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PNEUMATIC CONTROL

Contents

Pneumatic Control

Characteristics and applications of


pneumatics

Components of a pneumatic system

Symbols and standards in pneumatics

Basic Pneumatic Circuit

Automation & Principle of Pneumatic


Diagram
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Characteristics and Applications


of Pneumatics

Pneumatics
is the use of pressurized air to effect
mechanical motion.
Commonly is used in industry.
It also has applications in among other things,
dentistry, construction, and mining.
Pneumatic power users need not worry about
hazardous leakages as the fuel is commonly just
air.

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Pneumatics in review
Played an important role as a technology in the
performance of mechanical work.
The technological progress made in material,
design and production processes has further
improved the quality and diversity of pneumatic
components and thereby contributed to their
widely spread use in automation.

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Pneumatics in review (cont.)


The pneumatic cylinder has a significant
role as a linear drive unit, due to its
relatively low cost
ease of installation
simple and robust construction
ready availability in various sizes and stroke
lengths.

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Pneumatics in review (cont.)


The pneumatic cylinder has the following
general characteristics:
Diameters 2.5 to 320 mm
Stroke lengths 1 to 2000 mm
Available forces 2 to 45000 N at 6 bar
Piston speed 0.1 to 1.5 m/s

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Pneumatics in review (cont.)


Pneumatic components can perform the
following types of motion:
Linear
Swivel
Rotary

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Pneumatic Application
Some industrial applications employing
pneumatics are listed below:
General methods of material handling:

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Clamping
Shifting
Positioning
Orienting
Branching of material flow

Pneumatic Application
General applications:

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Packaging
Filling
Metering
Locking
Driving of axes
Door or chute control
Transfer of materials
Turning and inverting of parts
Sorting of parts
Stacking of components
Stamping and embossing of components

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Pneumatic Application

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Pneumatic Application

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Pneumatic Application
Pneumatics is used in carrying out
machining and working operations.
For example:

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Drilling
Turning
Milling
Sawing
Finishing
Forming
Quality control

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Advantage of Pneumatic
Availability

Air is available practically everywhere in unlimited


quantities.

Transport

Air can be easily transported in pipelines, even


over large distances.

Storage

Compressed air can be stored in a reservoir and


removed as required. In addition, the reservoir can
be transportable.

Temperature

Compressed air is relatively insensitive to


temperature fluctuations.
This ensures reliable operation, even under
extreme conditions.

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Advantage of Pneumatic
Explosion
proof

Compressed air offers no risk of explosion or fire.

Cleanliness

Unlubricated exhaust air is clean. Any unlubricated


air which escapes through leaking pipes or
components does not cause contamination.

Components

The operating components are of simple


construction and therefore relatively inexpensive.

Speed

Compressed air is a very fast working medium. This


enables high working speeds to be attained.

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Disadvantage of Pneumatic
Preparation

Compressed air requires good preparation. Dirt and


condensate should not be present.

Compression

It is not always possible to achieve uniform and


constant piston speeds with compressed air.

Force
requirement

Compressed air is economical only up to a certain


force requirement. Under the normal working
pressure of 600 to 700 kPa (6 to 7 bar) and
dependent on the travel and speed, the output
limit is between 40 000 and 50 000 Newtons.

Noise level

The exhaust air is loud. This problem has now,


however been largely solved due to the
development of sound absorption material and
silencers.

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Criteria for a working medium


Choice of working media:
Electrical current (electricity)
Fluids (hydraulics)
Compressed air (Pneumatics)
A combination of the above

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Activity
1. Give another examples of pneumatic
application.
2. Is it suitable to use it at home i.e. home
appliance? Why?

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Criteria for a working medium


Selection criteria for the working section:

Force
Stroke
Type of motion (linear, swivelling, rotating)
Speed
Service life
Safety and reliability
Energy costs
Controllability
Storage

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Criteria for a control medium


Choice of control media:
Mechanical connections (mechanics)
Electrical current (electrics, electronics)
Fluids (hydraulics)
Compressed air (pneumatics, low pressure
pneumatics)

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Criteria for a control medium


Selection criteria for the control section:

Reliability of components
Sensitivity to environmental influences
Ease of maintenance and repair
Switching time of components
Signal speed
Space requirements
Service life
Modification of the control system
Training requirements of operators and maintenance
personnel

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Pneumatics and control system


development
The product development in pneumatics
can be considered in a number of areas:
Actuators
Sensors and input devices
Processors
Accessories
Control systems

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Pneumatics and control system


development
Factors in the development of pneumatic
control systems:
Reliability
Ease of maintenance

Interchangeability and
adaptability

Cost of spare parts

Compact design

Assembly and connection

Economic efficiency

Maintenance and repair

Documentation

costs

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Structure and signal flow


Pneumatic systems consist of an interconnection of
different groups of elements.

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Structure and signal flow


The primary levels in a pneumatic system
are:
Energy supply
Input elements (sensors)
Processing elements (processors)
Control elements
Power components (actuators)

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Structure and signal flow


The elements in the system are
represented by symbols which indicate
the function of the element.

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Pneumatic Control System

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Circuit Diagram

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Activity
Define the terms below:
Actuators
Sensors
Signal input / output
Control diagram / element

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Components of a pneumatic
system

Components of a pneumatic system

Air generation
and
distribution

Power
components

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Valves

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Air generation and distribution


The compressed air should be adequately
calculated and made available in the
appropriate quality.
Air is compressed by the air compressor and
delivered to an air distribution system in the
factory.
Air service equipment is utilized to prepare the
air before being applied to the control system.

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Air generation and distribution


Maximum operating pressure is 800-1000 kPa
(8 - 10 bar) but in practice it is recommended
to operate at between 500-600 kPa (5 and 6
bar) for economic use.
Due to the pressure losses in the distribution
system the compressor should deliver between
650-700 kPa (6.5 and 7 bar) to attain these
figures.

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Air generation and distribution


A reservoir (receiver) should be fitted to
reduce pressure fluctuations.
The compressor fills the reservoir which
is available as a storage tank.

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Air Distribution System

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Air generation and distribution


The air service unit is a combination of
the following :
Compressed air filter (with water separator)
Compressed air regulator
Compressed air lubricator

Known as FRL unit

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FRL Unit

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Valves
To control the pressure or flow rate of pressure
media. Depending on design, these can be
divided into the following categories:

Directional control valves


Input/signaling elements
Processing elements
Control elements
Non-return valves
Flow control valves
Pressure control valves

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Valves

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Power components
Also called pneumatic actuator converts
energy into motion.
Types of pneumatic actuators i.e.:

Rotary actuators
Pneumatic cylinder
Grippers
Rod less actuators
Vacuum generators

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Pneumatic Actuator
Pneumatic cylinder

Grippers

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Activity
Discuss about others power components.

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Symbols and standards in


pneumatics

Single-Acting Cylinder
Compressed air is applied to only one
side.
The piston rod side of the cylinder is
vented to atmosphere.
Perform work in only in the advance
direction of travel.
The piston rod is driven inwards by the
force of a built-in spring or by external
forces.
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Single-Acting Cylinder

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Double-Acting Cylinder
Actuated in both directions with
compressed air.
It can perform work in both directions of
movement.
The force transmitted to the piston rod is
greater during the advance stroke than
during the return stroke.

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Double-Acting Cylinder

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Double Acting Cylinder (Cont.)


Double-acting cylinder with adjustable end-position
cushioning at both ends

Double-acting cylinder with double-ended piston rod

Double-acting rod less cylinder with adjustable endposition cushioning at both ends (pneumatic linear
drive)

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Others Actuator
Gripper (external), double-acting

Vacuum generator

Suction cup

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Non-return and Flow Control Valves


Non-return valves block the flow in one
direction and release it in the opposite
direction. A distinction is made between:
Non-return valves
Shuttle valves (OR)
Dual pressure valves (AND)
One-way flow control valves
Quick exhaust valves

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Non-return and Flow Control Valves

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Pressure Control Valves


Pressure control valves influence the
pressure or are controlled through the
size of the pressure. A distinction is made
between:
Pressure regulating valves
Pressure relief valves
Pressure sequence valves

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Pressure Control Valves

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Switching Symbols for Valves


Pneumatic components are normally
shown in the deenergized condition in
circuit diagrams.
Valve switching positions are represented
by a square.
The number of squares corresponds to
the number of switching positions.

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Switching Symbols for Valves


Functions and modes of operation are
drawn inside the square:
Lines indicate the flow paths.
Arrows indicate the flow direction.
Closed ports are represented by two lines
drawn at right angles to one another.

The connecting lines are drawn outside


on the square.
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Switching Symbols for Valves

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Directional Control Valves


Information about the type of valve can be
established from the following features:
Number of ports
Number of switching positions
Port numbering

The following applies to the numbering of the


ports:
Air supply port
1
Exhaust ports
3, 5
Working or outlet ports
2, 4
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Directional Control Valves

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Directional Control Valves

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Types of DCV actuation


The following information is required in
order to fully represent a directional
control valve in a pneumatic circuit
diagram:
Basic type of valve actuation
Reset method
Pilot control (if applicable)
Additional forms of actuation (such as
manual override, if available)
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Types of DCV actuation

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Types of DCV actuation

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Other graphical symbol

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Other graphical symbol

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Applications and symbols DCV

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Applications and symbols DCV

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Safety requirements
Dangers and protective measures
One source of danger is moving parts of
machines and equipment.
On a pneumatic press, for example, care
must be taken to prevent the operator's
fingers or hands from being trapped.

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Safety requirements

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Basic Pneumatic Circuit

Arrangement of graphical symbols


The layout of a pneumatic circuit
diagram, the arrangement of the
graphical symbols and the identification
and numbering of the components are
standardized according to DIN/ISO 12192.

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Arrangement of graphical symbols


the symbols are arranged in the circuit
diagram as follows:
Power components at the top
Beneath those, valves with an influence on
speed (such as flow control valves, nonreturn valves)
Beneath those, control elements (directional
control valves)
Power supply at the bottom left
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Positions of cylinders and DCV


All components in a pneumatic circuit
diagram are represented
The cylinder drives are in the initial
position.

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Positions of cylinders and DCV

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Identification code for components


Every component (apart from connection lines
and connecting tubes) is identified in
accordance
The identification code contains the following
information:
Unit number (digit; may be omitted if the entire
circuit consists of one unit)
Circuit number (digit, mandatory)
Component identification (letter, mandatory)
Component number (digit, mandatory)
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Identification code for components


The identification code should be
enclosed within a frame.

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Unit number
If there are several units pneumatic
control systems in a particular plant, the
unit number helps to clarify the
assignment between circuit diagrams and
control systems.

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Circuit number
Preferably all components belonging to
the power supply should be identified by
circuit number 0. The other circuit
numbers are then assigned to the various
control chains (= circuits).

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Component identification and number


Every component in a pneumatic control
system is assigned a component
identification and a component number
in the circuit diagram. Within each
circuit, components with the same
component identification are numbered
consecutively from the bottom to the top
and from left to right.

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Component identification and


number

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Technical information
In order to facilitate assembly of a
control system and the replacement of
components when carrying out
maintenance, certain components in a
pneumatic circuit diagram are identified
by additional information.

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Technical information
Cylinders:
piston diameter, stroke and function (such

Compressed air supply:


supply pressure range in megapascals or

Filters:
nominal size in micrometers

Tubes:
nominal internal diameter in mm

Pressure gauges:
pressure range in megapascals or bar

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4a

Development of single
actuator circuits

Control of SAC
The piston rod of a single-acting cylinder is to be
extended when pushbutton S1 is pressed and retracted
when the pushbutton is released.

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Control of DAC
The piston rod of a double-acting cylinder is to advance
when pushbutton S1 is pressed and retracted when the
pushbutton is released.

Pneumatic circuit diagram


with 4/2-way valve
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Pneumatic circuit diagram with


5/2-way valve
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Logic function: AND

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Logic Function: OR

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Exercise 1
Control systems with final control valve
with spring return

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Exercise 1a
Title: Sorting device
Direct actuation of a single-acting
cylinder
Problem: Draw the pneumatic diagram

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Exercise 1a: Description


Using a sorting device, parts are to be
transferred from a conveyor belt. By
pressing the pushbutton switch, the
piston rod of a single-acting cylinder
pushes the part off the conveyor belt.
When the pushbutton is released, the
piston rod returns to the retracted end
position.

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Exercise 1a: Figure

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Exercise 1b
Title: Opening and closing device
Direct actuation of a double-acting
cylinder
Problem: Draw the pneumatic diagram

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Exercise 1b: Description


Using a special device, the valve in a pipe
line is to be opened and closed.
The valve is opened by pressing the
pushbutton switch. When the pushbutton
is released the valve is closed.

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Exercise 1b: Figure

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Exercise 1c
Title: Assembly station
Single-acting cylinder / Double-acting
cylinder
Direct actuation with AND-function of the
input signals
Problem: Draw the pneumatic diagram

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Exercise 1c: Description


In an assembly station components are to
be put together. By pressing two
pushbutton switches the device is
advanced and the components are
assembled. After releasing the
pushbutton switches, the device is
returned to its start position.

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Exercise 1c: Figure

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Exercise 1d
Title: Cutting device
Single-acting cylinder / Double-acting
cylinder
Indirect actuation with AND-function of
the input signals
Problem: Draw the pneumatic diagram

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Exercise 1d: Description


Using a cutting device sheets of paper are
to be cut to size.
By pressing two pushbutton switches the
cutting blade is advanced and the sheet
of paper is cut. After releasing one
pushbutton switch the cutting blade is
returned to its start position.

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Exercise 1d: Figure

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Exercise 2
Control systems with double solenoid
valve

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Exercise 2a
Title: Diverting device
Single-acting cylinder / Double-acting
cylinder
Direct actuation from two different
positions
Problem: Draw the pneumatic diagram

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Exercise 2a: Description


Using a diverting device parts are to be moved
from one conveyor track to another conveyor
track.
By pressing a pushbutton switch the frame of
the diverting device is pushed forward. The
part is moved over and transported onwards in
the opposite direction. By pressing another
pushbutton switch the frame is returned to its
start position.

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Exercise 2a:Figure

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4b

Development of multiple
actuator circuits

Application example: Feeding device


The positional sketch of a feeding device is shown in figure below.
The end positions of the two cylinder drives 1A and 2A are
detected by the positive switching inductive proximity switches
1B1 and 2B2.

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Displacement-step diagram
for the feeding device
The program-controlled sequence is triggered when the
operator presses the "START" pushbutton. The sequence
comprises the following steps:
Step 1: The piston rod of cylinder 1A advances.
The work piece is pushed out of the magazine.

Step 2: The piston rod of cylinder 2A advances.


The work piece is fed to the machining station.

Step 3: The piston rod of cylinder 1A retracts.


Step 4:The piston rod of cylinder 2A retracts.

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Displacement-step diagram
for the feeding device
The "START" button must be pressed again to
trigger another feed operation.
The program-controlled sequence of motions of
the feeding device is shown in the
displacement-step diagram.

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Displacement-step diagram
for the feeding device

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Pneumatic circuit diagram


of the feeding device
The control system is implemented using double-acting
cylinders and 5/2-way double solenoid valves.

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Exercise 3: Multiple actuator


Title: Bench drill
Draw the pneumatic diagram
Draw the displacement step diagram

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Exercise 3: Description
Workpieces are inserted into the
clamping device by hand. Clamping
cylinder 1A is to extend when the start
button is pressed. When the workpiece is
clamped, it is to be drilled via feed unit
2A and the drill retracted once again. At
the same time, the swarf is to be blown
away by an air jet 3Z. Then, the clamping
cylinder 1A is to release the workpiece.
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Exercise 3: Figure

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Exercise 4: Multiple actuator


Title: Stamping device
Draw the pneumatic diagram
Draw the displacement step diagram

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Exercise 4: Description
Cylinder 1A is to push parts out of the
gravity feed magazine and clamp them.
Only then can cylinder 2A stamp the part
and retract once again.
Next, clamping cylinder 1A is to unclamp.
The part is to be ejected by cylinder 3A,
which then returns to the retracted end
position.
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Exercise 4: Figure

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Design of Pneumatic Circuit


with KV Diagram

Karnaugh Veitch
The Karnaugh map, also known as a
Veitch diagram (K-map or KV-map for
short), is a tool to facilitate management
of Boolean algebraic expressions.
The Karnaugh map was invented in 1952
by Edward W. Veitch and developed
further 1953 by Maurice Karnaugh.

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Additional info needed in KV

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Main purposes of KV Diagram


To have a memory in pneumatic circuit.

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Design of Pneumatic Circuit with KV


B0

A0
A1

B1
A0

A1

A1

A1

A0

B0

B0

B1

B0

B0

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A1
A0

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