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CHAPTER 5

PIPING &
INSTRUMENTATION
DIAGRAM (P&IDs)
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Oil & gas processing plant

Refinery plant
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Vegetable Oil Plant


CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

INTRODUCTION
A piping and instrumentation
diagram/drawing (P&ID) is a
diagram in the process industry
which shows the piping of the
process flow together with the
installed equipment and
instrumentation
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

INTRODUCTION
Piping is the physical elements that
interconnect the equipment and in which
the process streams flow. It comes in
different sizes and materials.
It is the duty of the process engineer to
specify the size and materials of the
piping and also the thermal insulation, if
required.
The term piping also includes
accessories such as elbows, tees, valves,
flanges, etc. The most common material
is carbon steel. Other metals, such as
various grades of stainless steel, and

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

INTRODUCTION
Instrumentation is devices used to
measure, control, and monitor the
process variables.
These variables can be flow,
temperature, pressure, liquid level,
viscosity, and others. Control valves and
relief valves are also an important part of
the instrumentation.
Piping and instrumentation drawing
(P&ID) includes the components of
pneumatic control system and hydraulic
control system.
Pneumatic control system uses
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

INTRODUCTION
The basic components of pneumatic
system are : compressor , air tank, air
dryer, regulator, directional control
valve and actuator.
For hydraulic system the components
are : pump, motor or cylinder, oil tank
and valve.
Basically, pneumatic system is widely
used in the electronic, food, and
automotive industry. Below are the
uses of pneumatic system :
Transferring of materials
Drilling system

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Stamping
Packaging
Automation
Meanwhile, hydraulic system is
normally used to operate :
Back hoe
Bull dozer
CNC machine
Load loader
Die casting machine
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

APPLICATIONS
Process Plants built as engineering &
construction (E&C) projects require
complex piping.
These projects include the following:
Chemical plants
Biotech plants
Brewery
Crude oil refineries
Food processing
Fertilizer plants
Oil & Gas
Nuclear Power plants
PharmaceuticalPulp
Paper millsWater
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

CLASSIFICATION OF P&ID
Legends and Symbol
Diagrams/Standard Details
Process P&ID - Process P&IDs define
on-plot process unit design, as well as
off-plot tankage and shipping systems
Utility Plant P&ID - Utility Plant P&ID's
define utility units such as cooling
towers, air compressors, boilers, unit
drain collection systems, fire water
systems, and water treatment plants.
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

CLASSIFICATION OF P&ID
Utility Distribution P&ID - Show the
distribution of utilities within a given
process. Valve and instrumentation on
piping are shown for main headers up
to and including branch root valves.
Interconnecting (Rack) P&ID They are
the connecting link between individual
process, utility plant, and utility
distribution P&ID's. They are usually
prepared for the offsite pipe racks and
link the various process and utility
plants.
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

P&ID & PFD


The objective of Plant Design is to define the
equipment, piping, instrumentation and all
process requirements needed to build and
operate a process plant.
Process Design
1. A process flow diagram (PFD) is a
diagrammatic representation of a process
using symbols to represent the various
components (equipment, lines, and control
instrumentation) that make up the unit. Only
the main components are shown.
2. Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID)
show how industrial process equipment is
interconnected by a system of pipelines.
P&ID schematics also show the instruments
and valves that monitor and control the flow
of materials through the pipelines.
CHAPTER 5: PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

PFD EXAMPLE

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

PFD
1. Flowing fluid (Example: water,
steam, etc.)
2. Fluid temperature (Degree C)
3. Fluid pressure (kg / sq cm (g))
4. Fluid mass flow rate (tonne /
hour)
5. Direction of fluid flow

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

P&ID EXAMPLE

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

P&ID
P&ID shows all of piping including the physical
sequence
of
branches,
reducers,
valves,
equipment, instrumentation. The P&ID are used
to operate the process system.
A P&ID should include:
Instrumentation and designations
Mechanical equipment with names and numbers
All valves and their identifications
Process piping, sizes and identification
Miscellaneous - vents, drains, special fittings,
sampling lines, reducers, increaser
Permanent start-up and flush lines
Flow directions
Interconnections references
Control inputs and outputs
Interfaces for class changes
Vendor and contractor interfaces
Identification of components and subsystems
delivered by others
CHAPTER 5: PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

The P&ID mixes pneumatic / hydraulic elements, electrical elements


and instruments on the same diagram
It uses a set of symbols defined in the ISA S5.1 standard.
Examples of pneumatic / hydraulic symbols:
pipe

350 kW

valve
one-way valve (diode)

heater

vessel / reactor

binary (or solenoid) valve (on/off)


analog valve (continuous)

heat exchanger

pump, also
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Instrumentation identification
The first letter defines the measured or initiating variables such as Analysis (A), Flow
(F), Temperature (T), etc. with succeeding letters defining readout, passive, or output
functions such as Indicator (I), Record (R), Transmit (T), here: flow indicator digital

FIC
V1528
tag name of the
corresponding
variable
here: V1528

mover
(here: solenoid)
S

function
(here: valve)
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Example of P&ID
The output of FIC 101 is an electrical signal to TY 101
located in an inaccessible or behind-the-panel-board location.

Square root extraction of


the input signal is part of
FIC 101s functionality.
FT101 is a field-mounted
flow transmitter connected
via electrical signals
(dotted line) to flow
indicating controller FIC 101
located in a shared
control/display device
The output signal from TY
101 is a pneumatic signal
(line with double forward
slash marks)
making TY 101 an I/P
(current to pneumatic
transducer)

TIC 101s output is


connected via an
internal software or
data link (line with
bubbles) to the
setpoint (SP) of FIC
101 to form a cascade
control strategy
TT 101 and TIC 101
are similar to FT 101
and FIC 101
but are measuring,
indicating, and
controlling
temperature

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Common connecting lines


Connection to process, or
instrument supply
Pneumatic signal
Electric signal
Capillary tubing (filled
system)
Hydraulic signal
Electromagnetic or sonic
signal (guided)
Internal system link
(software or data link)
Source: Control Engineering with data from ISA S5.1 standard

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

TYPES OF VALVE
Valves regulate fluids flow.
Different valve types provide:
on/off service, regulate flow of
fluid, provide constant pressure,
prevent dangerous pressure build
up and prevent backflow in the
pipe.
The gate valve is used to provide
on/off service in a pipe.
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

TYPES OF VALVE
The most common type of regulating
valve is the globe valve. Fluid flowing
through the glove valve travels in a S
pattern which allows the valve to
maintain
close control
on the flow.
The
most a
common
type backflow
valve is a
check valve. Check valves prevent
backflow by closing when the fluid stops
flowing.
Safety valves such as a pop safety valve
pop wide open when the pressure or piece
of equipment reaches a set pressure.
These valve are used for steam, air and
gas lines only not for liquids. The relief
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

APPENDIX

PROCESS & INSTRUMENT SYMBOL

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

APPENDIX

PROCESS & INSTRUMENT SYMBOL


continue..

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

APPENDIX

LINE SYMBOL

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

VALVE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

VALVE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

VESSELS

APPENDIX

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

PUMP & TANK

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Valves
A valve is a device that is used to control the
volume of flow and pressure of fluids. Fluid can
be water, gas, slurry, etc.
Closing, opening, or partially opening a
passage through which the fluid passes
regulates this flow.
Valves are made of different materials like cast
iron, bronze, steel, aluminium, plastic, ceramic
and other materials.
Valves are used in areas of commercial
applications, domestic and process
applications, automobiles, hydraulic presses,
medical equipment and many more.
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Working principle
In general, a valve has a plunger in the form of a
rod, flap or a ball that is fixed to a shaft.
The shaft and plunger assembly is housed in a
casting through which the fluid passes.
When the shaft is in one extreme position, the
passage is open allowing the fluids to pass.
At the other extreme position, the passage is
blocked and the flow is stopped.
The movement of the shaft and the mounted
flaps or balls is calibrated. This helps precise
control of liquid flow.

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Types of Valves
Electronic/Electrical Valves:
In these valves, movement of the flap or ball is controlled
through digital electronics or electrical circuits. These
valves have a precise control and reaction time, which
allow quick regulation of liquid flow. Such valves are used
in expensive automobiles, aircrafts, Space applications,
ships, high risk chemical processing and other critical
areas.
Non-Return Valves:
These valves are used in applications like chemical
processes, gas turbines, automotive and others where
unidirectional flow is required. The valves open in only one
direction. When pressure in the opposite direction is
applied, the valves get closed.
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Types of Valves (Cont)


Electromechanical Valves:
Electro magnets control the opening and closing
mechanism of the valves. These valves may have only full
open or full close positions.
Mechanical Valves:
Use mechanical energy for opening and closing
mechanism. A set of levers, pulleys, linkages, springs,
threaded shafts, etc. are used to operate the valve. Smaller
valves may be operated manually by turning a wheel or
using a lever or handle. They are used in domestic water
supply lines, taps for water pipes, cooking ranges, firefighting equipment, etc.

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Common PID Symbols


The

symbols used in piping and Instrumentation diagrams or


drawings are many and varied.
Common P&ID symbols of process equipment are valves,
flowmeters, piping line connections, and much more.
Go through them and familiarize your self with them. Getting
to know these common P&ID symbols used in developing
instrumentation diagrams will ensure that each time you see a
P&ID, no matter how complicated you should be able to identify
a symbol or two.
Also know that most piping and instrumentation diagrams will
come with their own library of symbols that may be different
from the ones listed and pictured here.
The first thing you should do with any P&ID is to check the
legend section where details of every symbol used on the
piping and instrumentation diagram is listed to ensure that you
are interpreting the right equipment.
CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Line types symbols used in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Piping connection symbols used in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Instrument short hand symbols or bubbles used


in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Valves symbols used in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Valve actuator types used in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Valve failure modes symbols used in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

ACTUATOR SYMBOL

CHAPTER 5: PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Flow sensors symbols used in P&IDs

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Process equipment symbols used in P&IDs &


PFDs (Process Flow Diagrams)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Pneumatic Component

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Pneumatic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Pneumatic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Pneumatic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Pneumatic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Hydraulic Component

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Hydraulic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Hydraulic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Hydraulic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Hydraulic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)

Symbols of Hydraulic Component (Cont..)

CHAPTER 5 : PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs)