Sei sulla pagina 1di 25

Embryo development, incubation

and hatching

Development of the embryo (day by day)


Physical activity and metabolism
Critical periods
Relation between egg weight and chick
weight
Incubators
Optimal conditions during incubation
Candling of eggs
Common incubation problems is given.

Day 1 of incubation
Three layers of tissue are developed.
From here all organs develop
Ectoderm
Feathers, nervous system, pigmentation,
hypophysis, inner ear

Mesoderm
Skeleton, muscles, tissue, heart, blood, kidneys,
reproductive tract, gonads

Endoderm
Inner organs and glands

Day 2-3 of incubation


Development of the vascular system
Heart, red blood cells and bone
marrow are developed
Blood circulation begins after 38-40
hours of incubation
Critical period in embryo
development

O2 consumption, CO2 prod. and heat prod.


of 1000 chicken eggs during incubation
O2 consumption
400

200

Heat production

300

200

100

CO2 production
100

0
0

10 12 14 16 18 20

Day of incubation

Heat production W

CO2 production ml/h O2 consumption


ml/h

500

Chronology of embryonic development of the chick


Incu.
day

Size Principal major evident morphological


(cm) characteristics

Leg and wing buds, bone marrow, red blood cells

1.3

Lengthening of limb buds, prelim. head movements

Partitioning of heart and movement of body

1.8

Lengthening of beak, appear. of 4 distinct toes on feet

2.2

Articulation of limbs, formation of external ear

10
12

Formation of cranium and eyelids


4.5

Appearance of down on wings and closure of eyelids

14

Body completely covered with down

19-20

Beak within the air sac, pipping and respiration w. lungs

21

Hatching

Weight of egg and chick


(Tullett & Burton, 1982)
Weight As % of original
(g)
egg weight
Fresh egg weight
Weight loss during incubation
Chick weight at hatch
Shell plus residues at hatch

60.00
7.27
44.74
6.92

100.0
12.1
74.6
11.5

Hatchery
Eggs in
Reception/storage
Fumigation
Incubator
Hatcher
Sexing
Delivery
Chicks out

Types of incubators
Natural (hens)
Table-top models vs. free-standing
Single tray vs. multiple trays
Still-air vs. forced-air
Manual egg turning vs. automatic turning

Incubation temperature
Temperature is the most critical factor for
incubation success. However, the effect of
temperature variation depends on relative humidity
and ventilation
Optimum incubation temperature is 37.8C 0.3C
Greater sensitivity to increased temperature than to
decreased temperature

The effect of incubation temperature


on percentages of fertile eggs hatched
%

100
80
60
40
20
0
35,5

36,5

37,5

38,5

39,5

40,5

Temperature C

With relative humidity of 60%, O2= 21% and CO2 below 0.5%

The effect of turning eggs and


angle of turning during incubation
Times
turned
daily

Percent hatch
of fertile eggs

2
4
6
8
10

68.2
71.3
74.6
74.8
74.7

Angle turned Percent hatch


to each side of fertile eggs
vertical ()
20
30
45

69.3
78.9
84.6

Candling of eggs
A simple candling device:

Candling of eggs
at day 7

A: Candling shows that the egg is not fertilised


B: The egg is fertilised. Candling shows a strong embryo
C: Candling shows a weak embryo
D: A dead embryo. It is seen from the ring of blood around the embryo

Solving incubation problems 1


Indications

Possible causes

What to do?

No blood
vessels at
candling

Eggs not fertile

Check flock management

Embryo died very early

Check egg holding conditions


Check incubation operation

Many dead
embryos

Temperature too high or Check incubator and accuracy of


low
thermometer

Pipped eggs
not hatching

Improper turning

Turn 3 times per day

Poor oxygen supply

Increase ventilation

Poor nutrition

Check breeder flock diet

Low humidity

Have correct wet bulb


temperature

Hatch too early High temperature

Check temperature

Hatch too late

Check temperature

Low temperature

Solving incubation problems 2


Indications

Possible causes

What to do?

Shells stick to chick

High humidity early or low


humidity late

Check humidity

Cripples

Temperature problems

Check incubator

Humidity problems

Check incubator

Improper turning

Correct turning

Smooth hatching trays

Provide better traction

Large soft-bodied
weak chicks

Low temperature

Check temperature

Mushy chicks, dead


on tray

Navel infection

Improve sanitation

Rough navels

High temperature or wide


temperature fluctuations

Check temperature

Low moisture

Check wet bulb


temperature

Guidelines for the first 18 days


of incubation
Hygiene:

clean and/or disinfected eggs

Position:

broad end up, turned every hour

Temperature: 38C
Humidity:

60% rel.

Candling:

after 4.-7. day

Guidelines for the last 3 days of


incubation (day 19-21)
Candling:

separation of eggs with dead


embryos

Position:

eggs lying on side no turning

Temperature: 37-37.5C
Humidity:

70-80% rel.

Day 19-20 of incubation


The embryo draws the yolk sac into the
body cavity and at the end of day 20 the
entire reserve will be located within the
abdomen. At hatching approx. 30% of the
original nutrient reserve of the yolk will
still be available and will continue to be a
major source of energy for the newly
hatched chick during the first few days
after hatching

A healthy newly hatched chick


should have:
Well developed body length and depth
Shiny, thick and coloured down feathers
Thick shanks with spread and straight toes
Big clear eyes
Lively behaviour