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MANUFACTURING PROCESS

EAT 227
WEEK 2
METAL CASTING

Fundamental of metal casting

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Typical Cast Parts

(c)
(a)

(b
)

(d
)

Figure (a) Typical gray-iron castings used in automobiles, including the


transmission valve body (left) and the hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder
(front). Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors
Corporation. (b) A cast transmission housing. (c) The Polaroid PDC2000 digital camera with a AZ191D die-cast high-purity magnesium
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case. (d) A two-piece Polaroid camera
case made by the hot-chamber

Casting of an Aluminum Piston

Figure 10.16 Aluminum piston for an internal combustion


engine: (a) as-cast and (b) after machining.
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Introduction

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Solidification of Pure Metals

Figure 10.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure
metals. Note that the freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b)
Density as a function of time
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Solidification volume shrinkage

Fig. 2.19 Changes in volume as a metal alloy


solidifies.
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shrinkage

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Chill, columnar and equaixial grains

Fig. 2.17 Sketch of solidified grain structure of an alloy: (a) chill crystals;
(b) columnar grains; and (c) region of coarse equiaxed grains in centre.
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Sand casting
SAND CASTING BENEFITS
1.Least Expensive Casting Process
2.Castings can be up to Several Tons
3.Less Expensive than Machining Shapes from Bar
Stock
4.Can Cast Intricate Shapes
5.Can be Used with Most Pourable Metals and Alloys

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The sand casting processes

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THE SAND
The sand used for green sand molding is critical and determines the favorable or
unfavorable outcome of the casting. It controls the tolerances, surface finish and
the repeatability while in production. Remembering that the tolerances on sand
castings are usually wider than the other casting methods.
The sand must exhibit the following characteristics:
1.FLOWABILITY: The ability to pack tightly around the pattern.
2.PLASTIC DEFORMATION: Have the ability to deform slightly without cracking so
that the pattern can be withdrawn.
3.GREEN STRENGTH: Have the ability to support its own weight when stripped
from the pattern, and also withstand pressure of molten metal when the mold is
cast.
4.PERMEABILITY: This allows the gases and steam to escape from the mold
during casting.
All of these requirements are dependent on the amount of active clay present and
on the water content of the mixture.
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DEFINITIONS
1. POURING CUP: This is where the metal is poured into the mold.
2. SPRUE: The vertical channel from the top of the mold to the gating and riser
system. Also, a generic term used to cover all gates, runners and risers.
3. RUNNER: The portion of the gate assembly that connects the sprue to the casting
in gate or riser.
4. GATE: The end of the runner in a mold where molten metal enters the mold cavity.
5. RISER: A reservoir of molten metal provided to compensate for the contraction of
the metal as it solidifies.
6. MOLD CAVITY: The impression in a mold produced by the removal of the pattern.
When filled with molten metal it forms a casting.
7. COPE: Upper or top most section of a flask, mold or pattern.
8. PARTING LINE: A line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation
between the parts of a mold.
9. DRAG:
Lower or bottom section of a flask,
or pattern.
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Production Steps in Sand-Casting

Figure Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.

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METAL CASTING
Permanent Mould Casting

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Gravity die casting in a permanent mold.

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Shell molding
FIGURE 2-12 Shell-molding
process that uses a fine base
sand mixed with a
thermosetting binder. The
mixture
partially cures and forms a
hard shell upon contact with a
hot match plate (which forms
the cover of the dumpbox
containing the sand mixture).
(E. P. DeGarmo, J. T. Black, R.
A. Kohser, and B. E. Klanecki,
Materials and
Processes in Manufacturing,
of a fine
sand
9th base
ed., Wiley,
Newand
York, a
pattern 2003,
and forms
p. 308). the cover

The molding aggregate in shell-molding is a mixture


thermosetting binder. A metal match plate is used as a
of a dump box that is filled with the molding aggregate. The match plate is heated to
about 150-230 ~ and the dump box is inverted to allow the resin-bonded sand to
physically contact the hot pattern. The thermosetting plastic begins to cure and
harden, forming a solid sand shell around the pattern. The dump box is then brought
back to its normal uptight position, and excess (uncured) sand mixture is removed.
The partially cured shell is stripped from the match plate with the help of ejector
pins, and the curing is completed in an oven. The steps are repeated to make the
matching half of the shell mold. After curing, the two mold halves are assembled,
clamped, and readied for the pour (metal shot or sand is used as a physical support
for the mold halves). Some of the resin evaporates during the pour and represents
an unreclaimable material loss. Very tight dimensional control (tolerances of 0.0020.005 inch) and excellent surface finish are achieved using shell-molds. This reduces
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the
need18, for
are needed to start with. The

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Investment Casting Process

Figure Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost-wax)


process. Castings by this method can be made with very fine
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detail
and from a variety of metals.

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Low-pressure permanent mold


casting

FIGURE 2-16 Low-pressure permanent mold casting in which an inert gas is used to pressurize the molten metal counter to
gravity through a feed tube and into the permanent mold that is placed on top of the pressure vessel. The solidification
path is designed to enable the shrinkage to be fed by the pressurized molten metal. (Courtesy of Amsted Industries).

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Vacuum
casting

permanent

mold

FIGURE 2-17 Vacuum permanent mold casting in which a vacuum is appfied


through vents in the mold to raise the molten metal via a feed tube into the
mold. (E. P. DeGarmo, J. T. Black, R. A. Kohser, and B. E. Klanecki, Materials
Processes
in Manufacturing, 9th
ed.,
Wiley, 2003, p. 328).
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Die Casting
Process:
molten metal is injected into a closed metal die under high
pressure.
pressure is maintained during solidification.
Die is separated and casting ejected
Two types of die casting
Hot chamber
Cold chamber

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Hot-Chamber Die-Casting

Figure Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting


process.
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An injection system forces molten metal out of the


gooseneck into the die cavity where the metal rapidly
solidifies
To improve die life and aid in the rapid cooling, dies are
usually cooled by circulating water/oil through
passageways in the die block
Application: primary used with zinc, tin and lead based
alloys

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Advantages
No transfer process of the molten metal, as it is melted in the
chamber from which it is injected into the die cavity
Offer fast cycling times
Good strength product
Excellent dimensional precision and surface finish

Disadvantages:
Expensive as the dies are made from hardened hot-worked tool
steels
Requires high production rates to justify the usage
Cannot be used for high melting point metals

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Cold-Chamber Die-Casting

Figure Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting


process. These machines are large compared to the size of the
casting, because high forces LMS
are
required to keep the two halves
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Employed for die casting of materials that are not suitable for hot
chamber design.
E.g. Al, Mg, Cu
Process:
Metal is melted in a separate furnace and is transported to the die
casting machine.
Molten metal is fed into an unheated chamber.
A mechanical plunger forces the molten metal into die cavity
where the metal solidifies.

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Advantages:
Good strength product
Excellent dimensional accuracy
Excellent surface finish

Disadvantages:
Expensive dies
Requires high production rate to justify the usage
The need to transport molten metals

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Types of Cavities in Die-Casting Die

Figure Various types of cavities in a die-casting die.

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Centrifugal casting

Utilize inertial force caused by rotation to distribute molten metal into


mold cavities
Process:
Pour molten metal into rotating mould
Metal is held against the mould wall by centrifugal force until it is
solidified
3 types of centrifugal casting
True centrifugal casting
Semi-centrifugal casting
centrifuging

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True centrifugal casting

Mould normally made of steel, iron, or graphite and may be coated with a
refractory lining to increase mould life
Mould surfaces can be shaped so that pipes with various outer shapes
including square or polygonal can be cast
Inner surface of casting remains cylindrical because the molten metal is
uniformly distributed by centrifugal forces
Produces hollows cylindrical parts:
Pipes, gun barrels, streetlamp posts, etc.

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characteristics:
Good quality
Dimensional accuracy
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Semi centrifugal casting


In this method, centrifugal
force is used to produce solid
castings rather than tubular
parts. Density of the metal in
the final casting is greater in
the outer sections than at the
center
of
rotation.
The
process is used on parts in
which the center of the
casting is machined away,
such as wheels and pulleys.

used to cast parts with rotational symmetry


Wheels

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Centrifuging

Mould cavities of any shape are placed at a certain distance from


the axis of rotation.
Molten metal is poured from the centre and is forced into the mould
by centrifugal forces.

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Advantages
Able to produce a wide range of cylindrical parts
Good dimensional accuracy

Disadvantages
Shape is limited
Expensive spinning equipment required

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Continuous Casting

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Continuous casting (right, red arrows) is a method of working steel that


conveys steel from its molten state to blooms, ingots, or slabs. The whitehot metal is poured into open-ended molds and continues on through
rollers cooled by water. A series of guide rollers further shapes the steel
into the desired form. However, hot rolling (left, blue arrows) is still the
primary means of milling steel. This process begins with pre-shaped steel
slabs, which are reheated in a soaking pit. The steel passes through a
series of mills: the blooming mill, the roughing mill, and the finishing mill,
make
it progressively thinner.
the steel is wound into coils
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Continuous casting

Continuous casting accounts for about 95% of the world cast steel
These castings take the form of blooms, slabs, and billets
Replaced ingot casting which is still used in some steel plants or for certain
grades of steel
Concept is over 150 years old but continuous casting became widespread in
Europe especially in the 1970s
Perfectly suited to the mini mill concept with electric steel making facilities
and a continuous caster.

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Casting shapes and sizes

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Continuous casting schematic

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Continuous casting process

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1. Explain why a casting may have to be subjected to various heat treatments


2. Describe the drawbacks to having a riser that is (a) too large and (b) too
small.
3. Why are risers not as useful in die casting as they are in sand casting?
4. Why can blind risers be smaller than open-top risers?
5. Describe the procedures that would be involved in making a large outdoor
bronze statue. Which casting process(es) would be suitable? Why?

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