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# Tacheometric

survey

What is it?

Introduction

## Its a branch of survey which deals with the

study of measurement of vertical and
horizontal distances using a Tacheometer.

What is a
Tacheometer?

Tacheometer

No rocket science!
Ordinary transit theodolite
and anallatic lens.
The job of the lens is to make
zero.

Constants

f/i=multiplicative constant
x=angle between line of sight and the middle
f=focal length of lens
Normally the values of multiplicative constant
is 100 and the additive constant is equal to
zero.

Principle of
Tacheometry

## The principle of Tacheometry is based on the

property of isosceles triangles. Where the ratio
between height and base is always constant.

D1/S1=D2/S2=D3.S3

=f/i

## When obstacles like river, broken ground,

stretches of water come in way then it
provides a speedy and accurate
measurement.
Places where terrain is mountainous or
undulated where the measurement of
horizontal and vertical distances is difficult,
slow and inaccurate.

## It is used to prepare contour maps

It is used for hydrographic survey
It saves time and money
It also reduces the error when compared with
chaining.
Used for road and rail surveying.

How to use it ?

## The person taking the reading should measure

make the calculations.

## For measurement on a level terrain the formula

is
D= [(f/i)*s]+(f+d)
RL=HI of instrument-h
Where D= distance
f=focal length
s=staff intercept
d=distance between vertical axis and center of lens
HI=height of instrument

Case I

If staff is at an at an elevation to
the Tacheometer.
The staff if to be vertical
D= (f/i)*s*(cos(x))2 +(f+d)*cos(x)
V= [(f/i)*s*sin(2x)*.5]+(f+d)*sin(x)
Reduced Level=RL of axis of instrument+V-h
D=horizontal distance
V=vertical distance
f=focal length
d=distance between vertical axis and lens

Case II

## When Tacheometer is at an elevation to the

staff
D=[(f/i)*S*(Cos x)2+(f+d)*Cos x]
V=[(f/i)*(S*Sin 2x)/2]+(f+d)*Sin x]
RL=RL of instrument axis-V-h
h=height of staff
D=horizontal distance
V=vertical distance
f=focal length
x=angle of depression

Case III

## Line of sight inclined but staff normal to it.

Staff is at an elevation(+ive elevation) to the
Tacheometer
D=(f/i)*s*cos(x)+(f+d)*cos(x)+h*sin(x)
V=(f/i)*s*sin(x)+(f+d)*sin(x)
RL=RL of instrument axis+V-h*sin(x)
D= horizontal distance
V= vertical distance
s= staff intercept
x= angle of depression
h=height of staff

Case IV

## Line of sight inclined but staff normal to it.

Tacheometer is at an elevation to the staff.
D=(f/i)*s*cos(x)+(f+d)*cos(x)-h*sin(x)
V=(f/i)*s*sin(x)=(f+d)sin(x)
RL=RL of instrument axisV-h*cos(x)
D= horizontal distance
V=vertical distance
x=angle of depression
s=staff intercept
f=focal legth

references

Wikipedia.org
N.N Basak
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