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Tacheometric

survey

What is it?

Introduction

Its a branch of survey which deals with the


study of measurement of vertical and
horizontal distances using a Tacheometer.

What is a
Tacheometer?

Tacheometer

No rocket science!
Ordinary transit theodolite
Fixed with stadia diaphragm
and anallatic lens.
The job of the lens is to make
the additive constant equal to
zero.

Constants

f/i=multiplicative constant
(f+d)= additive constant
x=angle between line of sight and the middle
stadia hair
f=focal length of lens
i=stadia intercept
Normally the values of multiplicative constant
is 100 and the additive constant is equal to
zero.

Principle of
Tacheometry

The principle of Tacheometry is based on the


property of isosceles triangles. Where the ratio
between height and base is always constant.

D1/S1=D2/S2=D3.S3

=f/i

Where it can be used

When obstacles like river, broken ground,


stretches of water come in way then it
provides a speedy and accurate
measurement.
Places where terrain is mountainous or
undulated where the measurement of
horizontal and vertical distances is difficult,
slow and inaccurate.

Advantages

It is used to prepare contour maps


It is used for hydrographic survey
It saves time and money
It also reduces the error when compared with
chaining.
Used for road and rail surveying.

How to use it ?

The person taking the reading should measure


the upper and lower stadia readings and then
make the calculations.

Formulations and calculations

For measurement on a level terrain the formula


is
D= [(f/i)*s]+(f+d)
RL=HI of instrument-h
Where D= distance
f=focal length
i=stadia intercept
s=staff intercept
d=distance between vertical axis and center of lens
h=central hair reading
HI=height of instrument

Case I

If staff is at an at an elevation to
the Tacheometer.
The staff if to be vertical
D= (f/i)*s*(cos(x))2 +(f+d)*cos(x)
V= [(f/i)*s*sin(2x)*.5]+(f+d)*sin(x)
Reduced Level=RL of axis of instrument+V-h
D=horizontal distance
V=vertical distance
f=focal length
i=stadia intercept
d=distance between vertical axis and lens
h=central height reading

Case II

When Tacheometer is at an elevation to the


staff
D=[(f/i)*S*(Cos x)2+(f+d)*Cos x]
V=[(f/i)*(S*Sin 2x)/2]+(f+d)*Sin x]
RL=RL of instrument axis-V-h
h=height of staff
D=horizontal distance
V=vertical distance
f=focal length
i=stadia intercept
x=angle of depression
h=central hair reading

Case III

Line of sight inclined but staff normal to it.


Staff is at an elevation(+ive elevation) to the
Tacheometer
D=(f/i)*s*cos(x)+(f+d)*cos(x)+h*sin(x)
V=(f/i)*s*sin(x)+(f+d)*sin(x)
RL=RL of instrument axis+V-h*sin(x)
D= horizontal distance
V= vertical distance
s= staff intercept
i= stadia intercept
x= angle of depression
h=height of staff

Case IV

Line of sight inclined but staff normal to it.


Tacheometer is at an elevation to the staff.
D=(f/i)*s*cos(x)+(f+d)*cos(x)-h*sin(x)
V=(f/i)*s*sin(x)=(f+d)sin(x)
RL=RL of instrument axisV-h*cos(x)
D= horizontal distance
V=vertical distance
x=angle of depression
i=stadia intercept
s=staff intercept
f=focal legth

references

Wikipedia.org
N.N Basak
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