensure Uninterrupted Service and


Data Protection of the INC-100MS System

TEST LAB

457

NEC NMS
1.
1. NNM
NNMScreen
ScreenLayout
Layout
2.
2. Window
WindowNavigation
Navigation
3.
3. Window
WindowToolbar
Toolbarand
and
MO
MOSymbols
Symbols
4.
4. Symbol
SymbolLocation
LocationSetup
Setup

TEST LAB

458

Configuration Management
1.
1. MO
MORegistration
Registration
2.
2. MO
MOModification,
Modification,Deletion
Deletion
3.
3. Network
NetworkMap
MapUpdate
Update
4.
4. Path
PathCreation
Creation(Graphical)
(Graphical)
5.
5. Path
PathInformation
InformationRetrieval
Retrieval

TEST LAB

459

Fault Management
5.1
5.1
5.2
5.2

New
NewEvent
Event(Fault)
(Fault)Notification
Notification
Event
EventJournal
Journal

5.3
5.3
5.4
5.4

Alarm
AlarmStatus
StatusList
ListDisplay
Display
Alarm
AlarmStatus
StatusDetailed
DetailedInformation
Information

5.5
5.5
5.6
5.6

Alarm
AlarmAcknowledgement
Acknowledgement
Current
CurrentAlarm
AlarmCopy
Copy

5.7
5.7
5.8
5.8

Alarm
AlarmInhibit
Inhibit
Event
EventLog
Log

5.9
5.9 NE
NEDetail
DetailSetup
Setup
5.10
5.10Automatic
AutomaticVerify
Verify

TEST LAB

460

Performance Management

1.
1. Current
CurrentPerformance
Performance
Management
Management
2.
2. Long
LongTerm
Term Performance
Performance
Management
Management

TEST LAB

461

Security Management
1.
1. Assigning
AssigningUser
UserIDs
IDs
and
andPrivileges
Privileges
2.
2. Default
DefaultSecurity
Security
Access
AccessLevels
Levels
3.
3. Customized
CustomizedSecurity
Security
Access
AccessLevels
Levels
TEST LAB

462

System Management

1.
1. Server
ServerStatus
Status
2.
2. Server
ServerRedundancy
Redundancy
and
andControl
Control
3.
3. Database
DatabaseBackup
Backup

TEST LAB

463

Other Operations
1.
1. Status
StatusView
View
2.
2. NE
NEView
View
3.
3. NE
NEConnectivity
Connectivity
4.
4. License
LicenseInformation
Information
5.
5. System
SystemTime
TimeSet
Set
6.
6. Used
UsedDisk
DiskSpace
SpaceRatio
Ratio
7.
7. Map
MapTool
Tool
8.
8. Network
NetworkMap
MapUpdate
Update
9.
9. Network
NetworkMap
MapSave
Save
10.
10. Symbol
SymbolLocation
LocationSetup
Setup
TEST LAB

464

7.02 DCC
Management of SDH equipment is implemented in general
through the SDH standard DCC bytes in the Multiplexer or
Regenerator sections of the SDH frame. The protocol used for
NEs management is TCP/IP or CLNP/OSI.
The SDH equipment which does not pass another vendors
DCC information over the SDH path, it is necessary to use an
out band DCN connection to bridge between the various
portions of the network containing NEs of a particular make
i.e. ECI.
The DCN connection implemented should provide fluent
management for all NEs and provide the maximum redundancy
option available.
TEST LAB

465

Interfaces
The following diagram illustrates the management of ECI equipment in a
mixed ECI and Marconi SDH ring, using an external DCN equipment the
FCD-IPD.
FCD-IP

FCD-IP

NMS

FCD-IP

FCD-IP

TEST LAB

466

Interfaces
The FCD-IPD is an IP Router/Switch (can work in both layers 2 and 3),
which has three interfaces: two E1 interfaces and one 10baseT Ethernet.
The suitable configuration for managing this type of mixed network, as will
be explained later, is to use the FCD equipment as a layer 2 switch, creating
a virtual LAN on the entire ring. The FCD-IPD also supports spanning tree
algorithm to allow closing a ring of FCDs.

TEST LAB

467

The Gateway Protection feature

In some cases, such as the one described below, a chain of ECI


equipment is located between Marconi equipment. Then its required to
provide redundancy to all NEs, for un-interrupted monitoring incase
there is a fiber brake anywhere within the chain.

Ravji Bhai

61A

Gateway A
FCD-IPD

64B

52A

Gateway B
FCD-IPD

TEST LAB

468

The Gateway Protection feature

The protection is achieved by using the Gateway Protection


feature of the eNM. A routing entry for each NE is entered in
the eNM from Gateway A, and an alternative route (if the first
is not responding), from Gateway B. A checkpoint is defined
with the IP address of the destination NE.
The Gateway protection feature will check connectivity to both
the checkpoint (NE) and the gateway. If one does not respond, it
will switch to the defined alternative gateway.

TEST LAB

469

Management connection through CH22 link


The uSDM1s CH22 feature allows passing the DCC information on an E1
link (22nd channel). This feature allows connecting between two remote
uSDM1 NEs when no DCC direct link exists. This feature, however has the
following limitation: The connection is a Point To Point Layer 1 connection
there is no possibility to connect the same uSDM1 to two different NEs.
In Tata networks it is possible to implement a solution using the CH22
feature in several cases such as the one described below:

Prakuti

39A

Vasupujya

59A

30C

RudraPrayag

35B

TEST LAB

470

Management connection through CH22 link

In this configuration, a ring of DCC communication can be created by


connecting pairs of uSDM1 NEs over other vendors equipment.
However, in some situations implementing the CH22 feature will not provide
a good solution, such is described bellow:
Since uSDM A uses the CH22 feature to connect to uSDM C, it is not
possible to connect it to uSDM B. this means that uSDM B remains isolated.

TEST LAB

471

7.03 ECI Management Functions

TEST LAB

472

Alarm and Fault Management

TEST LAB

473

Performance Monitoring

TEST LAB

474

Configuration Management

TEST LAB

475

HOVC and LOVC Management

TEST LAB

476

Data Management

TEST LAB

477

Maintenance Operations

TEST LAB

478

Security Management

TEST LAB

479

System Administration Operations

TEST LAB

480

7.04 Summary

In this chapter we studied the following topics :


NEC NMS Management Functions
DCC & Interfaces
ECI Management Functions

TEST LAB

481

Chapter-8
Concepts of Fiber Optics

TEST LAB

482

Concepts of Fiber Optics


Page No

8.01

Optical Spectrum

8.02

Use of Fiber optics &applications ..

485 491

8.03

Different Types of Fibers & Applications

492 501

8.04

Dispersion

502--510

8.05

Summary

..

511

TEST LAB

484

483

8.01 The Optical


Spectrum
Visible
Light

Cosmic
radiation radiation

UV radiation

IR radiation Communications radiation

X-ray
radiation

1020

Microwave,TV VHF SW
radar

1018

1016

1014

(250 THz)
Frequency (Hz)
(1 pm)
10-12
Wavelength (m)
c = 300 000 km/s
c=xf

1012

1010

(1 THz)

(1 m)

(1 mm)

10-9

10-6

10-3

670 780850

(1 m) (100 m)
100

Fiber transmission
wavelength range

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

106

(1 GHz)

(1 nm)

Visible
Light

108

102

= wavelength
f = frequency

1.31.4 1.5 1.6m


1300

TEST LAB

1550
1625 nm

484

8.02 Why Use Fiber Optics?

1. Wide Bandwidth

High carrying capacity including voice, data and Video

WDM Technology supports lakhs of channels on a pair of


optical fiber

Can carry hundreds of HDTV Channels.

TEST LAB

485

How Fibre Works

The operation of an Optical Fibre is based on the principle of Total


Internal Reflection (TIR).
Light reflects or refracts (bends) depending on the angle at which it
strikes a surface. This occurs because different interfaces between
materials refract light in different ways.

TEST LAB

486

Optical Transmission

Focusing
Modulated
lens
semiconductor
optical laser

Fibre jacket
Cladding

Core : 8-10 microns - single mode


~ 50 microns - multimode
TEST LAB

487

Total Internal Reflection


45

90

Air
n=1
Water n = 1.33
32

48
Critical
angle

>48
Total internal
reflection

Core n = 1.472
Cladding n = 1.458
83 Critical angle

>83 Total internal reflection

TEST LAB

488

Core and Cladding

CORE

CLADDING

GLASS

GLASS

GLASS

PLASTIC

PLASTIC

GLASS

CLADDING

CORE

Different Types of Optical Fibres


TYPES OF
OPTICAL FIBRES

MULTIMODE

GRADED
INDEX

SINGLE MODE

STEP
INDEX

DEPRESSED
CLAD

MATCHED
CLAD

DISPERSION
SHIFTED

DISPERSION
FLATTERED

TEST LAB

489

Indexed Fibres
Diameter

Step Index Fibre

Refractive Index

Diameter

Graded Index Fibre

Refractive Index

TEST LAB

490

Fibre Characteristics - Modal Dispersion


Input Pulse

Output Pulse

Multimode Step Index

Multimode Graded Index

Single Mode Step Index

TEST LAB

491

8.03 Different Fibre Types


Core

Cladding

Buffer
250 - 900 m

n2 = 1.515
n1 = 1.527

100 m 140 m
Multimode
(step index)
SI 100/140

N.A. = 0.28
n2 = 1.540
n1 = 1.540 to 1.562

125 m
50/62.5 m
Multimode
(graded index)
SI 62.5/125
SI 50/125
9 m
Single mode
(step index)
SI 9/125

N.A. = 0.21

n2 = 1.457
n1 = 1.471

125 m

N.A. = 0.1

TEST LAB

492

Fibre Characteristics - Numerical Aperture


Measure of the fibres light acceptance angle ( )

Input Surface Refraction


Cladding

ay

it
Cr

R
c al

Core

NA = sin
Typical = 10

TEST LAB

Cladding

493

Attenuation coefficient ( of silica fibres


10

Attenuation coefficient / dB

1st window

2nd window 3rd window

Multimode fibre
Single mode fibre

IR absorption

0.1
800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Rayleigh
scattering 1/

Wavelength / nm

TEST LAB

494

Single Mode Fibre - Attenuation

Wavelength dependent (empirically found) :

Lowest at 1310 nm and 1550 nm with


losses of 0.5 dB/km and 0.25 dB/km respectively.

Attenuation Coefficient (dB/km)

1260

1360

1430

1580

A
1280
0
1200

1300

B
1480

1335
1400

1500

1600

Wavelength (nm)

TEST LAB

495

Fibre Characteristics - Dispersion vs.


Wavelength

Zero-dispersion is measured
at 1310 nm, coinciding with a
low attenuation window.
G.652

Zero-dispersion wavelength 1.313 m


Non-Zero Dispersion-shifted fibre

Dispersion-shifted fibres are


common in the 1550 nm
region. G.653
Non-zero dispersion shifted
fibers are common in the
1400-1500 nm region. G.655

20

10
Dispersion (ps/km-nm)

0
-10
-20
-30
1.0

1.1

TEST LAB

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6


Wavelength (m)
496

Compensating for Dispersion


Dispersion
Normal
Fibre

1600
18 ps nm / km
1000

Dispersion
Compensation
Fibre

Km
Dispersion affects pulse width, affects bit rate.
To counter the effect use DCF and increase the potential transmission distance.

TEST LAB

497

Optical Signal to Noise Ratio


0
-5
-10

Target

-15
dBm

-20
-15
-30
-15
-40
1530

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

1560

Wavelength (nm)

TEST LAB

498

LED and Laser Diode Power Spectra

-15 to -25 dBm

0 to -10 dBm

FWHM
100 nm

1300
LED

FWHM
3 nm

1300
FP laser diode
(MLM laser)

+5 to -10 dBm

FWHM
<<1 nm

1300
DFB laser diode
(SLM laser)

(nm)

FWHM = Full Width Half Measurement

TEST LAB

499

Detectors / Spectral Response


S (A/W)
Si

InGaAs

1.0

Ge (23C)

0.5
Ge (0C)

850

1300

TEST LAB

1550

(nm)

500

Fibre Optics Technology Applications

1550

0.5 1

10

50 100 km 500

LAN /
Customer premises

100/140 m
85/125 m
62.5/125 m
50/125 m

62.5/125 m
50/125 m
9/125 m

100/140 m
nm in combination
with EDFA

780 nm

0.1

Application

Access /
Longhaul

1300 nm

Maximum segment distance

Multimode (MM)

850 nm

Fibre type
core / cladding

Single Mode (SM)

Wavelength
range

9/125 m

TEST LAB

501

8.04 DISPERSION
Dispersion is defined as pulse spreading in an optical fiber.
As a pulse of light propagates through a fiber, elements such
as numerical aperture, core diameter, refractive index
profile, wavelength, and laser line width cause the pulse to
broaden. This poses a limitation on the overall bandwidth of
the fiber .
If several pulses are sent in a fiber at a high rate, the pulses
will overlap.
Dispersion is measured in time, typically nanoseconds or
picoseconds. Total dispersion is a function of the fiber length.
The longer the fiber, the more the dispersion.
TEST LAB

502

DISPERSION

There are two types of dispersion:


Intermodal dispersion
Intramodal dispersion
TEST LAB

503

INTERMODAL DISPERSION
Modal dispersion is defined as pulse spreading caused by
the time delay between lower-order modes (modes or
rays propagating straight through the fiber close to the
optical axis) and higher-order modes (modes
propagating at higher angles).
Intermodal dispersion contributes largely to pulse spreading
in multimode fibers
Light rays in a multimode fiber follow several paths (by
total internal reflection) of different lengths: they do not
reach the end of the fiber at the same time. This difference
in propagation delay broadens the pulse.

TEST LAB

504

INTRAMODAL DISPERSION
(CHROMATIC DISPERSION)
Chromatic dispersion is pulse spreading due to the fact
that different wavelengths of light propagate at slightly
different velocities through the fiber.
It is typically expressed in units of nanoseconds or
picosecond per kmnm.
There are two contributions to the intramodal
dispersion:
the Material Dispersion of the glass
the Waveguide Dispersion

TEST LAB

505

INTRAMODAL DISPERSION
(CHROMATIC DISPERSION)
Waveguide dispersion is usually smaller than material
dispersion and depends on the index profile of the fiber.
Material dispersion is due to the wavelength dependency on
the index of refraction of glass.
The material of which the fiber is made of induces dispersion
or pulse spreading. fiber.

TEST LAB

506

Waveguide Dispersion
Waveguide dispersion is due to the physical
structure of the waveguide.
Waveguide dispersion is more significant in complex index
profiles.
Material dispersion and waveguide dispersion can have opposite
signs depending on the transmission wavelength.
In the case of a step-index single mode fiber, these two
effectively cancel
each other out at 1310 nm yielding zerodispersion.This makes very high bandwidth communications
possible at this wavelength.
Dispersion can be minimized at 1310 nm but attenuation cannot
be minimized at this wave length
TEST LAB
507

Dispersion [ps/(nm . Km)]

Waveguide Dispersion

20
Material dispersion
10
0

Standard single-mode (1300 nm optimized)

-10
Dispersion flattened
-20

Waveguide
dispersions

Dispersion shifted
1300

1400

1500

1600

Wavelength(nm)
Typical waveguide dispersions and the common material dispersion
of three different single mode fiber designs

TEST LAB

508

Chromatic Dispersion
Input
1 0 0 0 1

Output
1 1 0 1 1

1
0

Chromatic Dispersion results from the fact that light in


different wavelengths is propagating at a different velocity in
fiber. That causes the pulse to broaden.

TEST LAB

509

Dispersion Penalty

1 1 1
1 0 1
1 0 1
1 0 1

Disp
ersi
on
pen
alty

Dispersio
n Penalty
The
dispersio
n of the
signal
causes
attenuati
on
on.

510
TEST LAB

8.05 Summary

In this chapter we studied the following topics :


Optical Spectrum
Use of Fiber optics &application
Different Types of Fibers & Applications
Dispersion

TEST LAB

511

Chapter-9
Transmission Testing Concepts

TEST LAB

512

Transmission Testing Concepts


Page No
9.01

SDH Network

9.02

DWDM Network

9.03

XDM Product Line

519 -- 522

9.04

ITUT Standards

523 524

9.05

SDH Mapping & NGSDH

525 527

9.06

POI Testing

..

528534

9.07

Jitter & Wander Testing

9.08

BER Measurement

9.09

Alaram testing

..

..

515 517
518

535 --549

550 553

TEST
LAB

554 --565

513

Transmission Testing Concepts


Page No
9.10 APS & Stability performance measurement

565 --576

9.11

DWDM testing

577 595

9.12

FEC

596603

9.13 Digital Micro Wave Radio

604 612

9.14 TMI Instruments

613 619

9.15 Optical fiber

..

620

9.16

Types of Fibers

621 628

9.17

Fiber Measurements

629-- 638

9.18

Summary

TEST LAB

514

9.01 SDH Network


140Mbit/s

TM

2Mbit/s

STM-1

ADM
STM-1, STM-4
2Mbit/s
34Mbit/s

ATM
Switch

STM-4/-16/
ADM
ADM
-64
STM-1

140Mbit/s
34Mbit/s
8Mbit/s
2Mbit/s

DXC
LAN
ADM : Add Drop Multiplexer
DXC : Digital Cross Connect
TM : Terminal Multiplexer
DSC: Digital Switching Center
LAN: Local Area Network

DSC
2Mbit/s
STM-1 / STS-3c Gateway to SONET
34Mbit/s
140Mbit/s
STM-1
STM-4

TEST LAB

515

SDH Network
Path
Multiplex Section
Reg. Section

SDH

MUX /
DEMUX

PDH

CC

SDH
MUX /
DEMUX

SDH

Multiplex Section
Regenerator Section Regenerator Section

Reg.
back-up line

clock

clock
clock

Parity Bytes

Comm.
Channels

B2
B1

B2
B1
B3

E2, D4 ... D12

TEST LAB

B1

E1, F1, D1 ... D3

516

SDH Network - Example


Microsoft AM 1+
with DS3 STM 4
Vannenberg
AM 1+
with DS3 STM
4
AM 1+
with STM 4

STM 16
63 E1
63 E1
63 E1
16/1 Sr
63 E1
STM 4
STM 4
E3+DS3
63 E1
STM 16

VSB

STM4 ring

TCS

To GE Eqpt AM1+

TTL POP
STM 16
@
HT2
63 E1
16/1
Comp
AM1+

E3+DS3
63 E1
63 E1

GE POP at HT2

STM 16

TTL POP
@
HT
1
16/1
Comp

Via Punjagutta
ST

Via Tarnaka,Sangeet

E3
ST
+ 63
M
DSE1
16
3

6363
M
E1E1
16

Sanat Nagar
16/1 Sr

STM 16
63 E1
E3+DS3

Via Ramanthapur,
63 E1 GE Uppal Nallakunta
STM 16 16/1 Comp

STM16 MSSP Ring


GE @ HT 2
Link for extending GE E3s upto
GE Office PO Yet to be released

STM 16
63 E1
E3+DS3

BTSOL
(Proposed)

63 E1
STM 16

16/1 Comp

STM 16
63 E1
E3+DS3
63 E1
63 E1
STM 16

To GE Eqpt

ST
6363636363
M
E1E1E1E1E1
16

Via Mehdipatnam, Gatchibowli

E3
ST
+ 63
M
DSE1
16
3

TEST LAB

16/1 Sr.

KLK

517

9.02 Transmission of multiple channels


using DWDM systems

TEST LAB

518

9.03 XDM Product line


Access

Metro-Edge

Metro-Core

LH/Regional/
National

STM-64/
DWDM
XDM-400
XDM-2000
STM-16/
CWDM

CWDM

XDM-200

XDM-500 XDM-1000

DWDM/CWDM
XDM-400

STM-4

XDM-100
-SDM1
BroadGate
GF-155

STM-1
LAN

TEST LAB

519

Micro SDM
The -SDM-1 supports up to 21 E1 tributaries.
2 The -SDM-1E module is up-gradable from 21 E1 to 63 E1 tributary
interfaces via Tributary Expansion (TEX) cards.
3 Channel 22 is used for DCC Cross connect and also used for Traffic
4
STM 1 interface modules
Optical: short-haul 1310 nm (35km), long haul 1550 nm (100km)
1

Electrical
5 Automatic path protection switching
6 Automatic performance monitoring
7

NVM(Non Volatile -Memory) card for

software and configuration back up

Dual input power

10 Variety of timing sources


11 Alarm in/out connectors

TEST LAB

520

XDM-100

1.

Aggregates traffic arriving over Ethernet, E1, E3, DS-3 and STM1/4 signals directly over STM-1/4/16

Can be configured as a Terminal Multiplier (TM) with a single port


for the line aggregates, as an ADM with two aggregate ports

Is suitable for indoor or outdoor installations

Supports an extended operating temperature range up to 55 C

TEST LAB

521

XDM-100

1.

Aggregates traffic arriving over Ethernet, E1, E3, DS-3 and STM-1/4
signals directly over STM-1/4/16

Can be configured as a Terminal Multiplier (TM) with a single port for


the line aggregates, as an ADM with two aggregate ports

Is suitable for indoor or outdoor installations

Supports an extended operating temperature range up to 55 C

TEST LAB

522

9.04 ITU-T Standards


SDH has been standardized by ITU-T in November 1988.
The CCITT (International Consultative Committee on Telephony &
Telegraphy) " recommendations G.707,
G.708 & G.709 covering the SDH standards.
G.702 - Digital Hierarchy Bit Rates
G.703 - Physical/Electrical Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital
Interfaces
G.707 - SDH Bit Rates
G.708 - Network Node Interface for the SDH
G.709 - Synchronous Multiplexing Structure
G.773 - Protocol Suites for Q Interfaces for Management of
Transmission Systems

TEST LAB

523

ITU-T Standards
G.781 - (Formerly G.smux-1) Structure of Recommendations on
Multiplexing Equipment for the SDH
G.782 - (Formerly G.smux-2) Types and General Characteristics
of SDH Multiplexing Equipment
G.783 - (Formerly G.smux-3) Characteristics of SDH Multiplexing
Equipment Functional Blocks
G.784 - (Formerly G.smux-4) SDH Management

TEST LAB

524

New Generation SDH

Edge

Customer

Operator

Adaptation

Ficon
Escon
Fibre
Channel

Native Interfaces

Ethernet

GFP

VC

Core

LCAS

Link
Generic
Virtual
Frame
Concatenation Capacity
Adjustment
Procedure
Scheme
LAPS

TEST LAB
Thats New SONET/SDH

SONET MUX/DEMUX

Edge

SONET/
SDH

526

The Building Blocks of Next-Gen SDH

GFP
Provides an elegant framing procedure with low overhead and support for
both packet services and storage services

Virtual Concatenation
Improves on current models of contiguous concatenation by supporting
much finer granularity of circuit provisioning and management from the
edge of the network. Right-sized pipes for packet services (Ethernet, in
particular). Both higher order (STS1 granularity) and low order (VT1.5 level)
are available, supporting a range of high- and low-speed service
assignments.

LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme)


A tool to provide operators with greater flexibility in provisioning virtual
concatenation groups (VCGs), adjusting their bandwidth in service and
providing flexible end-to-end protection options

TEST LAB

527

9.06 POI TESTING PARAMETERS


B1 LEVEL TESTS
OPTICAL Tx POWER OF ADM.
RECEIVER SENSITIVITY OF ADM.
CLOCK FREQUENCY (CLOCK).
OUTPUT JITTER IN SDH TO PDH LEVEL.
JITTER FROM TRIBUTARY MAPPING & POINTER ADJUSTMENTS.
INSERTION LOSS OF PCM CABLE

B2 LEVEL TESTS
OUTPUT JITTER IN 2 Mb LEVEL.
INPUT JITTER TOLERANCE.
BER WITH FREQUENCY OFFSET (10 Min.DURATION)
RETURN LOSS MEASUREMENT AT Tx PORT.
OUTPUT PULSE CHARACTERISTICS AT Rx PORT.
48 HOURS BER.

TEST LAB

528

OPTICAL Tx POWER AT ADM

DSX

Tx
Rx

Rx

Rx

ADM
Tx

Tx

OPTICAL POWER METER

TEST LAB

529

RECEIVER SENSITIVITY
PATCH CHORD

DSX

Tx
Rx
Rx

Rx

ADM

ELECTRICAL PORTS
OPTICAL ATTENUATOR

Tx

IN
OUT

Tx

Rx OF ADM

OPTICAL METER

IN

OUT

DTA
OPTICAL PORTS
INCREASE THE ATTENUATION UPTO ERRORS WE GET IN DTA
CHECK FOR ERRORS UPTO 1E-6 AFTER THAT CHECK THE Rx
LEVEL

TEST LAB

530

CLOCK OUT PUT

DSX
Rx
Tx

2Mb CLOCK 15 PIN


D CONNECTOR

Tx
Rx

ADM

Rx
Tx

FREQUENCY COUNTER

TEST LAB

531

PULSE MASK TEST


G.703 PULSE
MASK LIMITS
ACTUAL PULSE
MASK FROM
PCM CABLE

G.703

F1

RESTART

F2

F3

F4

CONNECT BNC PATCH CHORD TO THE DDF POI Rx SIDE.


CONNECT THE BNC CONNECTORS TO THE L1 Rx, PORTS IN E - 8. TESTER
(MARKED AS A & B IN EACH PORT)

TEST LAB

532

PARAMETERS TO BE CHECKED FOR POI TESTING


PULSE WIDTH (nS)
RISE TIME (nS)
FALL TIME (nS)
OVER SHOOT (%)
UNDER SHOOT(%)
LEVEL (dB)
AFTER POWER ON
STEP 1 : GO TO OTHER MEASUREMENTS
STEP 2 : GO TO PULSE MASK MEASUREMENTS, PRESS ENTER
STEP 3 : PRESS F1 FOR G. 703 MASK TO CHECK THE LIMITS OF
ACTUAL PULSE MASK
NOTE DOWN THE READINGS

TEST LAB

533

Jitter and Wander


Timing Jitter is short term variations of the significant instants of a
digital signal from their ideal positions in time
Timing Wander is long term variations of the significant instants of a
digital signal from their ideal positions in time
A significant instant is any convenient, easily identifiable point on the
signal such as a rising or falling edge.

TEST LAB

534

9.07 Jitter and Wander


ideal pulse position

Unjittered Signal

0
1

Jitter
Amplitude
0 (t)

0
2

0
2
0
3

0
3

Jittered Signal

0
5

0
4

Jitter Waveform

0
4
0

Jitter/Wander = unwanted phase modulation


Jitter >10Hz; Wander <10Hz
TEST LAB

535

Jitter/Wander Measurements: Unit Interval (UI)

Tj

To

0.5 UI

1 UI

t
Jitter amplitude (peakpeak)

% jitter = T x j 100%
To

Clock period
TEST LAB

536

Causes of Jitter

Jitter From Electrical Components

Random electrical noise resulting in intrinsic phase noise on


the signal output from oscillators
Phase noise in logic circuits resulting in transition
uncertainties

Transition
Uncertainty
Input Signal
to logic gate

Output Signal
from logic gate

TEST LAB

Logic Threshold

Jitter due to
noise input
Time

537

What causes jitter in transmission networks?


PDH

STM-N

ADM

STM-N

2M Ref

PDH

DXC

2M Ref

ADM

2M ref

Mapping Jitter due to justification process.


Accumulated Jitter (& Jitter Gain) due to multiple retiming imperfections.
Tributary Jitter due to SDH pointer adjustments.
Wander (low frequency jitter) due to clock instability & noise.

TEST LAB

538

Jitter Test Categories

Jitter Tolerance of network interfaces


Jitter Transfer of Regenerative Repeaters
Output Jitter a) Line Rate
b) Tributary Rate
Tributary Jitter due to pointer movements
Wander versus Reference Clock

TEST LAB

539

Jitter Tolerance
ADM
Apply Jitter
at Input

T-Carrier
PDH

Measure BER
at Output

SDH/
SONET

TEST LAB

540

Jitter Transfer
Jout
---Jin

Jitter Transfer = 20log10

SDH
Regenerator

Applied Jitter

Jin

STM-4

STM-N
Measured
Jitter Gain

STM-4

STM-N

Jout

TEST LAB

541

Why measure jitter transfer?

Jitter accumulates when regenerators are


cascaded and it's essential to minimize this accumulation.
Measured during installation of
line (long haul) systems i.e SONET & DSn regenerators.

Jitter Transfer = 20log10

Jout
---Jin

Jin

Jout
REGENERATOR CHAIN

TEST LAB

542

Output Jitter
1.5 Mb/s
45 Mb/s
2 Mb/s
8 Mb/s
34 Mb/s
140 Mb/s

No Applied
Jitter
PDH MUX

Measured Jitter
SDH/SONET
Network
Element

PDH

52 Mb/s
155 Mb/s
622 Mb/s
2.5 Gb/s

No
Applied
Jitter
SDH

TEST LAB

543

MAPPING & POINTER JITTER SETTING


PATCH CHORD

DSX

Tx
Rx

Rx

Rx

ELECTRICAL PORTS

ADM
Tx

Tx

IN

IN

OUT

OUT

DTA

OPTICAL PORTS

TEST LAB

544

MAPPING JITTER TESTING

CONNECT DTA
PREPARE SETTINGS IN DTA AS SHOWN IN FIGURE SETTINGS
THE TESTING DURATION WILL BE ONE MINUTE, FOR EACH E1 TWO FILTERS (LP + HP1, LP + HP2 ) TO
BE USED, JITTER VALUE IN TERMS OF PEAK TO PEAK TO BE NOTED (AS SHOWN IN
MPJTR1,MPJTR2)

LP FILTER

HP1 FILTER

HP2 FILTER
18KHz

20Hz
100KHz
POINTER JITTER TESTING
CONNECT DTA
PREPARE SETTINGS IN DTA

THE TESTING DURATION WILL BE ONE MINUTE, FOR EACH E1 TWO FILTERS (LP + HP1,
LP + HP2 ) TO BE USED, JITTER VALUE IN TERMS OF PEAK TO PEAK TO BE NOTED (AS
LP + HP1 PNJTR6,PNJTR7)
LP + HP2
SHOWN IN PNTJTR1,PNJTR2,PNJTR3,PNJTR4,PNJTR5,

20Hz

TEST LAB
100KHz

18KHz

545

100KHz

JITTER TOLARANCE SETTING


PATCH CHORD

DSX

Tx & Rx OF ADM

Tx
Rx

Rx

Rx

ELECTRICAL PORTS

ADM
Tx

Tx

IN

OPTICAL PORTS

IN

OUT

OUT

DTA

THERE SHOULD NOT BE ANY CONNECTIONS AT THE OPTICAL SIDE OF DTA


ALL OTHER FIBRE CONNECTIONS AT ADM ARE NORMAL

TEST LAB

546

OUTPUT JITTER SETTINGS


PATCH CHORD

DSX

Tx
Rx

Tx & Rx OF ADM

Rx

Rx

ELECTRICAL PORTS

ADM
Tx

Tx

IN

IN

OPTICAL PORTS

OUT

OUT

DTA

THERE SHOULD NOT BE ANY CONNECTIONS AT THE OPTICAL SIDE OF DTA


ALL OTHER FIBRE CONNECTIONS AT ADM ARE NORMAL

TEST LAB

547

Tributary Jitter
Adjust Pointer

OC-n

NE 2

Check BER
Check Tributary Jitter
DSn
Note: test set must
maintain lock in
presence of jitter
transients

TEST LAB

548

Wander (Jitter at < 10Hz.)

1. Is measured relative to an externally supplied reference clock.


2. Is measured by sampling the signal bit rate and accumulating
the discrete phase steps implied by the samples.
3. Jitter (>10Hz.) is filtered off before measuring the wander samples.
Step size = Count
Wander Clock

Counter

Divider

50Hz
Sample
rate

Reference Clock

TEST LAB

549

9.08 BER Measurement


What Causes Bit-Errors? Bit-errors are the result of incorrect
decisions being made in a receiver due to the presence of noise on a
digital signal

TEST LAB

550

The Back T o- Back Measurement


The back- to- back measurement characterizes the receiver
We assume that the transmitted signal quality is high(negligible noise and distortion)
Shot noise is negligible at data comm. rates ROP is controlled by attenuating the
output of the transmitter For each value of ROP, the decision threshold is optimise3d,
and the BER measured Receiver sensitivity is the ROP required to achieve a specific
BER

TEST LAB

551

The System Measurement


We now add the system under test and repeat the
measurement

If the system adds noise, or other wise degrades or modifies the signal, we expect to
see the effects in the BER curve
Note that the attenuation of the optical signal with in the system does not,by
itself,cause any degradation, since BER is measured as a function of ROP
However, attenuation followed by a process which adds noise will result in a reduction
in Q

TEST LAB

552

OFFSET BER SETTINGS


DSX

R
x

ADM

Tx & Rx OF ADM

R
x

ELECTRICAL PORTS

Tx

IN

OUT

IN

Tx

PATCH CHORD
Tx
Rx

OPTICAL PORTS

OUT

DTA

THERE SHOULD NOT BE ANY CONNECTIONS AT THE OPTICAL SIDE OF DTA

ALL OTHER FIBRE CONNECTIONS AT ADM ARE NORMAL

TEST LAB

553

9.09 Alarm Stress Testing


Correct alarm operation is critical to a network elements performance and is fully exercisable with the OmniBER OTN.

Example: Below AIS threshold alarm stress


test sequence
Line-AIS
ON

Initiali Tes
5 Frames
t
ze
4

Frames
1
Frame
5 Frames

Holding
Sequence

Activat
e

De-activate

Line-AIS
OFF

TEST LAB

554

Alarm Stress Testing

Example: At AIS threshold alarm stress test sequ

LineAIS
ON
5
Frame
s
1

Initiali Tes
ze
t

Holding
Sequence

Activate

Frame
4
5
Frame
Frame
s
s LineAIS
OFF

TEST LAB

555

In Service Performance Monitoring


LO Path
HO Path
MS
RS

RS

B1
(BIP-8)

B1
(BIP-8)

B2
(BIP-24)
B3
(BIP-8)
BIP-2
(V5)

MSREI
REI
(G1)

REI
(G1)

REI
(V5)

REI
(V5)
Detection
Generation

TEST LAB

556

Performance Monitoring
Add B1,B2,B3 errors,

STM-N

NE

STM-N

Check REIs
in return path

Check NE counts errors

TEST LAB

557

In Service Alarms
Low Order Path
High Order Path
Multiplexer Section
Regenerator Section
LOP
LOS
LOF
LOS
LOF
MS
RDI
(K2)
RAI
(G1)
RSI

AIS
(K2)

MS
RDI
(K2)

(V5)

LOP

LOP

AIS
(H1H2)

AIS
(V1V2)

Tributary
AIS

RAI
(G1)
RAI
(V5)

TEST LAB

558

Alarm Detection / Generation and Reporting


Add Alarm
Conditions
OC-n

OC-n

Check Downstream
Alarms

NE
NE
Check Upstream
Alarm
Check NE
Reports
Alarms

TEST LAB

559

Maintenance (Preventative)

NE

Compare B1,B2, B3 and Alarm registers

NE

n
Check line frequency
pointer movements

TEST LAB

Check
tributary
jitter

560

Multiplexer Section Protection Switching (MSP)


MS
Terminal

MS
Terminal
B2 error
detector

STM-N

1
+
1

STM-N

TEST LAB

1
+
1

561

Multiplexer Section Protection Switching Test

Check that pattern


changes from A to B

Add B2 errors
or send K1 / K2
messages

Standby

A
MS
Terminal
B

NE or 2nd Test Set

TEST LAB

562

APS (Service Disruption Test)


Direct measurement of network protection switching time Supports testing of ALL
network protection switching architectures

Resolution:
Accuracy:
ITU-T G.783/ G.841:
Bellcore GR.253:

1us
50us
< 50ms
< 50ms

Working

ADM

TEST LAB

Protection

ADM

563

MSP - Service Disruption Test

Transmission:

Tx via working fibre/path


Failure on
working fibre

Network Event:

Tx via protection fibre/path


Switch to protection fibre
complete

actual protection
switching time

HP 37718/19A:
Detected error burst:
measured protection
switching time
ADM

Working

Pattern sync.
regained

ADM
Error: < 50 us
Equivalent to less than 1% of
maximum acceptable switching
time

Protection

TEST LAB

564

9.10 Automatic Protection Switching


(Linear or Ring)

TX

OmniBER

1) Fault
Occurs

Rx

A
TX

OmniBER

3) Confirmation +
Traffic

Rx

2) Request to
switch

Passive APS testing = no response sent (3), B enters oscillation


Active APS testing = confirmation response sent, B is kept alive
TEST LAB

565

Event triggers - Transmit and Receive


A) Send a stimulus signal into the DUT at the same time
generating a TX trigger pulse

B) Receiving a response signal back from the DUT and


generating a RX trigger pulse.

C) Measuring the time between pulses on an outboard scope.


A.

TXLOS
Networ
k
eleme
nt

Trigger
outputs

C.

Response time test

B.
TEST LAB

RX-AIS

566

Mixed payloads
Essential for Network Operators

Networks no longer just carry voice; now


different payloads thru an ADM is normal
An ADM carrying mixed payloads will be
configured with different add/drop cards.
Presenting a test signal without the correct
mixed payload signal structure causes alarms
and errors in the ADM.

TU-12
2Mb/s

TEST LAB

TU-12
2Mb/s

TU-3
34Mb/s

TU-11
DS-1

567

Mixed Payload Structure


Copy of
foreground
Test Signal

OC-48
STM-1

1
1

Foreground
Test Signal
3

Copy of
foreground
Test Signal

3........................... 16

2
1

TUG
1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333
Background
TU-12
Structure

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333
4444444

TU-3
Background
TU-3
Structure

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333
Background
TU-12
Structure

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333
4444444

TU-3
Background
TU-3
Structure

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333
4444444

Background
TU-12
Structure

TU-3
Background
TU-3
Structure

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333

1234567
| | | | | | |
1111111
2222222
3333333
4444444

Background
TU-12
Structure

Example: STM-1 (TU-11,TU-12,TU-3) structure copied into all 16 STM-1s (TU-12s)


OR the 15 background STM-1 (TU-12s) can be set to unequipped.
Highlighted foreground TU-12 contains framed TU-12 test pattern. Background TU-12's
have same framing with different test pattern (2^9, 2^15, 1100 or numbered)

TEST LAB

568

TU-3
Background
TU-3
Structure

SDH Mixed Payloads Detection

Auto-discovers mixed payload structures


Identifies unequipped channels
Identifies channels containing Alarms/BIPs

HP 37718A / HP 37719A

OC-N

TEST LAB

569

Thru-mode Testing

No access to ADM during maintenance or


provisioning of new services.
Need to break the fiber and insert tester.

STM-1

Standard test mode is to insert a VT-1.5/DS-3 test pattern


into the ring and send round ring to verify BER.

Thru mode is essential to maintain the integrity of the


N/WMode
mgmtProvisioning
systems (i.e.Procedure
pass thru the DCC bytes)
OC-12
Thru
1. Configure Ring using N/W Mgr. to provision required path round ADM

ADM

STM-16

ADM

the ring
2. Insert DS-1/DS-3 PRBS into ring using VT/SPE Insert mode

STM-4

3. Receive DS-1/DS-3 PRBS using VT/SPE Drop mode


4. Set/Monitor C2/V5 Signal label

ADM

5. Set/Monitor J1/J2 Path Trace

DS-3,
DS-1

Other requirements
Access to K1K2 for APS messages
Pass thru DCC transparently

TEST LAB

570

Complete Overhead Access


Full SDH and POH Overhead Access

Access to defined and undefined bytes


Protect yourself against future
ITU-T/Bellcore standards changes and
possible re-definition of bytes
RSOH: All bytes except B1
MSOH/LOH: All bytes except B2,H1,H2, H3
(SS bits in H1 col. 1 are settable)

POH: J1, C2, G1, F2, H4, F3, K3, N1

LPOH/ VT POH: V5, J2, N2, K4

TEST LAB

571

Overhead Sequence Generation


Stress Framing Synchronisation Algorithms etc

Select RSOH, MSOH or POH overhead channel of interest:


SOH:
A1A2,J0, Z0,E1,F1,D1-D3,4 Media
MSOH/LOH:
D4-D12, K1-K2, S1, M1, M0,
Z1, Z2, E2
POH:
J1, C2, G1, F2, H4, Z3, Z4, N1

Program values for up to 5 different elements

Each element can be transmitted for 1-64000 frames

Sequence can be transmitted singly or repeated indefinitely

TEST LAB

572

Overhead Sequence Capture


Intermittent fault finding

Select SOH, MSOH/LOH or POH channel of interest


SOH:

A1-A2, J0, Z0, E1, F1, D1-D3,


4 Media bytes
MSOH/LOH: H1,H2 D4-D12, K1-K2, S1, M1, M0,
Z1, Z2, E2
POH:
J1, C2, G1, F2, H4, Z3, Z4, N1

Trigger can be manual or programmed value


Capture will display the first 16 / 8 different values
received and the number of frames that each value
has persisted.

TEST LAB

573

Message Based Overhead Access


Access Overhead Bytes

Overhead Access: Fast access pages - Textual Message


based Setup & Decode of S1 Sync Status & C2,V5 Path
Labels
APS Messages: Fast access page - Textual decodes of APS
messages

Defined Byte Labels

APS Textual Decodes


TEST LAB

574

BER(Stability Test)

The measure of transmission quality is determined by bit error rates (BER)


The BER depends on the amount of noise as well as other impairments that
are present in the system.

R(P1 P0)
BER = Q
1 + 0

TEST LAB

575

BER(Stability Test)
P1 optical power received during one bit
P0 power received during a 0 bit without any system impairment
Corresponding electrical currents are given by R P1 and RP2
1 and 0 denote the noise standard deviations during a bit and a 0 bit respectively.
Usually the required BER are of the order of 10-9 to 10-15

TEST LAB

576

9.11 DWDM Testing


Wavelength Mux

Wavelength Mux
Repeater

Repeater

OTU

OTU

OTU

(Section A)

(Section B)

(Section C)

OTU-TTI(A)
OTU-BIP-8(A)
OTU-BDI(A)
OTU-BEI(A)
OTU-IAE(A)
FEC(A)

OTU-TTI(B)
OTU-BIP-8(B)
OTU-BDI(B)
OTU-BEI(B)
OTU-IAE(B)
FEC(B)

OTU-TTI(C)
OTU-BIP-8(C)
OTU-BDI(C)
OTU-BEI(C)
OTU-IAE(C)
FEC(C)

ODU (Path X)
ODU TTI(X)
ODU-BIP-8(X)
ODU-BDI(X)
ODU-BEI(X)
STAT(X)

TEST LAB

577

DWDM MUX & Tx Transponder Testing


Test Procedure
Tx

Connect one Tx/transponder output


connector to CCA or OSA

Record output power and wavelength

Repeat this for all Tx

Connect the MUX output to CCA or OSA

Record powers&wavelengths

Calculate delta = IL for each wavelength

Tx
Tx
Tx
Tx
Tx

M
U
X

Tx
Tx

CCA or
OSA

Requirements

Output power range: ~ -5 to +5 dBm

Channel wavelength: <20% of channel


spacing

Max IL MUX (per wavelength): 3 dB

TEST See
LAB
578
equipment specifications

Rx Transponder Testing
Rx

D
E
M
U
X

Test Procedure

Rx
Rx

Connect BERT (1550nm) to


one Rx via adjustable attenuator

Insert 223-1 pseudo random payload

Record BER over Rx input power

Repeat this for all Rx

Rx
Rx
Rx
Rx
Rx

Requirements

BER range: 10-10 BER

Min receiver sensitivity:


-18 -30 dBm

See equipment specifications

Tx
Rx

TEST LAB

579

DWDM DEMUX Testing


Test Procedure

Rx

Connect DEMUX output to CCA


Record power&wavelength
Repeat this for all outputs

Rx

Rx

D
E
M
U
X

Connect DEMUX input to CCA or OSA


Record powers&wavelengths

Rx
Rx
Rx
Rx

Connect Rx input to CCA


(if far from DEMUX)
Record power&wavelength
Repeat this for all Rx

Requirements

Rx

Output power range: ~ -5 to +5 dBm


Channel wavelength:
<20% of channel spacing
Max IL DEMUX (per wavelength): 3 dB
Link loss according to network design
see equipment specifications

CCA or
OSA

TEST LAB

580

Tx Transponder
Key design parameters
Output power rise/fall time extrention ratio madulation type
sidemodesupression ratioand wavelength stability and
accuracy
The output power depends on the transmitter
DFB lasers putout 1mw to 10mw power using amplifiers we
can increase to 50 mw
The extinction ratio is the ratio of power transmitted when
sending a bit 1 to the power transmitted when sending 0
Practical transmitters have extinction ratios between 10 and
20
P0 = 2P/ r+1
P1 = 2rP/r+1
TEST LAB

581

Rx Transponder - Sensitivity & Overload


Key system parameters
Sensitivity and overload parameter
The sensitivity is the optical power required to achieve a certain
BER at a particular bit rate
And overload parameter is the maximum input power the
receiver can accept. The overload parameter defines the dynamic
range of the receiver

TEST LAB

582

Rx Transponder Sensitivity Test

TEST LAB

583

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier


(EDFA)
Essential components in transmission systems and networks
to compensate for system losses
The commonly used device is EDFA which has a gain
bandwidth of 35nm at 1.55 micro meters
Can be used as preamplifier in front of receiver to improve
sensitivity
Can be used as power amplifier in front of transmitter to
increase the out put power
Can be used as line amplifier to compensate for link losses.

TEST LAB

584

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier


(EDFA)
Amplifier introduces noise in addition to gain
The various design issues
Gain saturation : Gain depends on input power,if the
input signal power increases gain drops
Gain equalization : the amplifier gain is not exactly the
same at each wavelength small variations in gain between
channels cause large variations in power difference.
This can be removed by pre equalization second approach is to
introduce equalization at each amplifier stage, one way
demultiplex the channels, attenuate each channel and then
multiplex them back together.

TEST LAB

585

Cross Talk
Effect of other signal on the desired signal
Every component in WDM introduces crosstalk
The components include filters, MUX/DEMUX, Switches,
amplifiers, and fiber.
Two types:
interchannel crosstalk
intrachannel crosstalk
Intracahnnel arises
when signal at a wavelength
leaks into the desired signals
receiver

a. an optical demultiplexer
b. an optical switch wihtinputs at different wavele

TEST LAB

586

Cross Talk
The penalty is highest when the state of polarization of
the cross talk signal is the same as the SOP of the desired
signal
Interchannel crosstalk arises due to variety of sources e.g.
optical switching at different wavelengths
PP = -10 log(1- e)
Where e is the extinction ration
In bi-directional systems additional crosstalk mechanisms arise
Crosstalk reduction
Improve the crosstalk suppression at the desired level
Spatial dilation or wavelength dilation for crosstalk reduction
TEST LAB

587

DWDM System Parameters

TEST LAB

588

Optical Signal/Noise Ratio (OSNR)


The BER performance of a DWDM channel is determined by OSNR,
which is delivered by the receiver.
This acceptable OSNR is delivered through a relatively
sophisticated analysis of signal strength per channel, amplifier
distances, and the frequency spacing between channels.
OSNR POUT L NF 10 Log N 10 Log h vv 0
POUT: Per channel output power(dBm)
L: Attenuation between two amplifiers (dB)
NF : Noise figure of amplifier(dB)
N: number of spans
10 Log [h vv 0 = - 58 dBm 1.55m, 0.1nm spectrum
width)
The total transmit power is limited by the present laser technology
and fiber non-linearities
The key factors are the span TEST
(L) andLAB
the number of spans(N).589

Optical Signal/Noise Ratio (OSNR)

TEST LAB

590

Equal span Network

822
dB
530
dB
333
dB

Above span design can ensure the OSNR is better than 20dB

TEST LAB

591

Different Span Network

105km

+5
+2

78km
22dB

-8

82km

120km
33dB

33dB

30dB

75km
22dB

-18
-28
0

78

198

311

TEST LAB

363

435

592

Four Wave Mixing (FWM)


Original Wavelengths

Frequency
2f1-f2

f1

2f2-f1

f2

New Wavelengths
Number of new wavelengths = N2(N-1)/2
where N = number of original wavelengths

FWM
N Products
2
4

TEST LAB

2
24

593

Measured FWM (degenerated)


0

Opt. Power / dB 1

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
1557

1558

1559

1560
Wavelength / nm

The slide shows the original wavelengths 1 and 2 and the new generated wavelength
(left and right to the original wavelengths).

TEST LAB

594

Measured FWM (non degenerated)


0

Opt. Power / dB

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
1556

1557

1558

1559

1560

1561

1562
1563
Wavelength / nm

The slide above shows the original wavelengths 1, 2 and 3 and the new
generated wavelengths.

TEST LAB

595

9.12 Forward Error Correction Testing


FEC is a key element of the OTN. OmniBER OTN generates structured OTN
frames and can also generate frame errors (after calculated FEC).
Useful in validating the FEC functionality in new designs.

10.71 Gb/s OTN


with mapped
SDH/SONET

Add
Errors

G.709
DUT

10.71Gb/s OTN
with mapped
SDH/SONET

Check for
No Errors

TEST LAB

596

Forward Error Correction


Improves the BER performance of an existing link without adding signal power.
Increases the maximum span of a link, optimizing span engineering parameters.
Improves the overall quality of the link by diagnosing link problems early

TEST LAB

597

FEC Generation - A 5 Step Process


4080 Bytes
16 Bytes

3808 Bytes

256 Bytes

82 kHz

4 Rows

The FEC code is generated in one OTN Frame row at a time.

Step 1:

To ensure low-latency, each Frame Row is demuxed


into 16 individual sub-rows before FEC is generated.

Step 2:

Blank FEC bytes are added to each sub-row.

Step 3:

16 sub-rows are independently connected to 16 FEC


encoders, FEC calculated and populated in blank FEC
bytes.

Step 4:

16 sub-rows are remultiplexed to the original row with


the addition of the newly generated FEC values.

Step 5:

4 rows = OTN Frame

TEST LAB

599

FEC Generation - Step 1 (Frame Row De-Mux)

Row 1

16 17 18 19

33

3824

Payload
Overhead

Sub
Row 1

17

33

49

18

34

50

32

48

64

3809

Sub
Row 16 16

3824

TEST LAB

Each Frame Row


(Overhead + Payload) is
demuxed into
16 individual sub-rows
before
FEC is generated.

600

FEC Generation - Step 2 (Add blank FEC bytes)

239 bytes

16 bytes

Sub
Row 1

16 blank
FEC
bytes
added
per subrow

Sub
Row 16

Blank FEC bytes are added to each sub-row.

TEST LAB

601

FEC Generation - Step 3 (FEC Calculated


and Added)
LIVE FEC
FEC Encoder 16
FEC Encoder 15
FEC Encoder 14
FEC Encoder 13
FEC Encoder 12
FEC Encoder 11
FEC Encoder 10
FEC Encoder 9
FEC Encoder 8
FEC Encoder 7
FEC Encoder 6
FEC Encoder 5
FEC Encoder 4
FEC Encoder 3
FEC Encoder 2
FEC Encoder 1

16 sub-rows are independently connected to 16 FEC encoders,


FEC calculated and populated in blank FEC bytes.

TEST LAB

602

FEC Generation - Step 4


(Reconstitute original Frame row + FEC)

OTU Frame
Row

MUX

1 2 3 4

16 17 18 19

Overhead

382 408
5
0

3824

Payload

Valid
FEC

16 sub-rows are remultiplexed to the


original row with the addition of the
newly generated FEC values.

TEST LAB

603

9.13 Digital MW Radio Block Diagram

C
O
D
E
R

MOD

~
~

UPCONVERTER

~
~

DEMOD
~

DOWNCONVERTER

D
E
C
O
D
E
R

Here is a simplified block diagram of a digital radio transmitter and receiver.


Those of you familiar with analog radio will recognize a strong similarity in the
block diagram, though the modulator and demodulator sections are very different
as we shall see later.

TEST LAB

604

DMR Block Diagram 1+0 System

STM 1

DC Power

Add/drop
Tributory

multiplexer &
Baseband

Modulator &
Demodulator

processing

Transciever

feeding &

Unit
Coaxial Cable

Over voltage

Antenna Unit

(Upto 300m)

protection

Branching Unit

Indoor Unit

Outdoor Unit

(IDU)

(ODU)

TEST LAB

605

IDU & ODU


In transmit direction the STM-1 input is CMI decoded or converted from optical to
electrical level and fed to the SORP ASIC. It performs all the SOH processing and radio
scrambling. The FIR ASIC encodes the signal by use of a convolution code and maps it to
the 32CROSS constellation. It also performs the necessary pulse shaping. The signal is
then I/Q modulated, and the 350MHz IF signal is fed to the ODU interface and applied to
the IF coaxial connector. In receive direction the 140MHz IF from the ODU will interface
the IDU on the same connector. The necessary cable equalising functions are provided in
the ODU interface and the equalised IF is presented to the coherent demodulator. From the
demodulator the signal is fed to the ATDE, a 7 tap adaptive time domain equaliser. The
equalised signal is then decoded in the TRELLIS decoder , by use of soft decision and the
Viterbi algorithm.The signal is then fed to the SORP for radio descrambling and SOH
processing. The STM-1 signal is then CMI encoded or converted to optical level.
ODU
The ODU is an assembly of antenna, branching unit and transceiver. The ODU is connected to
the IDU with a single coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provides Tx-IF, Rx-IF, signalling and
power. For flexibility and easy installation, the coaxial cable is connected to the transceiver
through the branching unit.

TEST LAB

606

DMR Network - Example

Legends ADM4/1
SUPV +SVC
Optical /Line
16 *2 MB
Electrical /Line
16 *2 MB

Tribcard
E3
NO card Avlble
Dropping

SRIKRI

SRINAGAR
COLONY

Electrical card

Optical card

Gomathi

Teluguthalli
14851 /0.6/V
POOJA

RX

I
D
U

TX

TX
ADM4/1
KLK

15271 /0.6/V
18875 /0.6/V

RX

I
D
U

SR Nagar
WH

17865 /0.6/V

TEST
LAB
KLK

Aditya

607

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

Any signal present in the environment will have thermal


noise and other noise associated with it.
SNR =

Signal Power
Noise Power

S
=

SNR is defined over the bandwidth


expressed in dBs

N
of interest and

Higher the SNR, the smaller the signal distortion due to


noise.

TEST LAB

608

Performance Objectives for DMR System


The bit error (BER) of the HRDP should not exceed the following
provisional values given below, which takes into account of fading,
interference and all other sources of degradation of performance:
1 x 10-6 for more than 0.4% of any month
1 x 10-3 for more than 0.054% of any month
(integration time 1 second)
Errored seconds should not exceed 0.32% of any month
Thus, the 2500 km HRDP has been allocated 10% of the ES and DM
objectives of HRX. The 0.054% SES objective is obtained by the
addition of 10% of the high grade portion, i.e., 0.004% and 50% of the
block allocation, i.e. 0.05% (owing to the statistical nature of the
occurrence of worst month effects).

TEST LAB

609

Performance Objectives for DMR System

The performance objectives of digital sections should be derived by


subdivision of the percentage of time during which the threshold
may be exceeded (CCIR Report 930 and Rec.594). Thus for a
section of length L Km, down to a distance of 280 Km, the
objectives are:
ESL = 0.32% x (L/2500)
SESL = 0.054% x (L/2500)
DML = 0.4% x (L/2500)
and unavailability objective is
UL = 0.3% x (L/2500)
When a 11 GHz system is used for intracity working the SES objective
can be taken as 0.053% (which is 50% of the block allocation and twice
the medium grade allocation of a HRX).

TEST LAB

610

Jitter Measurements in the Digital Radio Network


JITTER
GENERATOR

PATTERN
GENERATOR

JITTER
RECEIVER

MOJ/MIOJ

MTIJ

Tx

Rx
DIGITAL RADIO
LINK

JTF

MTIJ = Maximum Tolerable Input Jitter


MOJ = Maximum Output Jitter

ERROR
DETECTOR

MIOJ = Maximum Intrinsic Output Jitter


JTF = Jitter Transfer Function

TEST LAB

611

Jitter Measurement in the Digital Radio Network


Perhaps the most common Jitter measurements are made at the standard CCITT
interface on the Radio which connects with the Digital Network. A number of Jitter
specifications have been laid down by CCITT for the CCITT standard hierarchy
rates. The idea is that if a piece of equipment meets the specifications at its input
and output, then it can be connected freely within the Digital Network without
degrading Jitter performance and causing errors.
There are three classes of Measurements:
Maximum Tolerable Input Jitter: Which is tested by applying increasing Jitter
to an input data stream and determining the onset of bit errors.
Maximum Output Jitter(AND Intrinsic Output Jitter: Which is the level of
output jitter with a jittered (or jitter-free) input signal.
Jitter Transfer Function: Which is a measure of how the Jitter is attenuated by
passing through the system, a necessary specification to prevent jitter
accumulation in the network.

TEST LAB

612

9.14 Agilent TMI for Transmission Testing


2.5G
OmniBER 718/725

10G
OmniBER OTN

Factory

Jitter Binary I/F


ATM

Rich O/H testing

P.O.S

All channel testing

Overhead Sequences

Upgrade to jitter

Rear Connector Option

Portable Product Positioning

Upgrade to 40G

Field

J2126A OTN

J2127A

Light Weight

Light Weight

Low Cost

Low Cost

Field Focussed
Feature Set

Field Focussed
Feature Set

All channel testing

All channel testing

TEST LAB

613

Agilent TMI for Transmission Testing

SONET

718 719 720 725

Comments
SONET framing structures

SDH

SDH framing structures

1310

1310nm optics

1550

1550nm optics

PDH & T-Carrier Testing

Comprehensive test capability for 2,8,34,140Mb/s


and DS1(1.5Mb/s) / DS3(45Mb/s)

Synchronous Electrical
Interfaces (52/155Mb/s)
Synchronous Binary
Interfaces
ATM

Electrical transmitter & receiver at 52/155Mb/s


Electrical (differential & single-ended) and
optical interfaces to 2.5G
Detailed ATM payload generation & analysis

POS

Detailed POS payload generation & analysis

Jitter/Wander

Comprehensive Jitter and Wander generation


and analysis

Detailed Mapping

Structured payloads down to 56/64Kb/s

Bulk Mapping

Concatenated payloads (bulk-filled VCn-c)

Service Disruption

Automatic Protection Switching time with


realistic payloads

TEST LAB

614

Omni BER-718
Transmit, Receive
Results, Graphics
SMART
TEST

The Front Panel

Bright
Alarm
LEDs
Printer
Control
Keys

Large Colour
Display with
Single or MultiWindows Mode

Pop Up
Menu Keys
Menu Driven
Soft Keys

Lid Printer
Output
Cursor
Navigation
Keys

TEST LAB

VGA
Output

615

Omni BER-718 Features


1 - Smart Test, Smart Setup
Fast identification of signal types.fast test equipment set up.
Capture all results in one test period.
2 - APS/Service Disruption Technique, Accuracy
Only independent verification tester for linear APS switch mechanism.Ensures
correct operation and interoperability in the network.
3 - ATM/POS (Jitter, OC48c, Channelized)
Stresses packet processing H/W.Simulates live traffic.Gives more realistic
performance results.Less failures in the Network.
Single box solution to measure and characterize the speed of protection
switching time.

TEST LAB

616

OmniBER 718 Interfaces


Transmit

Optical
Interface

Clock I/F

Multirate
Analyzer

Floppy Disk
Jitter Rx

Remote
control

Jitter Tx
Receive

TEST LAB

Power

617

OmniBER OTN 2.5G


OmniBER OTN 2.5G

Multi-rate up to 2.5G

Ethernet mappings into SONET/SDH

GFP

LAPS

Mixed mappings

Contiguous concatenations of STS-3c,


AU-4-2c,
AU-4-3c, AU-4-4c,
AU-4-8c and AU-4-16c as well as noncontiguous AU-3

Future upgrade-ability to
Virtual concatenation, LCAS and GbE
physical
interface

OTN (OTU-1)

TESTofLAB
Upgrade
all the above features618
at 10G

Agilents Next Generation SONET/SDH Test Solution


The ONLY tester that provides insight into all the layers of a structured
signal
Ethernet
GFP (G.7041)/ LAPS(X.86)
SONET/SDH &
OTN (G.709)

OTN

Resulting in
Comprehensive debug & reduced
test times,

SONET

Which Ensures

GFP

Ethernet

LAPS
SDH
OTN

Interoperability & standards


compliance

TEST LAB

619

9.15 Optical Fiber


Mostly SM fiber is used long distance communication typically 5 Km to 170
Km with out any problem
MM fiber is only used for the low data rates and short distance communication
typically 100 meter to 1 Km
Distance of reach depends on so many parameters
Typical SM Fibers
Single Mode Fiber G.652
DSF (Dispersion shifted fiber) G.653
NZ-DSF (dispersion shifted fiber) G.655
LEAF (Larger effective area fiber)
DCF (Dispersion compensating fiber)

TEST LAB

620

9.16 Typical SM Fiber Parameters


Typical SM Fibers
Dispersion is zero at 1310 nm wavelength
At 1310 nm the losses in the fiber is high
While Losses minimum at 1550 nm while the dispersion parameter is
+17 ps/nm/Km

Typical SM Fiber Parameters

Zero dispersion wavelength (nm)


Cutoff wavelength (nm)
Attenuation (dB/Km)
Dispersion (ps/nm Km)
PMD coefficient (ps/Km1/2)
Mode field diameter (micro meter)
Effective area (micro meter2)

Parameter at different wavelengths are


Attenuation slope (dB/Km/nm)
Dispersion slope (ps/nm2 Km)
Mode field diameter

TEST LAB

621

ITU-T Standards (Optical Fiber)

G.650 Definition and test methods for the relevant parameters of single
mode fibers
G.651 Characteristics of a 50/125 m multimode graded index optical
fiber cable
G.652 Characteristics of a single-mode optical fiber cable
G.653 Characteristics of a dispersion-shifted single-mode optical fiber
cable.
G.654 Characteristics of a 1550 nm wavelength loss-minimized
single-mode optical fiber cable
G.655 Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion single- mode optical
fiber cable.

TEST LAB

622

ITU-recommendation for G.652


ITU-recommendation G.652
SMF has
Zero chromatic dispersion at 1310
High chromatic dispersion
(approx. 17ps/nm-km) at 1550nm

Advantage
Support WDM
Low in cost

Disadvantage
Suitable only for short and medium distances
Needs Dispersion Compensation modules

TEST LAB

623

G652 fiber

Dispersion (ps/ nm.Km)

1610

1530

20

10

1310

1550

nm

-10
EDFA Gain
Spectrum

-20

TEST LAB

624

Dispersion Shifted Fiber

ITU-recommendation G.653
Wave guide dispersion and material dispersion cancel out each other at
1310nm
Same cancellation is used at 1550nm band
The reasons are principally:
Fiber attenuation is a lot lower in the 1550 nm band
Erbium doped fiber amplifiers operate in this band

Done by increasing the waveguide dispersion

TEST LAB

625

Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF)

1610

1530

20

Dispersion (ps/ nm.Km)

10

1310
0
1550

nm

NDSF
-10

-20

DSF

TEST LAB

EDFA Gain Spectrum

626

Non Zero Dispersion shifted Fiber

ITU-recommendation G.655
Low positive value of dispersion

(4 ps/nm/km in the 1530-1610 nm band)

Advantages
Minimizes unwanted effects Four-Wave-Mixing(FWM)
More distance than SMF

Disadvantage
Not able to carry large optical power

TEST LAB

627

Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber

Dispersion (ps/ nm.Km)

10

5
1610
0

1530

nm

1550
NZ-DSF

-5
DSF
-10
EDFA Gain
Spectrum

TEST LAB

NZ-DSF628

9.17 Optical Fiber Measurements


Optical Measurements:
Mode field diameter
Numerical aperture(NA)
Fiber Loss
Refractive Index profile
Dispersion

Mechanical Measurements:
Fiber Geometry
Mechanical testing
Strength after mechanical stripping
TEST LAB

629

Measuring Loss of a Patch Cable, Double-Ended

This test measures the loss of the connectors on both ends of the
cable being tested plus any loss of the fiber in the cable being tested.
We do this with two reference cables, one attached to the source and
one attached to the meter.

1. Disconnect the launch cable from the meter.


2. Using a mating adapter, attach the cable you
want to test to the end of the launch cable.
3. Attach the other end of the cable to receive cable
attached to the meter.
4. Read the value on the meter display. The
difference in power between this measurement and
the reference measurement will be the loss.

TEST LAB

630

Fusion Splicer

Inset heat shrinkable sleeve to one of the fibers


Mount the prepared fibre in the Splicing machine
Align the fibers
Fuse the fibers
Check the splice loss using OTDR
If the splice loss is within the limit, remove the splice put the splice protector
After the sleeve shrinks remove the same fix it in the splice protection tray
Keep the splice protection tray in the joint closure of fibre distribution frame
frame and close it.

Factors which can affect the loss of a Fusion


splice?

External factors like dirt, dust etc.


Cleave angle
Fibre positioning or view angle
Geometry of the fibers
Eccentrically positioned fibre cores
Problems with the machine itself

TEST LAB

631

Mechanical Splicing

Install mechanical splice in the splice tool

Insert the prepared fibre into one side of the mechanical splice

Insert the second prepared fibre to the other side of the mechanical splice.

Push both the fibres till they touch each other and fix the fibre on the tool
to avoid movement.

Check the insertion loss using an OTDR

Press the top of the mechanical splice loss using the tool if the splice loss
is within the limits

Remove the mechanical splice and fibres from the tool and put the same
in a splice holding tray.

Close the splice holding tray and transfer the same to joint closure or fibre
distribution frame depending on the application.

TEST LAB

632

OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER

OTDR is an instrument to check if the fibers, connectors and splices are


good in a long campus networks.
An OTDR can see the splice after it is made and confirm its performance. It
can also find stress problems in the cables caused by improper handling
during installation.
OTDR can find the cut in the cable and help confirm the quality of temporary
and permanent splices to restore operation.
On single mode fibers where connector reflections are a concern, the OTDR
will pinpoint bad connectors easily.
OTDRs should not be used to measure cable plant loss. That is the job of
the source and power meter, the OTDR cannot show the actual cable plant
loss that the system will see.
The limited distance resolution of the OTDR makes it very hard to use in a
LAN or building environment, where cables are usually only a few hundred
feet long.

TEST LAB

633

OPTICAL TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETER

OTDR makes use of the backscattered light from the fiber for its measurements.
OTDR sends a pulse a pulse which acts as virtual source testing all
the fiber. The OTDR can correlate what it sees in backscattered light
with an actual location in the fiber, through which it can create a
display of the amount of backscattered light at any point in the fiber
as shown.
The amount of light
scattered back to
the
OTDR
is
proportional to the
backscatter of the
fiber, peak power of
the OTDR test pulse
and the length of the
pulse sent out.

splice

Power
(dB)
Distance
TEST
LABFiber attenuation

634

connector

Information in the OTDR Trace

Reflective end
(note saturated peak)

Initial pulse

Ghost at 2X
length of cable

700 m cable
Just noise

If the cable contains highly reflective connectors, we may encounter ghosts as shown. These are
caused by the reflected light from the far end connector reflecting back and forth in the fiber until
it is attenuated to the noise level. Ghosts seems to be real reflective events like connectorsGhosts
can be eliminated by reducing the reflections. The connection from the launch cable to the cable
under test is highly reflective, ghosts may appear at multiples of the length of the launch cable or
the first cable we test.

TEST LAB

635

Backscatter Variability Errors


Another problem that occurs is a function of the backscatter coefficient, which
means the amount of light from the outgoing test pulse that is scattered back
toward the OTDR. The OTDR looks at the returning signal and calculates loss
based on the declining amount of light it sees coming back.
The backscattered light is a function of the attenuation of the fiber and the
diameter of the core of the fiber.

A) Same fiber spliced

If identical fibers are spliced, the


backscattering will be the same from
both sides of the joint.We get actual
splice loss with OTDR.

TEST LAB

636

Backscatter Variability Errors

Actual loss

Error caused by
B) fiber characteristics
High loss fiber spliced to low loss fiber

Error caused by
fiber characteristics
Actual loss
C)

Low loss fiber spliced to high loss


fiber can cause an apparent gain at a
splice

If two different fibers are used for


splicing, the backscatter coefficients
will cause a different percentage of
light to be sent back to the OTDR. The
two fibers are spliced with fiber having
more loss is spliced first,
However, if the fibers are different, the
backscatter coefficients will cause a
different percentage of light to be sent
back to the OTDR. If the first fiber has
more loss than the one after the
connection, the percentage of light
from the OTDR test pulse will go down,
so the measured loss on the OTDR will
include the actual loss plus a loss error
caused by the lower backscatter level,
making the displayed loss greater than
it actually is.

TEST LAB

637

Overcoming Backscatter Errors

One can overcome these variations in backscatter by measuring with the


OTDR in both directions and averaging the losses. The errors in each direction
cancel out, and the average value is close to the true value of the splice or connector
loss. Although this invalidates the main selling point of the OTDR, that it can
measure fiber from only one end, you can't change the laws of physics.

Resolution Limitations
The next important thing is OTDR resolution. The OTDR test pulse,
Figure 8, has a long length in the fiber, typically 5 to 500 meters long (17 to 1700
feet). It cannot see features in the cable plant closer together than that, since the
pulse will be going through both simultaneously. This has always been a problem
with LANs or any cable plant with patch cords, as they disappear into the OTDR
resolution. Thus two events close together can be measured as a single event, for
example a connector that has a high loss stress bend near it will show up on the
OTDR as one event with a total loss of both events. While it may lead you to think
the connector is bad and try to replace it, the actual problem will remain.

TEST LAB

638

9.18 Summary
In this chapter we studied the following Topics
SDH Network
DWDM Network
XDM Product Line
ITUT Standard SDH Mapping & NGSD
POI Testing
Jitter & Wander Testing
BER Measurement Alaram testing

TEST LAB

639

Tata Teleservices Limited


Test Lab Technical Team
D. Chandra Sekhar, Sr. Manager
09246309255
chandrasekhar
.d@tatatel.co.in

H. Guruprasad, Switching
55554185

040guruprasad

.h@tatatel.co.in

Monika Sharma, CDMA/RF/RAN


55554756

040-

monika.sharma@tatatel.co.in

K. Sridhar, Transmission
55554757
TEST LAB
kantamneni.sridhar@tatatel.co.in

040640

Program Ends Now

THANK YOU VERY


MUCH

TEST LAB

641