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Design

for

Executing Robust Design

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-1

Design
for

Definition of Robust Design


Robustness is defined as a condition in which the
product or process will be minimally affected by
sources of variation.
A product can be robust:
Against variation in raw materials
Against variation in manufacturing conditions
Against variation in manufacturing personnel
Against variation in the end use environment
` Against variation in end-users
Against wear-out or deterioration

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-2

Design
for

Why We Need to Reduce Variation

LSL
LSL

Nom
Nom

USL
USL

Cost

Low Variation;
Minimum Cost

Cost

LSL
LSL

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Nom
Nom

USL
USL

High Variation;
High Cost

DFSS-3

Design
for

Purpose of this Module


To introduce a variation improvement investigation
strategy
Can noise factors be manipulated?

To provide the MINITAB steps to design, execute,


and analyze a variability response experiment
To provide the MINITAB steps to optimize a design
for both mean and variation effects

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-4

Design
for

Objectives of this Module


At the end of this module, participants will be able to :
Identify possible variation effects from residual plots
Create a variability response from replicates
Identify possible mean and variance adjustment
factors from noise-factor interaction plots
Use the MINITAB Response Optimizer to achieve a
process on target with minimum variation

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-5

Design
for

Strategies to Detect Variation


Effects
Passive Approach
Noise factors are NOT included, manipulated or controlled in
the experimental design
Possible variation effects are identified through analysis of
the variability of replicates from an experimental design

Active Approach
Noise factors ARE included in the experimental design in
order to force variability to occur
Analysis is similar to the passive approach

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-6

Design
for

The Passive Approach


A factorial experiment is performed using Control
factors. Noise factors are not explicitly manipulated
nor is an attempt made to control them during the
course of the experiment.
Pros
Simple extension of standard experimental techniques
Does not require explicit identification of noise factors

Cons
Requires larger number of replicates than would typically be
required to determine mean effects
Requires true randomization and replication
Requires that noise factors be noisy during the execution
of the experiment
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-7

Design
for

How to ensure that noise is


noisy?
Let excluded factors vary
Compare noise factor variations prior to and within
DOE
Monitor noise factor levels during normal process conditions
Monitor noise factor variation during course of experiment
Compare before/during levels

Run DOE over a longer period of time with :


More replicates
Full randomization

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-8

Design
for

A Passive Example
A

A and B are control factors. Within each treatment combination,


noise factors are allowed to naturally fluctuate. Within treatment
variation is largely driven by this background noise.
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-9

Design
for

Example output from a Passive


Design
6.4

Mean

Mean Y

The graphs at right


illustrate the type of output5.4
which might be obtained
from a Robust Parameter 4.4
Design Experiment. Both
3.4
are Main Effects plots with
the top row showing the 2.4
main effects of factors A 0.6
and B on the mean and
the bottom row showing 0.4
the main effects of factors 0.2
A and B on the variation.
Note that in this example 0.0
the mean and variation
-0.2
can be adjusted
independently of each
other!

LogVariance

Variation Y

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-10

Design
for

The Models
Our objective in performing a designed experiment is to develop
a transfer function between the factors (Xs) and the Y. Thus far,
we have only addressed the mean of Y.

y b0 b1 x1 b2 x2 b12 x1 x2
Now we must also consider the variability of Y

c
x

c
x

c
x
x

0
1
1
2
2
12
1
2
y

If our experiments are successful at identifying a variation effect,


we now have an opportunity to simultaneously optimize both
equations!

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-11

Design
for

Example: A Passive Noise


Experiment
A design engineer has evaluated the output performance of a
circuit design and performed an initial capability analysis of this
design to determine if there is a problem with the mean and/or
the variability.
Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Analysis > Normal
Y = Y1Initial; Lower Spec = 58; Upper Spec = 62

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-12

Design
for

Design Capability Analysis


Is there a problem?

Process Capability of Y1Initial


LSL

USL
Within
Overall

Process Data
LSL
58
Target
*
USL
62
Sample Mean
56.253
Sample N
100
StDev(Within)
1.47217
StDev(O verall) 1.5414

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
0.45
CPL -0.40
CPU
1.30
Cpk
-0.40
O verall Capability
Pp
PPL
PPU
Ppk
Cpm

52.5
O bserved Performance
PPM < LSL 860000.00
PPM > USL
0.00
PPM Total
860000.00

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

54.0

55.5

Exp. Within Performance


PPM < LSL 882324.02
PPM > USL
47.35
PPM Total
882371.37

57.0

58.5

60.0

0.43
-0.38
1.24
-0.38
*

61.5

Exp. O verall Performance


PPM < LSL 871474.48
PPM > USL
96.33
PPM Total
871570.81

DFSS-13

Design
for

24 Full Factorial Experiment


A 24 full factorial has been designed to determine if four factors
have an effect on the mean and/or variability of voltage drop
(Y1). There are five replicates for a total of 80 runs, with no
center points or blocks.

Resistor R33 (A)


Inductor L3 (B)
Capacitor C23 (E)
Capacitor C29 (F)

Worksheet: Passive Design

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-14

Design
for

Passive Analysis Roadmap - Part 1


(for Mean Only)
Analyze the response of interest
Factorial Plots (Main Effects, Interaction)
Statistical Results (ANOVA table and p-values)
Residual Plots by factor

Reduce model using statistical results


Use the residuals plot to evaluate potential existence
of variation effects
If residuals plot indicates a possible variation effect, go to
Passive Analysis Roadmap - Part 2

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-15

Design
for

Interaction Plot
Based on the interaction plot, a few of the interactions may be
significant. Check the statistical output for verification.
Interaction Plot (data means) for Y1
1

12.5

13.5

63

69
60.0
57.5

A
10
20

55.0
60.0
57.5
B

B
1
5

55.0
60.0
57.5
E

E
12.5
13.5

55.0

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots > Interaction Plot

DFSS-16

Design
for

Main Effects Plot


The main effects plot indicates that factors B and E have the
largest effects. Factor A also has a moderate positive effect.
Factor F does not seem to be important. Lets look at the results.
Main Effects Plot (data means) for Y1
A

58

57

Mean of Y1

56
55
54
10

20

58

5
F

57
56
55
54
12.5

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

13.5

63

69

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots > Main Effects Plot

DFSS-17

Design
for

Factorial Analysis
A preliminary look at the statistical output of the experiment
indicates factor F may not be significant. Did we make a
mistake by including it in the experimental design?
Estimated Effects and Coefficients for Y1 (coded units)
Term
Constant
A
B
E
F
A*B
A*E
A*F
B*E
B*F
E*F

Effect
2.363
-3.192
3.312
0.463
0.178
0.002
-0.138
-0.933
-0.662
-0.007

Coef
55.991
1.181
-1.596
1.656
0.231
0.089
0.001
-0.069
-0.466
-0.331
-0.004

SE Coef
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041
0.2041

T
274.27
5.79
-7.82
8.11
1.13
0.43
0.01
-0.34
-2.28
-1.62
-0.02

P
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.262
0.665
0.995
0.737
0.026
0.110
0.985

* Note that the 3-way and 4-way interactions are still in the model but not
presented in the output above
Stat > DOE > Factorial > Analyze Factorial Design
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-18

Design
for

Reduce Model to Significant


Terms
Our final model indicates that factors A, B, and E are
significant, along with interactions BE, BF, ABF, and
BEF, using a p-value cut-off of 0.2
Estimated Effects and Coefficients for Y1 (coded units)
Term
Constant
A
B
E
F
B*E
B*F
A*B*F
B*E*F

Effect
2.363
-3.192
3.312
0.463
-0.932
-0.662
-0.513
0.838

S = 1.74046

Coef
55.991
1.181
-1.596
1.656
0.231
-0.466
-0.331
-0.256
0.419

SE Coef
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946
0.1946

R-Sq = 73.11%

T
287.74
6.07
-8.20
8.51
1.19
-2.40
-1.70
-1.32
2.15

P
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.239
0.019
0.093
0.192
0.035

R-Sq(adj) = 70.08%

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Analyze Factorial Design


Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-19

Design
for

The Role of Residual Plots in RD


In Robust Parameter Design, the residual plots can show the
possibility for a variation effect
Remember from ANOVA and Regression, we stated one of the
assumptions on the residuals was constant variance and we
checked this via plots

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Analyze Factorial Design


Choose Graphs > Residuals vs Variables > A B E F

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-20

Design
for

What Next?
After reducing the model, the Residuals versus Factor F plot
still indicates that F contributes to a variation effect. This finding
should encourage us to move further in the analysis of this data
to create a variability response and analyze the data. Thus we
move on to Part 2 of the roadmap.
Residuals Versus F
(response is Y1)

Stat > DOE > Factorial >


Analyze Factorial Design
Choose Graphs >
Residuals vs Variables > F

Standardized Residual

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
63
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

64

65

66
F

67

68

69

DFSS-21

Design
for

Passive Analysis Roadmap - Part 2


(if Variation effect present)
Create a Variability Response
Analyze Variability
Factorial Plots (Main Effects, Interaction)
Statistical Results (ANOVA table and p-values)
Reduce model using statistical results

Compare main effects plots for mean and variability


to determine which are Mean Adjustment Factors and
which are Variance Adjustment Factors (or both)
Use the Multiple Response Optimizer to find optimal
settings of the factors
Mean on target
Minimum variability

Perform a capability study / analysis on the resulting


factor settings
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-22

Design
for

Create a Variability Response


We are now going to use the replications to make a
new response in order to model the variability. Once
we have modeled the variability, we can use the
MINITAB Response Optimizer to find the settings of
the control factors that will put Y on target with
minimum variation.
MINITAB makes this easy with a pre-processing of
the responses in preparation for a variability analysis
You will see that MINITAB will use the standard
deviation as the measure of variability, rather than the
variance
the results are equivalent

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-23

Design
for

Uses Natural Log (Standard Dev


of Y)
All of the statistical techniques that we are using to analyze this
DOE assume that the data is symmetric (because we are
testing for mean differences)
Unfortunately, when we use a calculated standard deviation as a
response, we do not meet this assumption because the
sampling distribution of variances is expected to be skewed,
hence the distribution of standard deviations would also be
skewed
Raw St Dev

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Ln (St Dev)

DFSS-24

Design
for

Create a Variability Response


Stat > DOE > Factorial > Pre-Process Responses for Analyze Variability

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-25

Design
for

Create a Variability Response


Worksheet should now contain the following new columns

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-26

Design
for

Analyze the Variability


Analysis of the variability will be essentially identical to the
analysis for the mean
Will select the Terms to estimate in the model
Will use the Pareto of Effects Graph in order to facilitate the
first model reduction

Stat > DOE > Factorial >


Analyze Variability

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-27

Design
for

Analyze the Variability


TERMS

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

GRAPHS

DFSS-28

Design
for

Pareto Chart of the Effects


Because we dont have any degrees of freedom for error, we
must look at the Pareto of effects to decide which term to drop
into the error and begin to reduce the model
Pareto Chart of the Effects
(Response is natural log of StDevY1, Alpha = 0.20)
0.130
Factor
A
B
C
D

D
A
AC
B

Name
A
B
E
F

AD

Term

C
ABC
BCD
BD
ABCD

Drop ABD
interaction first

AB
ACD
CD
BC
ABD

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
Effect

1.0

1.2

1.4

Lenth's PSE = 0.0878313


Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-29

Design
for

Final Model for ln StDevY1


Once the insignificant terms have been eliminated using a pvalue cut-off of 0.2, the reduced model is shown below
Regression Estimated Effects and Coefficients for Natural Log
of StDevY1 (coded units)
Term
Constant
A
B
E
F
A*B
A*E
A*F
B*F
A*B*E
B*E*F
A*B*E*F

Effect

Ratio
Effect

0.5139
-0.2953
-0.1521
-1.3384
0.0371
0.4451
-0.2573
-0.0781
0.1323
0.0850
0.0390

1.6718
0.7443
0.8589
0.2623
1.0378
1.5606
0.7731
0.9249
1.1414
1.0887
1.0398

R-Sq = 99.93%
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Coef
0.0747
0.2569
-0.1477
-0.0760
-0.6692
0.0185
0.2225
-0.1287
-0.0390
0.0661
0.0425
0.0195

SE Coef
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013
0.01013

T
7.38
25.37
-14.58
-7.51
-66.08
1.83
21.98
-12.71
-3.86
6.53
4.20
1.93

P
0.002
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.000
0.141
0.000
0.000
0.018
0.003
0.014
0.126

R-Sq(adj) = 99.75%
DFSS-30

Design
for

Interaction Plot for StDevY1


The interaction plot indicates a moderately strong interaction between
factors A & E and A & F
Interaction Plot (data means) for StDevY1
1

12.5

13.5

63

69
3
2

A
10
20

1
3
2

B
1
5

1
3
2
E

E
12.5
13.5

Where should
factors A, B, E
and F be set in
order to
minimize the
variability in
voltage drop,
Y1?

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots > Interaction Plot
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-31

Design
for

Main Effects Plot for StDevY1


Factor F has the largest effect on the variability. Increasing F should
reduce variability. But what did the interaction plot show?
Factor A is the next strongest. Set A = 10. What did the interaction plot
show?
Factors B and E are weak but what did the interaction plot show?
Main Effects Plot (data means) for StDevY1
A

2.5

2.0

Mean of StDevY1

1.5
1.0
0.5
10

20

2.5

5
F

2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
12.5

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

13.5

63

69

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots > Main Effects Plot

DFSS-32

58

Main Effects Plot (data means) for Y1


B

57
Mean of Y1

57

56

55

56

55

54

54
10

20

Affects Both

12.5

2.5

1.5

63

2.5

2.0

13.5

69

Affects
Mean Affects Variation
Main Effects Plot (data means) for StDevY1

Affects Mean

Main Effects Plot (data means) for StDevY1

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

58

Mean of StDevY1

Factors B and E are


Mean Adjustment
Factors since they
affect the mean with
little or no effect on the
variability
Factor F is a Variance
Adjustment Factor
since it affects the
variability with little or
no effect on the mean
Factor A appears to
affect both mean and
variability

Main Effects Plot (data means) for Y1

Mean of Y1

The graphs at right allow


us to directly compare
each factors singular
effect on both the mean
and variation
Based on these graphs,

Mean of StDevY1

Design
for

Determine Mean & Variation Effects

2.0

1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5
10

20

12.5

13.5

63

69

DFSS-33

Design
for

Quality Check: Status of Your


Models
Use the Show Design icon
to check on the status of the
analysis. You should make
sure that the correct model
has been fit for each
response that you intend to
specify in the response
optimizer.
As shown in this window,
models have been fit for both
the Y1 and StDevY1
responses

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-34

Design
for

Multiple Response Optimizer


Set the Weight for Y1 to 10 to ensure hitting 60, tight lower & upper range
Read first-guess target & upper values for StDevY1 from interaction plots
Note that StDevY1 is in regular units here, NOT logged units!

For StDevY1, set weight low to protect against a bad first guess

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Response Optimizer


Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-35

Design
for

Multiple Response Optimizer


We use the multiple response optimizer to provide a stacked
main effects plot. This plot allows us to interactively manipulate
the values of each factor in the model and see the effect on both
the mean and the variation.
Optimal
Hi
D
Cur
0.93698 Lo

A
20.0
[13.4878]
10.0

B
5.0
[1.0]
1.0

E
13.50
[13.50]
12.50

F
69.0
[69.0]
63.0

Y1
Targ: 60.0
y = 60.0001
d = 0.99884
StDevY1
Minimum
y = 0.5725
d = 0.87896

You can use the red sliders to tune each of the factors
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-36

Design
for

Use the Equations to Confirm Y1


Lets use the model coefficients to predict and see
that it matches (make sure to use un-coded)!
From the optimized solution, A = 13.4878, B = 1, E =
13.5, F = 69
Y1 = -22.0994 + 0.214670*A + 45.2619*B + 4.71125*E
+ 0.242708*F - 3.26279*B*E - 0.607676*B*F +
0.000108988*A*B*F + 0.0423718*B*E*F
Y1 = -22.0994 + 0.214670*13.4878 + 45.2619*1 +
4.71125*13.5 + 0.242708*69 - 3.26279*1*13.5
-0.607676*1*69 + 0.000108988*13.4878*1*69 +
0.0423718*1*13.5*69
Y1 = 60.0001, as seen in the optimizer window

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-37

Design
for

Use the Equations to Confirm StDevY1


Again, make sure to use the un-coded coefficients!
Again, A = 13.4878, B = 1, E = 13.5, F = 69
lnStDevY1 = 15.4015 - 0.001778*A + 0.727714*B 0.927015*E - 0.0566905*F - 0.152626*A*B +
0.0533652*A*E - 0.00978998*A*F + 0.0242198*B*F +
0.00983241*A*B*E - 0.00282966*B*E*F +
0.0000317*A*B*E*F
lnStDevY1 = 15.4015 - 0.001778*13.4878 + 0.727714*1
- 0.927015*13.5 - 0.0566905*69 0.152626*13.4878*1 + 0.0533652*13.4878*13.5 0.00978998*13.4878*69 + 0.0242198*1*69 +
0.00983241*13.4878*1*13.5 - 0.00282966*1*13.5*69
+ 0.0000317*13.4878*1*13.5*69
lnStDevY1 = -0.5577
StDevY1 = e-0.5577 = 0.5725, as seen in the optimizer

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-38

Design
for

Final Design Capability Analysis


Did we achieve our objectives?
Process Capability of Y1Final
LSL

USL
Within
Overall

Process Data
LSL
58
Target
*
USL
62
Sample Mean
60.3183
Sample N
100
StDev(Within)
0.120084
StDev(O verall) 0.115955

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
5.55
CPL 6.44
CPU 4.67
Cpk 4.67
O verall Capability
Pp
PPL
PPU
Ppk
Cpm

worksheet passive capability


Stat > Quality Tools > Capability
Analysis > Normal
Y = Y1Final; Lower Spec = 58;
Upper Spec = 62

5.75
6.66
4.83
4.83
*

58.30 58.85 59.40 59.95 60.50 61.05 61.60


Observed Performance
PPM < LSL 0.00
PPM > USL 0.00
PPM Total
0.00

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Exp. Within Performance


PPM < LSL 0.00
PPM > USL 0.00
PPM Total
0.00

Exp. O verall Performance


PPM < LSL 0.00
PPM > USL 0.00
PPM Total
0.00

DFSS-39

Design
for

Remember the Two Strategies?


We just reviewed the Passive Approach
Noise factors are NOT included, manipulated or controlled in
the experimental design
We analyzed the variability of replicates from an
experimental design

Now we will look at the Active Approach


Noise factors ARE included in the experimental design in
order to force variability to occur
We will see that the analysis is similar to the passive
approach

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-40

Design
for

The Active Approach


A factorial experiment is performed using Control AND Noise
factors in the same experiment. Analysis can be performed by
characterizing Control*Noise interactions only or by moving
forward to analyze the variability by dropping the noise factors
into the error term.
Pros

Simple extension of standard experimental techniques


Guarantees noise in the Noise factors
Provides for flexibility in analysis methods
Can allow for reduced replication

Cons
Requires ability to manipulate and control Noise factors
Optimal designs for minimization of unneeded effects (noise by
noise interactions) can be difficult to create

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-41

Design
for

Example: An Active Noise


Experiment
3 control factors
1 noise factor
24 full factorial design
Two Approaches to Analysis
Use only interpretation of interaction plots to choose settings
of the control factors to minimize effect of noise
Model the variability by dropping the noise factors into the
error and analyze like the passive approach

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-42

Design
for

Active Analysis Roadmap Plots Only


Create and execute with noise included as a factor
Analyze the response of interest
Factorial Plots (Main Effects, Interaction)
Statistical Results (ANOVA table and p-values)
Reduce model using statistical results

Review Interactions Plot


Interpret the interaction plots to look for evidence of variation effects

Review Main Effects Plot (if applicable)


Use the Multiple Response Optimizer to find the optimal settings
of the factors such that the mean is on target
Will force in settings obtained from the interaction plots

Perform a capability study / analysis on the resulting factor


settings

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-43

Design
for

Example: An Active Noise Experiment

An engineer is interested in improving the stability and


robustness of a filtration product
Review the capability of the current performance to determine
the opportunity to apply robust design techniques

Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Analysis > Normal


Y = Y4Initial; Lower Spec = 60; Upper Spec = 80

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-44

Design
for

Design Capability Analysis


What conclusions can you draw from this graph?

Process Capability of Y4Initial


LSL

USL
Within
Overall

Process Data
LSL
60
Target
*
USL
80
Sample Mean
70.321
Sample N
100
StDev(Within) 4.00638
StDev(Overall) 3.97669

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
0.83
CPL 0.86
CPU 0.81
Cpk 0.81
Overall Capability
Pp
PPL
PPU
Ppk
Cpm

60
Observed Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL 10000.00
PPM Total
10000.00
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

64

Exp. Within Performance


PPM < LSL
4995.46
PPM > USL
7848.20
PPM Total
12843.66

68

72

76

0.84
0.87
0.81
0.81
*

80

Exp. O verall Performance


PPM < LSL
4724.40
PPM > USL
7467.87
PPM Total
12192.28

DFSS-45

Design
for

Example: An Active Noise


Experiment
The device contains several control factors from
which three were identified as DOE candidates
Pressure (A)
Concentration (B)
Stir Rate (C)

Ambient Temperature was identified as being


significant, but not economically controllable
Temperature would not change appreciably during the time
in which it would take to execute a three factor experiment
Decided to include it as a factor in the design to force it to
change
Call this Factor G
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-46

Design
for

The Experimental Design


A 24-1 fractional design (Res IV) was rejected because
the 2-way interactions are of great interest in this
experiment
A 24 full factorial design was used
Because of time constraints, only 1 replicate was
performed
The variables are listed below:

A = Pressure
B = Concentration
C = Stir Rate
G = Temperature

The data is in worksheet Active Design


Open worksheet Active Design within Robust
Design.mpj
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-47

Design
for

Factorial Analysis
This DOE is an unreplicated, 4-factor full factorial
We need to create the Pareto of Effects chart
Pareto Chart of the Effects
(response is Y4, Alpha = .20)
0.08
Factor
A
B
C
D

D
BD
CD

Term

C
B

Name
A
B
C
G

A
ABD
AD
ABC
BC
AB
ABCD
BCD
ACD
AC

10
Effect

15

20

Lenth's PSE = 0.05625

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Analyze Factorial Design


Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-48

Design
for

Fit the Reduced Model


Based on the p-values, the A*G and B*G and C*G interactions
are important. Since we have identified some important
control*noise interactions, the next step is to examine the
interaction plots.
Estimated Effects and Coefficients for Y4 (coded units)
Term
Constant
A
B
C
G
A*B
A*G
B*C
B*G
C*G
A*B*C
A*B*G
A*B*C*G

Effect
5.987
9.787
14.612
21.387
-0.038
-0.087
-0.062
-18.038
16.638
0.062
0.137
0.037

Coef
70.081
2.994
4.894
7.306
10.694
-0.019
-0.044
-0.031
-9.019
8.319
0.031
0.069
0.019

SE Coef
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250
0.006250

T
11213.00
479.00
783.00
1169.00
1711.00
-3.00
-7.00
-5.00
-1443.00
1331.00
5.00
11.00
3.00

P
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.058
0.006
0.015
0.000
0.000
0.015
0.002
0.058

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Analyze Factorial Design


Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-49

Design
for

Interaction Plot
The interaction plot show the valuable interactions available to
the designer. Lets take a closer look at the strongest ones.
Interaction Plot (data means) for Y4
1

150

200

-1

1
100

75

50
100

75

50
100

75

A
10
20

B
1
5

C
150
200

50

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots > Interaction Plot

DFSS-50

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Interaction Plot (data means) for Y4


100

B
1
5

80

Mean

The two interaction plots at right


indicate that both B and C can be
exploited to desensitize Y4 to the
noise variable G
If B is set at its high level, the
slope of the G effect line is
minimized
If C is set at its low level, the
slope of the G effect line is also
minimized
To minimize output variation due to
noise in ambient temperature (G),
the above two settings should be
controlled in the design

60

40

-1

1
G

100

C
150
200

80

Mean

Design
for

Interaction Plot A Closer Look

60

40
-1

1
G

DFSS-51

Design
for

Main Effects Plot


Since factor A is not involved in a significant interaction and its
main effect is significant, we should take a look at its main effect
plot to see if there is some potential value in controlling A
Main Effects Plot (data means) for Y4
73

Mean of Y4

72
71
70
69
68
67
10

20
A

This plot indicates that factor A has about +/- 3 units of control
over the nominal value of Y4. Thus, if manipulating one of the
other factors takes the mean value off target, this factor could be
used to exert some control over the mean value of Y.
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

Stat > DOE > Factorial > Factorial Plots > Main Effects Plot

DFSS-52

Design
for

New Settings : Capability Analysis


B was set to 5, C was set to 150, A was left at nominal (15)
It appears that the changes to B & C were successful in reducing
variation in Y4 but the mean is now off target
Use factor A to adjust back to target!
Process Capability of Y4Valid
LSL

USL
Within
Overall

Process Data
LSL
60
Target
*
USL
80
Sample Mean
67.898
Sample N
100
StDev(Within) 2.06587
StDev(O verall) 2.15042

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
1.61
CPL 1.27
CPU 1.95
Cpk
1.27
O verall Capability
Pp
PPL
PPU
Ppk
Cpm

60
O bserved Performance
PPM < LSL 0.00
PPM > USL 0.00
PPM Total
0.00
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

63

66

Exp. Within Performance


PPM < LSL 65.90
PPM > USL 0.00
PPM Total
65.90

69

72

75

1.55
1.22
1.88
1.22
*

78

Exp. O verall Performance


PPM < LSL 119.97
PPM > USL
0.01
PPM Total
119.98

DFSS-53

Design
for

How much should we shift


factor A?

Set up the response


optimizer to target 70. The
lower and upper limits are
not important since we will
manually manipulate this.
Set factor B=5 and factor
C=150. The optimizer
indicates a nominal
Y4=67.7, very close to that
observed in the validation
study.
Finally, slowly slide the bar
for factor A to the right
while observing the
predicted value of Y4.
This indicates that a
nominal setting of A=18.8
should achieve Y4=70.

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

New
Hi
D
Cur
0.00000 Lo

A
20.0
[15.0]
10.0

B
5.0
[5.0]
1.0

C
200.0
[150.0]
150.0

A
20.0
[18.80]
10.0

B
5.0
[5.0]
1.0

C
200.0
[150.0]
150.0

G
1.0
[-0.0076]
-1.0

Y4
Targ: 70.0
y = 67.7506
d = 0.00000

New
Hi
D
Cur
0.99934 Lo

G
1.0
[-0.0076]
-1.0

Y4
Targ: 70.0
y = 69.9987
d = 0.99934
Worksheet active design
Stat > DOE > Factorial > Response Optimizer

DFSS-54

Design
for

New Setting for A : Capability


Analysis
When we shift factor A to this new nominal value, we succeed at
shifting the response to put it on target without degrading the
variation
Process Capability of Y4Reduced
LSL

USL
Within
Overall

Process Data
LSL
60
Target
*
USL
80
Sample Mean
70.2902
Sample N
100
StDev(Within) 2.09103
StDev(O verall) 2.20583

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
1.59
CPL 1.64
CPU 1.55
Cpk
1.55
O verall Capability
Pp
PPL
PPU
Ppk
Cpm

60
O bserved Performance
PPM < LSL 0.00
PPM > USL 0.00
PPM Total
0.00

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

63

66

Exp. Within Performance


PPM < LSL 0.43
PPM > USL 1.71
PPM Total
2.14

69

72

75

1.51
1.56
1.47
1.47
*

78

Exp. O verall Performance


PPM < LSL 1.54
PPM > USL 5.37
PPM Total
6.91

DFSS-55

Design
for

Summary
Variation improvement strategies can take two forms:
Passive Approach
Active Approach

The choice of which strategy to use depends on the ability to


control or manipulate noise factors (at least for the duration of
the experiment)
Standard full and fractional designs can be used
Variation effects must be calculated using replications
A log transform of the variability response is automatically used
to minimize the effects of asymmetry in the variance distribution
The response optimizer can be used to simultaneously optimize
both mean and variability responses
A validation study must be made at the end of a Robust
Parameter Design study
Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-56

Design
for

Objectives Revisited
At the end of this module, participants should be able to :
Identify possible variation effects from residual plots
Create a variability response from replicates
Identify possible mean and variance adjustment
factors from noise-factor interaction plots
Use the MINITAB Response Optimizer to achieve a
process on target with minimum variation
Complete validation capability studies

Copyright 2003 Cummins, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Copyright 2000-2002 Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, Inc. Used with permission.

DFSS-57