50%(2)Il 50% ha trovato utile questo documento (2 voti)

1K visualizzazioni56 pagineCh.13 Kinetics of a Particle - Force and Acceleration

May 29, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Ch.13 Kinetics of a Particle - Force and Acceleration

© All Rights Reserved

50%(2)Il 50% ha trovato utile questo documento (2 voti)

1K visualizzazioni56 pagineCh.13 Kinetics of a Particle - Force and Acceleration

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 56

Force and Acceleration

Chapter Objectives

To state Newtons Second Law of Motion and to define mass

and weight

To analyze the accelerated motion of a particle using the

equation of motion with different coordinate systems

To investigate central-force motion and apply it to problems in

space mechanics

1. Newtons

- The branch of dynamics that deals with the relationship

between the change in motion of an object and the forces that

cause this change

- The basis for kinetics is form Newtons 2nd law (1686)

: unbalanced force acts on a particle

: the mass of the particle

: acceleration of the particle

- Mass is the quantity of matter an object has, it is a scalar. The

mass provides the resistance of the object to any change in its

velocity, that is its inertia

- The Newtons 2nd law

One of the most important equations in modern physics

A cornerstone of our modern built environment, and engineering

Validity based solely on experimental evidence

- The Newtons second law Disclaimer !

Albert Einstein (1905) showed that time is relative, as a result

Newtons 2nd law fails to accurately describe the motion of

objects traveling near the speed of light

Advances in the Quantum physics have shown that motion of

atoms and subatomic particles do not obey Newtons 2nd law

For most problems in modern engineering however neither of

the above are applicable

1. Newtons

- Newtons Law of Gravitational Attraction

:

:

universal constant of gravitation,

:

:

distance between the centers of the two particles,

1. Newtons

- For an object near the earth surface

the force of attraction the weight () of the object

:

:

:

mass of the object,

gravitational acceleration,

2. The

Equation of Motion

- When more than one force acts on an object, the resultant

force is vector summation of all the forces

and . If then , the object will either

remain or rest,

have constant velocity,

Newton's 1st law of motion

- Graphically, the free-body diagram the kinetic diagram

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

2. The

Equation of Motion

- Inertial reference frame

respect to a reference frame that is either fixed or translates

with a constant velocity

In this way, the observer will not accelerate and

measurements of the particles acceleration will be the same

from any reference of this type

Such a frame of reference is commonly known as a Newtonian or

inertial reference frame

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

3. Equation

- The equation of motion fro the particle

: resultant internal force

- If all these equations are added together vectorially

: summation of the internal forces

: total mass of all the particles

: center of mass acceleration

- The equation of motion

4. Equations

When a particle is moving relative to an

inertial ,, frame of reference, the forces

acting on the particle, as well as its

acceleration, may be expressed in

terms of their , , components

- The scalar equations

4. Equations

- Ex.13.1 The crate rests on a horizontal

plane for which the coefficient of kinetic

friction is . If the crate is subjected to a

towing force as shown, determine the velocity

of the crate in starting from rest

Solution

Free body diagram

Equation of motion

:

:

(1)

(2)

4. Equations

Equation of motion

,

Kinematics

the applied force is constant the acceleration is constant

the initial velocity is zero the velocity of the crate in is

4. Equations

Ex.13.2

A projectile is fired vertically upward

from the ground with . Determine the maximum

height

to which it will travel if atmospheric

resistance is (a) neglected; and (b) measured as ,

is the speed at any instant (

Solution

(a) Atmospheric resistance is neglected

Free body diagram

Equation of motion

:

Kinematics

4. Equations

(b) Atmospheric resistance is measured

Free body diagram

Equation of motion

:

Kinematics

The acceleration is not constant since

:

4. Equations

Ex.13.3 The baggage truck has

a weight of and tows a cart and a

cart . For a short time the driving

frictional force developed at the

wheels of the truck is . If the truck starts from rest, determine its

speed in . Also, what is the horizontal force acting on the

coupling between the truck and cart at this instant? Neglect the

size of the truck and carts

Solution

Free body diagram

Note: total weight

Equation of motion

:

4. Equations

Kinematics

The acceleration is a function of time

:

Equation of motion

:

4. Equations

Ex.13.4 A smooth collar is attached to a

spring having a stiffness and an unstretched

length of . If the collar is released from rest

at , determine its acceleration and the normal

force of the rod on the collar at

Solution

Free body diagram

Equation of motion

:

:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Giving the solution ,

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

4. Equations

- Ex.13.6 The block is released from rest. If the

masses of the pulleys and the cord are

neglected, determine the speed of the block in .

Solution

Free body diagram

Equation of motion

:

(1)

:

(2)

Kinematic

(3)

,,

:

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.1

The motor winds in the cable with a constant

acceleration, such that the crate moves a distance in , starting

from rest. Determine the tension developed in the cable. The

coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and the plane is

,,

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.2 If motor exerts a force of on the cable, determine the

velocity of the crate when . The coefficients of static and kinetic

friction between the crate and the plane are and , respectively.

The crate is initially at rest

Solution

Maximum friction force

: the crate starts to move when applying

:

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.3 A spring of stiffness is mounted against the block. If the

block is subjected to the force of , determine its velocity at .

When , the block is at rest and the spring is uncompressed. The

contact surface is smooth

Solution

:

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.4 The car is being towed by a winch. If the winch exerts a

force of on the cable, where is the displacement of the car in

meters, determine the speed of the car when , starting from

rest. Neglect rolling resistance of the car

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.5 The spring has a stiffness and is unstretched when the

block is at . Determine the acceleration of the block when . The

contact surface between the block and the plane is smooth

Solution

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.6 Block rests upon a smooth surface. If the coefficients of

static and kinetic friction between and are and respectively,

determine the acceleration of each block if

Solution

Consider the motion of blocks and

:

:

5. Equations

- The equation of motion for the particle may be written in the

tangential, normal, and binormal directions inertial

In scalar

Recal

5. Equations

Ex.13.6 Determine the banking angle

for the race track so that the wheels of

the racing cars will not have to depend

upon friction to prevent any car from

sliding up or down the track. Assume the

cars have negligible size, a mass , and

travel around the curve of radius with a

constant speed

Solution

Free body diagram

Equation of motion

:

(1)

: (2)

5. Equations

- Ex.13.7 The disk is attached to the end of a cord. The other

end of the cord is attached to a ball-and-socket joint located at

the center of a platform. If the platform rotates rapidly, and the

disk is placed on it and released from rest as shown, determine

the time it takes for the disk to reach a speed great enough to

break the cord. The maximum tension the cord can sustain is ,

and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the disk and the

platform is

Solution

5. Equations

Equation of motion

:

(1)

:

(2)

:

(3)

Setting , solving the above equations

,,

Kinematics

Since is constant, the time needed to break the cord

Thus

5. Equations

Ex.13.8 Design of the ski jump shown in

the photo requires knowing the type of forces

that will be exerted on the skier and her

approximate trajectory. Determine the

normal force on the skier the instant she

arrives at the end of the jump, point , where

her velocity is . What is her acceleration at

this point

Solution

slope at is horizontal

Equations of motion

:

:

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

(1)

(2)

Nguyen Tan Tien

5. Equations

The radius of curvature

Kinematics

5. Equations

Ex.13.9 The

skateboarder coasts

down the circular track. If he starts from

rest when , determine the magnitude of

the normal reaction the track exerts on

him when . Neglect his size for the

calculation

Solution

Free body diagram

Equations of motion

:

:

(1)

(2)

5. Equations

Equations of motion

:

(1)

:

Kinematics

Since , using

skateboarder

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.7 The block rests at a distance of from the center of the

platform. If the coefficient of static friction between the block

and the platform is , determine the maximum speed which the

block can attain before it begins to slip. Assume the angular

motion of the disk is slowly increasing

Fundamental Problems

- F13.8 Determine the maximum speed that the jeep can travel

over the crest of the hill and not lose contact with the road

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.9 A pilot weighs and is traveling at a constant speed of .

Determine the normal force he exerts on the seat of the plane

when he is upside down at . The loop has a radius of curvature

of

Solution

:

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.10 The sports car is traveling along a banked road

having a radius of curvature of . If the coefficient of static friction

between the tires and the road is , determine the maximum

safe speed so no slipping occurs. Neglect the size of the car

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.11 If the ball has a velocity of when it is at the position ,

along the vertical path, determine the tension in the cord and

the increase in the speed of the ball at this position

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.12 The motorcycle has a mass of and a negligible size.

It passes point traveling with a speed of , which is increasing at

a constant rate of . Determine the resultant frictional force

exerted by the road on the tires at this instant

6. Equations

When all the forces acting on a particle are

resolved into cylindrical components, i.e.,

along the unit vector directions , , , the

equation of motion can be expressed as

In scalar

6. Equations

- Tangential and Normal forces

Determination of the resultant force components

,,

causing a particle to move with a known acceleration

If acceleration is not specified at given instant, directions or

magnitudes of the forces acting on the particle must be known

or computed to solve

6. Equations

Consider the force that causes the particle to move along a

path

always perpendicular to the tangent of the path

+Frictional force always acts along the tangent in the

opposite direction of motion

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

6. Equations

The directions of and can be specified relative to the radial

coordinate by using the angle , which is defined between the

extended radial line and the tangent to the curve

the tangent in a CCW sense or in the positive direction

+If it is negative, it is measured in the opposite direction to

positive

6. Equations

Ex.13.10 The smooth double-collar can

freely slide on arm and the circular guide

rod. If the arm rotates with a constant

angular velocity of , determine the force

the arm exerts on the collar at the instant .

Motion is in the horizontal plane

Solution

Free body diagram

Equations of motion

:

:

(1)

(2)

6. Equations

At

Substituting these results into Eq.s (1)-(2) and solving to get

,

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

6. Equations

- Ex.13.11 The smooth cylinder has a pin

through its center which passes through the

slot in arm . If the arm is forced to rotate in the

vertical plane at a constant rate , determine

the force that the arm exerts on the peg at the

instant

Solution

Why is it a good idea to use polar coordinates to

solve this problem?

Free body diagram

Equations of motion

:

(1)

:

(2)

6. Equations

The relation between an

At

Solve Eq.s (1)-(2): ,

,,,

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

6. Equations

Ex.13.12 A can , having a mass of ,

moves along a grooved horizontal slot.

The slot is in the form of a spiral, which

is defined by the equation , where is in

radians. If the arm rotates with a

constant rate in the horizontal plane,

determine the force it

exerts on the can at the instant . Neglect friction and the size of

the can

Solution

Free body diagram

6. Equations

Equations of motion

:

:

(1)

(2)

6. Equations

Kinematics

The time derivatives of and

At

Substituting these results into Eq.s (1)-(2) and

solving to get

,

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.13 Determine the constant angular velocity of the

vertical shaft of the amusement ride if . Neglect the mass of the

cables and the size of the passengers

Solution

(1)

(2)

(3)

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.14 The ball is blown through the smooth vertical circular

tube whose shape is defined by , where is in radians. If rad,

where is in seconds, determine the magnitude of force exerted

by the blower on the ball when

Solution

Fundamental

Problems

,,

,,

,

acceleration: radial component , transverse component

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.15 The car is traveling along the curved road described

by , where is in radians. If a camera is located at and it rotates

with an angular velocity of and an angular acceleration of at

the instant , determine the resultant friction force developed

between the tires and the road at this instant

Solution

Fundamental

Problems

,,

,,

Equations of motion

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fundamental

Problems

- F13.16 The pin is constrained to move in the smooth

curved slot, which is defined by the lemniscate . Its motion is

controlled by the rotation of the slotted arm , which has a

constant clockwise angular velocity of . Determine the force

arm exerts on the pin when . Motion is in the vertical plane

Solution

Refer to the textbook