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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Global Edition 12e

Chapter 8
Training and
Developing
Employees

Part 3 Training and Developm

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education

GARY DESSLER

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


The University of West Alabama

WHERE WE ARE NOW

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Summarize the purpose and process
of employee orientation.
2. List and briefly explain each of the four steps
in the training process.
3. Discuss how you would motivate trainees.
4. Describe and illustrate how you would identify
training requirements.
5. Explain how to distinguish between problems
you can fix with training and those you cant.
6. Explain how to use five training techniques.
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83

LEARNING OUTCOMES (contd)


7. List and briefly discuss four management
development programs.
8. List and briefly discuss the importance of the eight
steps in leading organizational change.
9. Answer the question, What is organizational
development and how does it differ from traditional
approaches to organizational change?

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84

Purpose of Orientation

Orientation Helps
New Employees

Feel
welcome
and at ease

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Understand
the
organization

Know what
is expected
in work and
behavior

Begin the
socialization
process

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The Orientation Process


Company
organization and
operations

Employee benefit
information

Personnel
policies

Daily
routine

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Employee
Orientation

Safety measures
and regulations

Facilities
tour

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FIGURE 81
New Employee
Departmental
Orientation Checklist

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87

The Training Process


Training
Is the process of teaching new employees

the basic skills they need to perform their jobs


Is a hallmark of good management
Reduces an employers exposure to negligent

training liability

Trainings Strategic Context


The aims of firms training programs must make

sense in terms of the companys strategic goals.


Training fosters employee learning, which

results in enhanced organizational


performance.

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Steps in the Training Process


The Four-Step Training
Process
1

Needs analysis

Instructional design

Program implementation

Evaluation

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Training, Learning, and Motivation


Make the Learning Meaningful
1. At the start of training, provide a birds-eye view

of the material to be presented to facilitate learning.


2. Use a variety of familiar examples.
3. Organize the information so you can present it

logically, and in meaningful units.


4. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar

to trainees.
5. Use as many visual aids as possible.
6. Create a perceived training need in trainees minds.
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Training, Learning, and Motivation


(contd)
Make Skills Transfer Easy
1. Maximize the similarity between the training

situation and the work situation.


2. Provide adequate practice.
3. Label or identify each feature of the machine

and/or step in the process.


4. Direct the trainees attention to important aspects

of the job.
5. Provide heads-up, preparatory information that

lets trainees know what might happen back on


the job.
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Training, Learning, and Motivation


(contd)
Reinforce the Learning
1. Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately

reinforce correct responses, perhaps with a quick


well done.
2. The schedule is important. The learning curve

goes down late in the day, so that full day training


is not as effective as half the day or three-fourths
of the day.

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812

Analyzing Training Needs


Training Needs
Analysis

Task Analysis:
Assessing new
employees training
needs

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Performance Analysis:
Assessing current
employees training
needs

813

TABLE 81

Sample Task Analysis Record Form

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FIGURE 82

Example of Competency Model for Human Resource Manager

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Performance Analysis:
Assessing Current Employees
Training Needs
Specialized Software
Assessment Center
Results
Individual Diaries

Performance
Appraisals

Methods
for Identifying
Training Needs

Job-Related
Performance Data

Attitude Surveys

Observations

Tests

Interviews

Cant-do or Wont-do?

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816

Training Methods
On-the-Job Training
Apprenticeship Training
Informal Learning
Job Instruction Training
Lectures

Computer-Based Training
(CBT)
Simulated Learning
Internet-Based Training
Learning Portals

Programmed Learning
Audiovisual-Based Training
Vestibule Training
Teletraining and
Videoconferencing
Electronic Performance
Support Systems (EPSS)
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817

The OJT Training Method


On-the-Job Training (OJT)
Having a person learn a job

by actually doing the job.

Types of On-the-Job Training


Coaching or understudy
Job rotation
Special assignments

Advantages
Inexpensive
Learn by doing
Immediate feedback

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On-the-Job Training
Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success
1

Prepare the learner

Present the operation

Do a tryout

Follow up

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FIGURE 83

Some Popular Apprenticeships

The U.S. Department of Labors Registered Apprenticeship program


offers access to 1,000 career areas, including the following top
occupations:
Able seaman
Carpenter
Chef
Child care development specialist
Construction craft laborer
Dental assistant
Electrician
Elevator constructor
Fire medic
Law enforcement agent
Over-the-road truck driver
Pipefitter
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FIGURE 84

Job Instruction Training at UPS

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Delivering Effective Lectures


Dont start out on the wrong foot.
Give your listeners signals.
Be alert to your audience.
Maintain eye contact with audience.
Make sure everyone in the room can hear.
Control your hands.
Talk from notes rather than from a script.
Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.
Practice and rehearse your presentation.

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Programmed Learning
Presenting
questions,
facts, or
problems to
the learner

Allowing the
person to
respond

Providing
feedback on
the accuracy
of answers

Advantages
Reduced training time
Self-paced learning
Immediate feedback
Reduced risk of error for learner

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Intelligent Tutoring Systems


Advantages
Reduced learning time
Cost effectiveness
Instructional consistency

Types of Programmed Learning


Interactive multimedia training
Virtual reality training
Virtual classroom

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TABLE 82

Names of Various Computer-Based Training Techniques

PI

Computer-based programmed instruction

CBT

Computer-based training

CMI

Computer-managed instruction

ICAI

Intelligent computer-assisted instruction

ITS

Intelligent tutoring systems

Simulation

Computer simulation

Virtual Reality Advanced form of computer simulation

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Internet-Based Training
Teletraining and
Videoconferencing
Electronic Performance Support

Distance
Learning
Methods

Systems (EPSS)
Computer-Based Training

E-learning and learning portals

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FIGURE 85

Partial List of E-Learning Vendors

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Lifelong Learning and


Literacy Training Techniques
Employer Responses to
Employee Learning
Needs

Provide employees
with lifelong
educational and
learning opportunities

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Instituting basic skills


and literacy programs

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Creating Your Own Training


Program
Creating a Training Program
1

Set training objectives

Use a detailed job description

3
4

Develop an abbreviated task


analysis record form
Develop a job instruction sheet

Compile training program for the job

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Implementing Management
Development Programs
Long-Term Focus of
Management
Development

Assessing the
companys
strategic needs

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Appraising
managers
current
performance

Developing the
managers and
future managers

830

Succession Planning
Steps in the Succession Planning
Process
1

Anticipate management needs

Review firms management skills inventory

Create replacement charts

Begin management development

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Management Development
Techniques
Managerial On-the-Job Training

Job
rotation

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Coaching and
understudy

Action
learning

832

Other Management Training


Techniques
Off-the-Job Management Training
and Development Techniques
The case study method

Role playing

Management games

Behavior modeling

Outside seminars

Corporate universities

University-related programs

Executive coaches

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FIGURE 86

Typical Role in a Role-Playing Exercise

Walt MarshallSupervisor of Repair Crew


You are the head of a crew of telephone maintenance workers, each of
whom drives a small service truck to and from the various jobs. Every so
often you get a new truck to exchange for an old one, and you have the
problem of deciding which of your crew members you should give the new
truck. Often there are hard feelings, since each seems to feel entitled to the
new truck, so you have a tough time being fair. As a matter of fact, it usually
turns out that whatever you decide is considered wrong by most of the crew.
You now have to face the issue again because a new truck has just been
allocated to you for assignment.
In order to handle this problem you have decided to put the decision up to
the crew. You will tell them about the new truck and will put the problem in
terms of what would be the fairest way to assign the truck. Do not take a
position yourself, because you want to do what they think is most fair.

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Behavior Modeling
Behavior Modeling Training
1

Model the effective behaviors

Have trainees role play using behaviors

Provide social reinforcement and feedback

Encourage transfer of training to job

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Managing Organizational
Change Programs
What to
Change

Strategy

Culture

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Structure

Technologie
s

Employees

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Managing Organizational
Change and Development
The Human Resource
Managers Role

Overcoming
resistance to
change

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Organizing
and leading
organizational
change

Effectively using
organizational
development
practices

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Managing Organizational
Change and Development
(contd)
Overcoming Resistance to
Change:
Lewins Change Process

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Unfreezing

Moving

Refreezing

838

How to Lead the Change


Unfreezing Stage
1. Establish a sense of urgency (need for change).
2. Mobilize commitment to solving problems.

Moving Stage
3. Create a guiding coalition.
4. Develop and communicate a shared vision.
5. Help employees to make the change.
6. Consolidate gains and produce more change.

Refreezing Stage
7. Reinforce new ways of doing things.
8. Monitor and assess progress.

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Using Organizational Development


Organizational Development
(OD)
1

Usually involves action research

Applies behavioral science knowledge

Changes the organization in a particular direction

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TABLE 83

Examples of OD Interventions

Human Process Applications

HRM Applications

T-groups (Sensitivity Training)

Goal setting

Process consultation

Performance appraisal

Third-party intervention

Reward systems

Team building

Career planning and development

Organizational confrontation meeting

Managing workforce diversity

Survey research

Employee wellness

Technostructural Interventions

Strategic OD Applications

Formal structural change

Integrated strategic management

Differentiation and integration

Culture change

Cooperative unionmanagement
projects

Strategic change
Self-designing organizations

Quality circles
Total quality management
Work design

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Evaluating the Training Effort


Designing the Evaluation Study
Time series design
Controlled experimentation

Choosing Which Training Effects to Measure


Reaction of trainees to the program
Learning that actually took place
Behavior that changed on the job
Results achieved as a result of the training

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FIGURE 87

Using a Time Series Graph to Assess a Training Programs Effects

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FIGURE 88
A Sample Training
Evaluation Form

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KEY TERMS
employee orientation
training
negligent training
task analysis
competency model
performance analysis
on-the-job training (OJT)
apprenticeship training
job instruction training (JIT)
programmed learning
electronic performance support
systems (EPSS)
job aid
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virtual classroom
lifelong learning
management development
job rotation
action learning
case study method
management game
role playing
behavior modeling
in-house development center
executive coach
organizational development
controlled experimentation
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