Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Intracellular transport

Topics 1.3,1.4
Chapter 2.4

Cell membrane
Phospholipid bilayer is amphipathic
Polar phosphate heads
hydrophilic

Nonpolar lipid tails


hydrophobic

Pre-1900s - water only


flows across membranes
Overton (1890s) - found
that lipids flow easily
through membranes
Langmuir, Gorter, and
Grendel (1920s) phospholipid orientation,
mono- and bilayers
Davson, Danielli and
Robertson (1935) protein-lipid sandwich
Singer, Nicolson, Unwin
and Henderson (197080s) - modern model

Fluid mosaic model


evolution of
sterols (animals, plants)

vs.

Selectively permeable
Embedded proteins and glycoproteins for
transport, enzymes, cell markers, etc

1. Passive Transport
Depends on concentration gradient and
equilibrium
A.Diffusion
Where is (are) the
concentration
gradient(s)?
When is equilibrium reached?

Passive transport
B.Osmosis
(describes the extracellular environment)
a. Hypertonic:
electrolyte concentration outside cell > inside your cells.
Water leaves cells, crenation occurs.

b.Hypotonic:
electrolyte concentration outside cell < inside your cells.
Water enters cells, lysis occurs.

c. Isotonic:
electrolyte concentration outside cell = inside cells.
Water leaves and enters cell at same rate
Blood cells in various salt osmolarity
solutions. Which is which?
Photos from Bowen, R. (2 July 2000). Osmosis.
Portraits of a Cell. Colorado State University.
Retrieved from
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/cmb/cells/pmem
b/osmosis.html

C. Facilitated transport
Embedded carrier proteins morph on contact
with substrate open the gate
No energy needed to transport molecule
though energy is required to make carrier protein

May have primary, secondary, etc. functions


change membrane permeability, activate other
messengers, act as enzymes for rxns
Hydrophobic amino acids
align, sometimes bonding
with, with fatty acid tails

Ex: magnesium, cysteine, ion channels,


membrane receptor proteins

Hydrophilic extra- and


intracellular faces anchor
protein to membrane

2. Active transport
Requires energy (ATP) from the mitochondria
ATP ADP + P + energy

Molecules moved from low concentration to high


concentration (against the concentration
gradient)
A.Vesicles

Endocytosis

pinocytosis
phagocytosis

Exocytosis

SourceERcis Golgitrans Golgivesicle

Photos from
Kirchhausen, T.
(2007). Agent Stops
Cell Traffic at Point of
Entry. Harvard
Medical School
Dubai Center.
Retrieved from
http://www.hmsdc.hm
s.harvard.edu/articles
/research4.html

B.Pump Proteins
Axon action potential
Sodium-Potassium pump
3 Na+ out, 2 K+ into cell
K constantly leaving as action
potential of cells activated
Combats natural hypotonic
situation
Cells need K to maintain other
molecular gradients (H2O,
C6H12O6)

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_vi
ew0/chapter2/animation__how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works
.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZG8M_ldA1M

Cell communication
Some embedded proteins are for
transport, others are for communication
Direct
Neurotransmitters (chemicals) + nerve cells =
nervous system chain of communication
Receptors (proteins) that feel a signal and
react

Cell communication
Indirect
Gated channels: protein that reacts with a
molecule (ACh) to allow gate to open and let
in specific molecule