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Critical Power: Generators and

Generator System Design


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Learning Objectives:
1.The audience will understand the applicable code requirements
including NFPA 70: National Electrical Code and NFPA 110:
Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems
2.Attendees will learn the criteria for selecting the appropriate
generator or generators for the building type and/or application
3.Viewers will understand the criteria for designing the generator
system, and know the differences between prime rated versus
standby rated engines (U.S. EPA standards)
4.Viewers will learn the criteria for commissioning generators and
the electrical systems they support.

Presenters:
Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED AP,
JBA Consulting Engineers,
Las Vegas, Nev.

James Ferris, PE,


TLC Engineering for Architecture,
Orlando, Fla.
Moderator: Jack Smith,
Consulting-Specifying Engineer and Pure Power,
CFE Media, LLC

Critical Power: Generators


and Generator System Design
Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED, AP
JBA Consulting Engineers,
Las Vegas, Nev.
James Ferris, PE,
TLC Engineering for Architecture,
Orlando, Fla.

Codes & Standards


IBC
Chapter 27: Electrical

NFPA 110: Emergency & Standby Power


Systems
NFPA 101: Life Safety Code
NFPA 70: National Electrical Code
Article 445: Generators
Article 700, 701, & 702: Systems

IBC 2012 Edition


Chapter 27 addresses electrical
components, equipment, and systems
2702.1 - Emergency and Standby
Systems shall be installed per NFPA 110
2702.2 Emergency and Standby
Systems shall be installed where required

NFPA 110 2013 Edition


Definitions (NFPA 110 Chapter 3)
Emergency Power Supply (EPS): The source of electrical power of
the required capacity and quality for an emergency power supply
system (EPSS).
Emergency Power Supply System (EPSS): A complete functioning
EPS system coupled to a system of conductors, disconnecting
means and overcurrent protective devices, transfer switches and
all control, supervisory and support devices up to and including the
load terminals of the transfer equipment needed for the system to
operate as a safe and reliable source of electric power.

EPSS
EPS

LOAD TERMINALS

NFPA 110 2013 Edition


Chapter 4: EPSS Classification
Class: Minimum time to operate without
refueling/recharging.
Type: Maximum time to re-energize loads.
Level: Installation, performance, and
maintenance criteria.

NFPA 110 2013 Edition


Class
Defined in hours per applicable code, application and
AHJ.
Battery System
NEC Article 700.12(A): 1.5-hour minimum, Class 1.5.

Generator System
NEC Article 700.12(B)(2): 2-hour minimum, Class 2.
NFPA 20 Chapter 9.6.2.3: 8-hour minimum, Class 8.
AIA Guidelines for Design and Construction of Healthcare
Facilities (Joint Commission requirement): 24 hours
minimum, Class 24.

NFPA 110 2013 Edition


Type
Defined in seconds per applicable code,
application and AHJ.
NEC Article 700.12: 10 seconds maximum,
Type 10.
NFPA 20 Chapter 9.6.2.1: 10 seconds
maximum, Type 10.
NEC Article 701.12: 60 seconds maximum,
Type 60.

NFPA 110 2013 Edition


Level 1
Required where EPSS failure could result in loss of
human life or serious injuries.
NEC Article 700: Emergency System.
NEC Article 701: Legally Required Standby (NFPA 101
7.14.7.1)
NEC Article 517: Chapter 3 Essential Electrical System.

Level 2
Required where EPSS failure is less critical to human life
and safety.
NEC Article 701: Legally Required Standby.

NFPA 101 2012 Edition


Type 10, Class 1.5, Level 1 for emergency lighting (7.9.2.2)
Type 60, Class 2, Level 1 for occupant evacuation elevators
(7.14.7.1)
Type 60, Class 1, Level 1 for high-rise standby power
(legally required)
Electric Fire Pump
Jockey Pump
Air Compressor for dry-pipe/pre-action fire suppression system
Emergency Command Center
At least one elevator serving all floors
Mechanical Smoke Control

NEC (NFPA 70) 2011 Edition


Article 445: Generators
The ampacity of conductors from each
generator to the first overcurrent device must
be at least 115% of the nameplate current
rating (NEC 445.13)
One or more disconnects with means of
locking in the open position are required
(NEC 445.18)

NEC (NFPA 70) 2011 Edition


Article 700: Emergency Systems
EPS capacity shall be capable of supplying all emergency system loads simultaneously (NEC 700.4(A))
EPS may serve loads other than emergency if capacity and rating can support all connected loads
simultaneously or transfer equipment incorporates selective load pickup and load shedding.
Requires automatic transfer switches that supply only emergency loads (NEC 700.12(A) & 700.12(D))
Wiring shall be contained in separate raceways, enclosures, etc. from all other systems. Separate vertical
switchboard section required when emergency source serves multiple systems (NEC 700.10(B))

Article 701: Legally Required Standby Systems


EPS capacity shall be capable of supplying all legally required standby loads intended to operate
simultaneously (NEC 701.4)
Requires automatic transfer switches (NEC 701.12(A)
Transfer switches require load shedding capability if generator capacity is not sized to supply all connected
loads at once (NEC 701.4)

Article 702: Optional Standby Systems


Permanent installations require manual or automatic transfer switches (NEC 702.5)
Transfer switches require load shedding capability if generator capacity is not sized to supply all connected
loads at once (NEC 702.4(B)(2))

TO GENSET CONTROL PANEL FOR


SELECTIVE LOAD PICKUP AND SHEDDING

How Loads Are Classified


Requirements for loads classified as emergency and legally required standby are generally
defined by the AHJ and adopted codes.
IBC 2702.2 references other IBC sections for emergency and legally required standby loads.
Common applications below.
Emergency Loads
Voice/Alarm Communications Systems in Group A Occupancies and Covered and Open Mall Buildings (IBC 907.5.2.2.4
& 402.7.3)
Exit Signs and Means of Egress Illumination (IBC 1011.6.3 & 1006.3)
High-Rise Buildings (IBC 403.4.9)

Elevator Car Lighting


Voice/Alarm Communications Systems
Automatic Fire Detection Systems
Fire Alarm Systems
Electrically powered fire pumps

Legally Required Standby Loads


Smoke Control Systems (IBC 909.11)
Accessible means of egress elevators (IBC 1007.4)
High-Rise Buildings (IBC 403.4.8)
Power and Lighting for the Fire Command Center
Ventilation and automatic Fire detection equipment for smoke proof enclosures.
Elevators

Local AHJ Considerations


Some AHJs amend codes and standards
before adopting them. This may result in load
classifications varying from region to region.
Example:
Southern Nevada AHJs amended the first
paragraph of NEC 700.1; scope to include specific
references to loads that may be connected to the
emergency system. Many of these loads would be
considered Legally Required Standby in other
regions.

Research Codes

System Capacity
and Use

Determine appropriate Accessories for the system

If the System is an emergency system, will it be used for Utility Peak


shaving program

Review Fuel Source availability, Quantity of Generators, and


Redundancy

Plan for anticipated Run Time for the system


Determine/Estimate Total Load of proposed system
Determine Load that is Required by Code to be on

2
1

System Design Sequence

Generator Selection and Sizing


Running kVA
Calculated Electrical Loads + Metered Electrical
Loads

Starting kVA
What is the biggest starting kVA block (i.e. a
chiller system)

Special considerations
High harmonic content
Intermittent starting

Metered Electrical Loads


NEC 220.87 (125% Rule)

NEC requires that the existing loads are


metered to determine the maximum
demand continuously recorded over a
minimum 30-day period, and then use
125% of that number as the existing
load for the system.
Maximum demand is measured as the
average power over a 15-minute period.

Generator Ratings

Standby Power:
Maximum output is available for non-programmed power
outages.
Average demand during outages should not exceed
continuous rating of generator.
Typical usage of 200 hrs/yr; max expected usage of 500
hrs/yr.

Prime Power:
De-rated capacity, typically 10% reduction from standby
power rating.
Maximum output available for varying loads for all outages.
Average demand should not exceed continuous rating.

Continuous Power
Maximum output available at all times.
De-rated capacity, typically a 15% reduction from prime
power ratings.

Generator De-Rating
A prime generator is essentially a standby generator de-rated plus
additional accessories. The same generator de-rated again is a
continuous duty.
2000 kW standby = 1825 kW prime = 1600 kW continuous
But with prime and continuous ratings, everything is bigger:
generators, space to accommodate, air intake requirements, fuel
consumption, but with less capacity.

Warranty Issues
What does all of this have to do with
my warranty?
Standard warranty for generators are
defined by run hours and length of time,
and typically include the rating of the
generator.
Warranties generally do not include:
Use of standby generators in prime
applications
Use of blended fuels such as a natural
gas/diesel mixture
Excessive overloading of the generator.

Generator Tier Ratings


Tier 2

Tier 4

Emergency Systems can be tier 2 when


used for Emergency Purposes only.

Emergency Systems must be tier 4 if


they also participate in a Peak Shaving
program that the utility uses for financial
gain (they can sell power for more than
you get paid).

Can remain tier 2 even if they join a


emergency demand response program
offered by the Utility Provider.

Tier 4 requires additional capital


investments and additional equipment.

Maximum Run time, testing time, and


demand response time criteria.
Per Todays rules - A new Tier 2
generator installed today CANNOT ever
be modified to be a Tier 4 Generator.

Researched
Codes

System
Capacity
and Use

Select a
System

Types of Generators
Portable
Stationary Standby
Diesel
Liquid Propane
Natural Gas
Dual Fuel.

Fuel Considerations
On-site fuel storage NEC 700.12(B)(3)
Dual Fuel (or Bi-fuel)
Can provide an extended runtime.
Usually an aftermarket retrofit to a diesel generator. Although,
some manufacturers do have a factory assembled and tested
bi-fuel systems.
Typically achieves a 40%/60% split.

Fuel Polisher
Diesel fuel will foul when stored more than 3 to 6 months
without conditioning or detergent additives.
This presents an issue for large on-site fuel storage systems.

Location
Indoor
EPS shall be located in a dedicated room with 2hour fire resistance rating (NFPA 110 Chapter 7.2.1)
EPSS equipment may be located in EPS room
(NFPA 110 Chapter 7.2.1.2)

Outdoor
Requires weatherproof enclosure (NFPA 110
Chapter 7.2.2.1)
EPSS equipment may be located within the EPS
enclosure (NFPA 110 Chapter 7.2.2.3)

How many generators?


Several reasons to consider more than
one generator.
Physical Space.
Redundancy/Resilience.
Phased expansion.

Redundancy
Data centers, hospitals, large-scale
hospitality resorts, municipal command
centers, etc.
N+1, 2N
Multiple priorities
Real-time demand load management

Generator Ratings.
Examine the system voltage. Is the primary
distribution routed at low voltage (600 V or
less) or medium voltage (more than 600 V,
but less than 38 kV)?
208 V, 3-Phase System; 900 kW/1125 kVA
240 V, 1-Phase System; 600 kW/750 kVA
480 V, 3-Phase System; 2000 kW/2500 kVA
13 kV, 3-Phase System

Generator Accessories
Typical Package Generator
Jacket Heater
Battery Charger
Daytank Controls

Other Considerations
Remote Radiator
Radiator Fan
Aftercooler Water Pump

Motorized Dampers
Remote Fuel Pumps

Researched
Codes

System
Capacity and
Use

Select a
System

Installation and
Commissioning

EPSS Commissioning
Generator
Remote Alarm Annunciation
Fuel System Performance
Parallel Switchgear (if applicable)
Load Shedding
Switchgear Features

Generator Assembly

Load Bank Testing


Sound Testing
Emissions Testing
Accessory Review and Testing

Generator Load Bank Test


Resistive Load Bank Test
Load Bank is set to the generator Rated
Power Factor (0.8 PF)
Commonly a factory test

Reactive Load Bank Test (1.0 PF)


Only allowed in field IF reactive was done in
factory (NFPA 110)

Generator Load Bank Test

NFPA 110 minimum load bank test.


2 hours at full load.
5 minute cool down.
Full rating block load to start the second half.
Take a wave capture of the unit performance
during the block load.
2-hour run at full load.
Recordings every 15 minutes for the duration
of the test.

Sound Testing
Sound criteria requirements at certain locations

Air Performance
Sufficient air to the generator engines
Emissions too close to an intake
Air emissions testing

Generator Accessories
Battery charger goes back on with generator power
Jacket heater turns off when unit is running

Alarm Annunciation
Alarms annunciate at
Unit Mounted
Controller (CV)
Alarms Annunciate at
Remote Annunciator
(RA)
Doesnt address
parallel system
alarms!
Per NFPA 110 and
NFPA 99

Alarm
(a) Overcrank

CV
X

(b) Low Water Temp. <70oF (21oC)

(c) High Engine Temp Prealarm


(d) High Engine Temperature
(e) Low Lube Oil Pressure Prealarm
(f) Low Lube Oil Pressure
(g) Overspeed
(h) Low Fuel Main Tank (@ 48 hrs. fuel remaining)
(i) Low coolant level
(j) EPS Supplying Load
(k) Control or Test Switch Not in Auto. Position
(l) High Battery Voltage
(m) Low cranking voltage
(n) Low Voltage in Battery
(o) Battery charger ac failure
(p) Lamp Test
(q) Audible Alarm Silencing Switch
(r) Low Starting Air Pressure
(s) Low Starting Hydraulic Pressure
(t) Air Shutdown Damper when used
(u) Remote Emergency Stop
(v) Day tank Hi-low Alarm
(w) Leak detection inner cavity of skid mount fuel tank
(x) Remote Radiator Breaker Position

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

KEY:
CV Control panel-mtd. visual indication
RA Remote Audible
S Shutdown of EPS
X Required

S
X

RA
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

Alarm Annunciation
Most alarms can be simulated at the
generator, and verified at the annunciator.
Must include audible and visual annunciation
at remote location.
Recommend adding parallel switchgear
(EPSS) alarms where used.
Other codes supplement this too, such as
high-rise requirements in NFPA 101.

Fuel System Performance


Verify each day tank if used can call for
fuel individually and generators are
getting correct amount of fuel.
Verify low fuel alarm is set to the
appropriate point and works.

Low fuel Settings


Required Generator Class
= Required Low Fuel
Setting
Class 48 = 48 hrs of fuel
Class 10 = 10 hrs of fuel
48 hrs x Generator Hourly
Consumption = Low Fuel
Level Alarm

Low Fuel Alarm

Parallel Switchgear Commissioning


Multiple Generators Operating as a
system so
Complete System operation must be
checked!
Manufacturers can use PLC inputs or
potentially PC overrides to simulate
system loads.

Parallel Switchgear Functions


Load Shed Function where Transfer
Switches are assigned a different priority
Essential System would be a 1.
Equipment loads may be a 2.
Non-essential may be a 3.

Usually will relate to the number of


generators on the bus.

Parallel Switchgear Load Shed


Essential System Load Priority Schedule
ATS NUMBER

BRANCH

ATS-CHCEP
ATS-FP
ATS-CR1
ATS-CR2
ATS-LS1
ATS-EQ2
ATS-XRAY
ATS-EQ1
ATS-EQHCEPA
ATS-EQHCEPB
ATS-EQHCEPC
ATS-N1

Critical
Fire Pump
Critical
Critical
Life Safety
Equipment
Equipment
Equipment
Equipment
Equipment
Equipment
Non-Essential

BYPASS VOLT. Pri. 100


ISOLATION
LOAD
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y

480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
480
Total (KVA)

26.7
75
283.5
129
220.6
119.2

854

Total (KW @ 0.9 P.F.) 768.6


Total Priority 100 + 200 Loads (KW) 2063.9
Capacity

3000

Priority 200
SUB
L.S.
T.I. LOAD
No.

201
Y
Y

202
Y
Y

203
Y
Y

204
Y
Y
213
205
Y
Y
1082
206
Y
Y
143.8
Total (KVA) 1439
Total (KW @ 0.9 P.F.) 1295

Parallel Switchgear Commissioning


Sample Switchgear Commissioning Document (Partial)

Mode: Bus Optimization Off / Generator Demand Off (with Amp Generator)
Operation: Generators will load each priority level as a block. The quantity of priority
Blocks connected is the same as the priority block connected. If a generator fails,
the block associated with that generator will shed.
Scenario 1: Startup. Turn off Normal power, system should call for start. Priority
1 loads will transfer within 10 seconds. Priority 2 will transfer after their associated
time delays.
Scenario 2: Second Generator Failure Priority two Block Loads shed. Turn
Second Gen back on and all Priority 2 loads add in one block.
Scenario 3: Gen 1,2 Operating. System Bus overload of 105 % over two
generators simulated by a 4-20ma generator. (3000 kW * 1.05 = 3150 kW); Priority
2 loads should shed in descending priority & sub priority order.

Parallel Switchgear Functions


Other features to test
Generator Demand Mode (Used to turn off
Generators when demand is low enough to
warrant it.

Bus under-frequency
(Sheds loads and locks out!)

Emergency stop buttons


Remote ATS control (where applicable)

Learning Summary

Researched
Codes
NEC
NFPA 110, 99
IBC

System
Capacity and
Use
Demand and
Calculated Loads
Tier Ratings

Select a System
Fuel Source
Location
Parallel?
Redundancy

Installation and
Commissioning
Load Bank
Annunciation
System Testing

Code References

International Building Code


NFPA 20
NFPA 70 (NEC)
NFPA 99
NFPA 101
NFPA 110

Presenters:
Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED AP,
JBA Consulting Engineers,
Las Vegas, Nev.

James Ferris, PE,


TLC Engineering for Architecture,
Orlando, Fla.
Moderator: Jack Smith,
Consulting-Specifying Engineer and Pure Power,
CFE Media, LLC

Thanks to Todays Webcast Sponsor:

Webcasts and Research


Critical Power: Standby Versus Emergen
cy Power Systems
Critical Power: Standby Power for Mission Cr
itical Facilities
2013 Electrical/Power Research Study

Critical Power: Generators and


Generator System Design
Sponsored by: