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GBU 205: MANAGEMENT &

ORGANISATIONAL
BEHAVIOR
Understanding Stress
Management and Work
Performance
By Grace Abban - Ampiah

Learning Outcomes
At the end of the lecture: students will be

able to know that understanding the


nature and causes of stress is key
element in creating a work environment
that meets the needs of both the
organization and employees.
Identify and develop practical

techniques to manage and prevent


stress at work place.

Stress is a fact of life, wherever you are and


whatever you are doing. You cannot avoid
stress, but you can learn to manage it, so it
doesnt manage you.

Lesson Structure
What is stress?
What are stressors?
Classification of stress
Significance of studying stress
Causes of work-related stress (Work

Stressors)
Symptoms of stress
Stress outcomes
Personality and Stress
Stress moderators (Stress prevention and
management)

What is Stress?
Psychologists, define stress as a strain

experienced by an individual over a period of


time which impairs the ability of the individual to
perform his or her role.
Stress refers to the way individuals reacts

physically or mentally to changes, events and


situations in their lives.
Stress occurs when an individual feels that they

are working outside his/her comfort zone.


(Mullins, 2005)

What are stressors?


These are physical (Physiological) or

psychological (emotional) events or


situations that put pressure or demands on
an Individual.

Classification of stress
Stress can be classified into two main groups
namely:
Psychological stress: which manifests itself
in individual feelings through emotional stress.
E.g. anxiety, excessive worry and depression
Physiological Stress: manifest itself in pain or

physical discomfort associated with human


body.

E.g. abnormal blood pressure or heartbeat


detected in an individual.

Psychological Stress

Physiological Stress

Significance of understanding and


managing Stress in the organization
To prevent health issues such as increased

heart rate, sweating as a result of increased


blood sugar, high blood pressure
Improve employee attitude at the work place
Less absenteeism
Improved job performance
Improve self-esteemed
Decreased use of medications.

Exercise
Discuss among yourself causes of stress

and describe ways it can be prevented or


minimized

Causes of Work-related
Stress(Work Stressors)
Work overload: Individuals are at a risk if

they are unable to relate with work task set


for them by their superiors.

Excess demands of work: some jobs

takes so much out of the employee that


makes them exhausted.

Interpersonal Conflicts: Personal and

emotional conflicts with colleagues at the


work place can lead to stress.

Causes of Work-related
Stress
Boredom: Lack of interest of work,

retirement, and unemployment, can lead to


depression and stress.

Poor communication: Lack of effective

communication at work can lead to feelings of


isolation and frustration resulting to stress.

Work Role Issues: When a person does not

know his/her roles or responsibilities at work


can easily lead to stress.

Symptoms of Stress
1. Headaches

2. Muscular tension

Fatigue
4. Hypertension
5. Heart problems
6. Lack of concentration
7. Sweating palms/shaking hands
8. Harsh treatment of others
9. Increased smoking
10. Disruptive eating (overeating or under
eating)
3.

Other causes of Stress


Personal circumstances: Conditions

outside the work place e.g. divorce,


bereavement.
Financial problems can influence the

performance or a person at work place.


Lack of Sleep
Fear
Anxiety (nervousness)

Stress Outcomes (Effects of


Stress on Individuals)

Personality and Stress


Personality Type A

Personality Type B

Type A set

Type B are more

themselves exact
and high personal
goals and strive hard
to achieve so they
are more prone to
stress.
(E.g. they are
impatient, inflexible,
hardworking)

relaxed, flexible and


adaptable not over
ambitious but they
achieve their goals
through proper use
of their talents so
less likely to suffer
stress

Locus of Control
Internal Locus of
Control

External Locus of
control

Internals control

Externals believe

their own
behaviour or
destiny. They more
likely to get
stressed out easily
because they feel
in control of what
happens to them

that their behaviour


is controlled by luck,
chance, others
efforts so they feel
less in control. They
are prone to simple
anxiety reduction
strategies that only
pertain in the short
run.

Stress Moderators/Stress
Prevention Management
Personal Level
Seek for social support Conversation

with people at the work place.


Recreation: Having a lot of time for

oneself to have fun.


Time management: Planning and

prioritizing ones schedule can help reduce


stress. E.g. Make a To-do-list daily to help
reduce stress.

Stress Moderators/Stress
Prevention and Management
Contd
Share your problems: Always share

problems when the need arises with friends


and colleagues, seek for advice and opinion
of your Superiors.
Live a healthy lifestyle: Develop the

habit of eating well, exercise regularly,


sleep more (7-8hours). Relax anytime you
are stressed out.

Stress Moderators/Stress
Prevention and Management
Contd
Relax and Exercise: Relaxing by reading
interesting books, meditation, and doing
exercises helps to control stress.
Adapt to change: Do not let work control

your life. Do other things that will help you


become refreshed and creative. All work
and no play.makes an individual become
bored.

Stress Moderators/Stress
Management Organizational
Level
Managers should provide training for all

staff in time management and


delegation.
Adopt regular open communication so that

employees get the opportunities to discuss


problems and worries bothering them at
the work place.
Ensure that there are adequate resources

available to enable employees to perform


their job effectively without any
unreasonable pressure from deadlines.

Stress Moderators/Stress
Management Organizational
Level
Develop an effective feedback system to

ensure that problems of workloads and


deadlines are identified quickly.
Create a serene working environment to

help reduce managerial stress. E.g.


Managers should motivate employees
through providing them with certificates,
appreciation, career development e.tc

Group discussion.
Why is the incidence of stress

increasing in modern working life?


In your opinion, does stress increase as

you ascend the managerial hierarchy?

Conclusion
Do not let work take over your life.
Work hard, but play hard as well in
order to reduce stress!

Questions