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RtI: How to Make this

Work: the Data, the


Interventions, the
Teaming
February 29, 2008
SASED Spring Institute

Presented by:
Barb Curl, Ph.D.
Illinois ASPIRE North Regional Coordinator
& NSSEO RtI Consultant
Foundational Concepts,
Vocabulary, and Tools
Response-to-Intervention and Problem-Solving are
about:

Thinking Differently
About Problems, Causes, and Solutions (Concepts)

Talking Differently
About Problems, Causes, and Solutions
(Vocabulary)

Doing Some Things Differently (Tools and


Behaviors)
All the principles and components
of RtI are about building a
better support system for
general education.
• DOING IT BETTER
• DOING IT DIFFERENTLY
• PROVIDING MORE LEVELS OF
SUPPORT TO HELP ALL STUDENTS
• REALLOCATING RESOURCES/SKILLS
IN DIFFERENT WAYS
Foundational
Concepts:
The
Interventions
The Data
The Problem
Solving
Process
The VISION: To Provide Effective Interventions to Meet the Needs of ALL
Students Through Early and Scientifically Based Interventions Through Careful
Systems Planning
ACADEMIC SYSTEMS BEHAVIORAL SYSTEMS

3
Tier Intensive, Individual Interventions
• Individual Students 3
Tier Intensive, Individual Interventions
• Assessment - based • Individual Students
• High intensity 5% 5% • Assessment - based
• Of longer duration • Intense, durable procedures
15% 15%
2
Tier Targeted Group Interventions
• Some students (at-risk) 2
Tier Targeted Group Interventions
• High efficiency • Some students (at-risk)
• Rapid response • High efficiency
• Rapid response

1
Tier Core Instructional Interventions 1
Tier Core Instructional Interventions
• All students • All settings, All students
• Preventive, proactive 80% 80% • Preventive, proactive

STUDENTS
What is ‘Response to Intervention
(RtI)’?
(Batsche, Elliott, Graden, Grimes, Kovaleski, Prasse, Reschly, Scharg, Tilley, 2005)

• Identifying and providing high quality


instruction and research-based
interventions matched to students needs
• Measuring rate of improvement (ROI) over
time to make important educational
decisions
• Educators use ongoing student performance
data to determine if an intervention is
working. If it is not, it is time to do
something different
Problem Solving Method
Problem Identification
Is
Is there
there aa problem?
problem? What is it?

Plan Problem Analysis


Evaluation Why
Why is it happening?
Did our plan work?

Plan Development
What shall we do about it?
Problem Solving is….
• A decision making process around which
development and evaluation (of tiers) of
interventions and RtI occurs (our thinking!)
• Data based decision making is the CORE.
• It is designed to improve the educational and
behavioral outcomes of ALL students.

If you’ve heard of ‘flex’, it is Illinois’s version/name


for Problem Solving.
What RTI Is and Is Not

Is:
• RtI is an overall integrated system of service
delivery- a systems change.

Is Not:
• RtI is not just an eligibility system—a way of
finding students eligible and/or reducing the
numbers of students placed into special
education. This is ‘incidential’ to an RtI system.
The Educational Stars Are
Aligning
• No Child Left Behind
• Reading First
• President’s Commission on Special
Education Excellence
• IDEA Reauthorization 2004
• Illinois Rules and Regulations
• Creates tremendous opportunity for
schools to make significant changes in
how they help students !
RTI in IDEA 2004

“the local educational agency shall not


be required to take into consideration
whether the child has a severe
discrepancy between achievement
and intellectual ability”
RTI in IDEA 2004

In determining whether a child has


a specific learning disability, a
local educational agency may use
a process which determines if a
child responds to scientific,
research-based interventions.
Process refers to “Problem Solving Process
Responds refers to “Response to Intervention

PERMISSION AND ENCOURAGEMENT


IDEA 2004 CHANGES:
Eligibility Determinations

A child shall not be determined to be a


child with a disability if determinant
factor is:
•Lack of scientifically-based
instructional practices and
interventions that contain the essential
5 components of reading instruction.
•Lack of instruction in math
•Limited English Proficiency
In addition…

For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the


group must consider,.. as part of the evaluation …data that
demonstrates that--

…the child was provided appropriate high-quality, research-based


instruction in regular education settings, …

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA)


And…

For a child suspected of having a specific learning disability, the group


must consider,.. as part of the evaluation …data that demonstrates that--

…Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of


achievement at reasonable intervals, reflecting formal
assessment of student progress during instruction, which was
provided to the child’s parents.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA)


Not only is RtI Best Practices, it is now
part of the Illinois Rules and
Regulations
(finalized June 28, 2007)
(Paraphrased)-
• No later than 2010-11, each district WILL use RtI as
part of the evaluation process for identifying those
with learning disabilities.
• *(In order to effectively do this, RtI must be
implemented at all 3 tiers.)
• No later than Jan. 2009, each district will submit a
professional development plan stating how they will
accomplish this mandate.
Idea #1

An RtI intervention system


is about having a multiple
system of instruction and
intervention.
Problem-Solving Can
Be Used For Anything!
• Direct Academic Behaviors
– Reading
– Mathematics
– Written Language Teaming to
• Academic Supporting Behaviors Weave
– Task/Homework Completion Interventions
– Academic Engaged Time With Data
• Social Behaviors
– Social Skills
– Disruptive Behaviors
FRAMEWORK for ANY Behavior:
Intervention Systems at each tier and data

TIER III.
Highly at-risk students •Individual Student Decisions Work completion,
Intensive interventions Attendance,
Disruptive Behaviors,

% complete,
Attendance records,
•Classroom or Group Decisions SWIS data
TIER II.
At-risk students-
Supplemental interventions

TIER I.
•District or School Level Decisions
RTI is about a system of instruction and intervention

5%

15%

80%
Examples of TIER 1:
Benchmark/Core Reading Programs That ~5%
Meet NRP Standards*:
~15%
Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)
The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)
Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)
Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/
McGraw-Hill, 2002)
Scott Foresman Reading (2004)
Success For All (1998-2003)

*Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First Review of


Comprehensive Reading Programs: Addressed
~80% of Students
all 5 areas and included at least Grades K-
3
http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/curriculum_review.php
Examples of TIER 2 Strategic/Supplemental
Reading Programs*
~5%
Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton Mifflin)
~15% Read Well (Sopris West)
Reading Mastery (SRA)
Early Reading Intervention (Scott
Foresman)
Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)
REWARDS (Sopris West)
Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)
Read Naturally
Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)

*Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First


~80% of Students http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/curricul
um_review.php
Examples of TIER 3 Reading Programs*

Corrective Reading (SRA)


~5% Language! (Sopris West)

~15% Wilson Reading System Reading Mastery

Earobics (phonics/phonemic awareness;


Cognitive Concepts)

Great Leaps/ Read Naturally (Fluency)

REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and Vocab. in


Plus Program)

Soar to Success (comp.)

*Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First


~80% of Students http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu/curricul
um_review.php
AN EXAMPLE: FRAMEWORK for READING INTERVENTIONS

SRA DI PROGRAMS-
TIER III. READING MASTERY
HORIZONS
Highly at-risk students CORRECTIVE READING
Intensive interventions SOAR TO SUCCESS
GREAT LEAPS /SLANT
REWARDS, LIPS
6 MIN. SOLUTIONS

K PALS, 1st Gr. PALS


JOLLY PHONICS/GRAMMAR
M. HEGGERTY
TIER II. EAROBICS
GREAT LEAPS/ SLANT
At-risk students- REWARDS, QUICK READS
Supplemental 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS
BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE
interventions ELEMENTS OF READING-VOCABULARY
METACOGNITIVE STRAT.-
COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING
SOAR TO SUCCESS

K PALS, 1st Gr. PALS, JOLLY PHONICS, JOLLY GRAMMAR


M. HEGGERTY PROGRAM
TIER I. 6 MINUTE SOLUTIONS, QUICK READS, BRINGING WORDS TO LIFE
ELEMENTS OF READING-VOCABULARY, SOAR TO SUCCESS
METACOGNITIVE STRAT., COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING,
Big Ideas in Reading
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension

(National Reading Panel)


The Vision: Building a System of Substantial
Instructional Interventions to Reduce the Gap
5.2
5 With substantial
4.9 instructional
intervention

4
Reading grade level

With research-
Low Risk 3.2
n based core but
3 on Early ti o ro l
ven n t without extra
Screening
te
r Co instructional
2.5 intervention
In
2

1 At Risk on Early Screening

1 2 3 4
Grade level corresponding to age
Torgesen, J.K. ( 2001). The theory and practice of intervention: Comparing outcomes from prevention and
remediation studies.  In A.J. Fawcett and R.I. Nicolson (Eds.). Dyslexia: Theory and Good Practice. (pp. 185-
201). London: David Fulton Publishers. Slide coursety of W. Alan Coulter
Another way to organize, think
about, and
implement interventions-
a more Standard Protocol
Treatment approach

• Take same or similar comprehensive


programs and use them at different
tiers depending on the district
population.
High SES Example
Tier 3 • Reading Mastery
Intensive • Corrective
Interventions:
Reading (4-12)
Tier 3 • Language! (3-12)
%
Tier 2 • Read Well (1-3)
Tier 2 Targeted • Horizons
Interventions:
____%

Tier 1 Tier 1 • Four Block


Universal Guiding Reading
% Interventions:
• Houghton Mifflin
• Harcourt
Middle SES Example
Tier 3 • Corrective
Intensive Reading (4-12)
Interventions:
• Language! (3-12)
Tier 3
% Tier 2 • Horizons
Targeted • Reading Mastery
Tier 2 Interventions:
• Language! (3-12)
____%
Tier 1 • Harcourt
Tier 1 Universal • Houghton Mifflin
Interventions:
• Open Court
%
• Read Well (1-3)
Low SES Example
Tier 3 • Language! (3-12)
Intensive • Corrective
Interventions:
Reading (4-12)
Tier 3
% Tier 2 • Reading Mastery
Targeted • Corrective
Tier 2 Interventions:
Reading (4-12)
____% • Language! (3-12)

Tier 1
Tier 1 • Reading Mastery
Universal • Horizons
Interventions:
_____% • Read Well (1-3)
• Open Court
What Criteria….
Differentiate High SES communities from Low
SES communities??
Educationally, the main criteria are:

• background knowledge
• language development

The lower the SES, the MORE systematic and


explicit interventions need to be in all 5 big areas
of reading.
WHAT ARE RESEARCH-
BASED INTERVENTIONS?
Research-based interventions include these critical criteria:
• FOCUS ON ALL OR SOME/ONE OF THE 5 BIG AREAS OF READING
• EXPLICIT
• SYSTEMATIC
• CAREFUL PROGRESSION OF SKILLS
• AMPLE PRACTICE AND REVIEW IS PROVIDED
• MATERIALS BUILD AN INTEGRATION OF SKILLS OVER TIME
• CONSPICUOUS TO THE TEACHER AND LEARNER
THE KEY: PROGRESS MONITORING DATA CLEARLY SHOW THAT
THE INTERVENTION
IS IMPROVING STUDENT OUTCOMES
what to use?
Websites for
Scientifically Based
Reading
Interventions
Florida Center for Reading Research:
www.fcrr.org
Oregon Reading First Center: reading.uoregon.edu
Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts:
www.texasreading.org

Fcrr reports
www.fcrr.org
http://www.fcrr.org/FCRRReports

Florida Center for Reading Research


Idea #2

An RtI intervention system


is about increasing the
intensity of instruction and
intervention, as needed.
RTI is about intensity of intervention and instruction

s
i on
t
Remedial/Intensive

t ruc
Instruction & Intervention

Ins
s&
g r am
Accelerated/Targeted
Pro

Instruction & Intervention


sed
Ba
c e–
n
ide

Preventive Instruction
/ Ev

& Intervention
tice
c
Pra
st
Be
Example of 3-Tier Level Interventions
Reading
Tier I Tier 2 Tier 3

Time 90 120 180

Curricular
Focus 5 areas Less than 5 2 or less

Core
Core +
Curricular
Core + Intensive
Breadth
Supplemental

Frequency of 3X Monthly
Progress Yearly or or Weekly
Monitoring greater greater
How can immediate, intensive
interventions be scheduled and
1. delivered?
Delivered by regular classroom teacher during the
“uninterrupted reading period”
2. Delivered by additional resource personnel during
the “uninterrupted reading period”, or at other times
during day
3. Delivered by classroom and resource personnel
during after school or before school programs
4. Delivered by well-trained and supervised
paraprofessionals during the “uninterrupted reading
period” or other times
5. Delivered by peers or trained parent volunteers
during “uninterrupted reading period”
6. Delivered by computers throughout the day
7. Power Hour
Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas
K 1 2 3

Phonological
Awareness
Alphabetic Letter Sounds &
Combinations
Principle
Automaticity and Multisyllables
Fluency with the
Code

Vocabulary

Comprehension ListeningReading

Listening
Idea #3

RtI is about using


different data measures
to make decisions.
RTI is about different data measures

Progress
Monitoring and Universal Screening and
Diagnostic 5% Benchmarking (Early Literacy
Assessment and Numeracy, Oral Reading,
& Strategic
15% Comprehension, Math
Monitoring Computation, Spelling and
Writing Fluency Measures.)

80%

All assessment measures directly linked to interventions


BIG IDEA: Integrated Assessment
Systems

AssessmThisiswhatwe’vehad.
en t

st ru c t i on
In
This is what we want..

Assessment Instruction

Aligning Assessment and Instruction


In an RtI System, Keep in Mind
the Purposes of Assessment

Who has problems? (Problem Identification)

Why is the problem is occurring? (Problem Analysis)

Is our instruction working to fix the problem?


(Plan Development & Implementation)

How well are we doing overall?


(Plan Evaluation)

Taken from Heartland AEA 11


Assessment Systems Used in RtI Models

Progress
Screening Diagnostic Monitoring
Essential Outcome/
(Problem (Problem (Plan
components Accountability
Identification) Analysis) Development &
Implementation)

Aimsweb CBE -R ISAT


Aimsweb MAP
Reading DIBELS SLA, ISEL,QRI DIBELS Aimsweb
MAP, Run.Re.
DIBELS
Inform. Phonics
ITBS, Terra Nova
Sopris West Functional Beh.
tool Assessment
Behavior

Taken from Heartland AEA 11


Use Scientifically Based Problem
Identification & Progress Monitoring
Tools

www.studentprogress.org
Standards for Scientifically Based Progress
Monitoring Have Been Established
Reliability Quality of Good Test

Validity Quality of Good Test

Sufficient Number of Alternate Forms and of Equal Difficulty Essential for Progress Monitoring

Evidence of Sensitivity to Improvement or to Effects of Critical for Progress Monitoring


intervention

Benchmarks of Adequate Progress and Goal Setting Critical for Progress Monitoring

Rates of Improvement are Specified Critical for Progress Monitoring

Evidence of Impact on Teacher Decision Making instruction or Critical for Formative Evaluation
Student Achievement;
Evidence of Improved Instruction and Student Achievement; Gold Standard for Progress
Monitoring

Logistically Feasible--Low Cost, Efficient, Accurate Critical for IMPLEMENTATION


Not All Assessment Tools
Schools Use Meet Accepted
Psychometric Standards

Members of the CBM


“Family” Do

www.studentprogress.org/tools
What is Universal Screening?
• Given to everyone
• Measures Critical Skills
• Brief
• Repeatable
• Cheap and easy to
administer and score
• Tells us who and what tier
needs intervention
FRAMEWORK FOR READING ASSESSMENT

PROGRESS
MONITORING
TIER III (ROI)
SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING
PINPOINTING THE SPECIFIC
AREA OF DIFFICULTY, EVERY 1-2 weeks
DIAGNOSTIC INFORMATION

MONTHL
TIER II Y
STRATEGIC MONITORING
(ROI)

TIER I 1. UNIVERSAL SCREENING


3 X PER YEAR
AND BENCHMARKING:
EARLY LITERACY MEASURES, AS
DIBELS OR AIMSWEB
CBM

(KEY CRITICAL INDICATORS)


What do the Universal
Screening measures look like?
What do they tell us?
UNIVERSAL SCREENING AND
Aimsweb
BENCHMARKING:

Literacy Measures:
Early Literacy

•Letter Naming Fluency

Mastery Monitoring
•Letter Sound Fluency
•Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
•Nonsense Word Fluency
•Oral Reading Fluency

GOM
WHY THESE MEASURES?
Big Ideas in Reading
Phonemic Awareness
Phonics
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension

(National Reading Panel)


BIG IDEAS IN EARLY LITERACY
SKILLS-LINKED TO THE NATIONAL
READING PANEL 5 BIG IDEAS
• Phonemic Awareness:
– The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our
language, that ‘cat’ is composed of the sounds: /k/ /a/ /t/.
• Alphabetic Principle: (Phonics) Based on 2 parts:
– Alphabetic Understanding. Words are composed of letters that represent
sounds, and
– Phonological Recoding. Using systematic relationships between letters
and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the
pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell.
• Accuracy and Fluency with Connected Text.
– Readers who are not fluent at decoding are not able to focus their
additional resources on vocabulary and comprehension. (Fluency,
Vocabulary, and Comprehension)
Big Ideas Drive the Train
Big ideas drive the curriculum and instruction
Big ideas drive the measures we use.

• Phonemic Awareness • Phoneme Segmentation


Fluency

• Alphabetic Principle • Letter Sound Fluency


• Nonsense Word Fluency
• Accuracy and Fluency with
Connected Text • CBM Oral Reading Fluency

• Risk indicator that • Letter Naming Fluency


acquisition of crucial skills
may be difficult
Why THESE Literacy Measures?
•Torgesen says that “Measures of letter
knowledge continue to be the best single
predictor of reading difficulties.”
•Marilyn J. Adams, in her article, “The Elusive
Phoneme”, says that “a child’s level of phonemic
awareness on entering school is widely held to be
the strongest single determinant of the success
that he or she will experience in learning to
read.”
•Research has shown that Oral Reading Fluency
is the best reading General Outcome Measure
(GOM).
IN GENERAL, ORAL READING FLUENCY
MEASURES PROVIDE QUALITATIVE
INFORMATION ABOUT 3 BROAD
COMPETENCIES:
• 1. RATE: Words read correctly
-Above 75th%- consider differentiating instruction
-Below 25%- consider need for Tier 2 interventions
-Below 10%- further assess, do problem analysis, and consider need for
Tier 2 and/or 3 interventions
• 2. ACCURACY: Error rates
-0-5 error rate= acceptable accuracy (skilled readers are 95% or better
accurate)..
-5-10% error rate= accuracy in question
->10% error rate=unacceptable accuracy
• 3. COMPREHENSION
-ADEQUATE FLUENCY AND RATE CORRELATE STRONGLY WITH
ADEQUATE COMPREHENSION
What Does R-CBM Measure?

Phonemic Awareness
ALL
Phonics
These Skills =
Fluency

Vocabulary
General Reading
Comprehension Skill
http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org/
General Outcome Measures (GOMs)
From Other Fields

Medicine measures height, weight, temperature, and/or blood


pressure as an indication of general health.

Federal Reserve Board measures the Consumer Price Index

Wall Street measures the Dow-Jones Industrial Average

Companies report earnings per share

McDonald’s measures how many hamburgers they sell as an


indication of company’s success

Reading measures Oral Reading Fluency as an


Indication of general reading achievement/reading health.
Amy’s Educational Need is Measured
by the
PERFORMANCE DISCREPANCY

No Significant
Discrepancy
Educational
Need
Billy’s Educational Need

Significant Performance Discrepancy

More Severe Educational Need


Monitoring Progress at Tier 1:
Benchmark Assessment to Measure Educational
Educational Need and Benefit for All Need Reduced
with Clear
Educational
Benefit

Identified as At
Risk and Early
Intervention

Data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at reasonable intervals,


reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, was provided to the child's
parents.
How to Use the Data…
Aimsweb literacy data can give us a lot of
information that can be used to help plan
instruction, which of 5 big areas of reading
is deficit, and determine which students to
put together in which intervention group.
Remember -- hypotheses can always be
confirmed with additional diagnostic
assessment data!
DATA 5 BIG IDEAS INTERVENTION
INTERVENTION
L INK ING A SS ESSMENT D ATA IN FORM ING TH E 5 B IG
A REAS OF REA DING T OINSTR UCTI ON AN D
INT ER VENTIONS

Measures: 5 Big Ar e as : I nt erv entio ns :


LN F PH ONE MIC A W A R E NS ES KPALS

LS F PH ONI CS MHEGGE RTY

PSF FL U E N C
Y GR EAT LEAPS

NWF VOC A B U L AYR SLANTPHONICS


JOLLY

OR F COMPR EHE NSI O N R EWA RD S

W RIT ING 6 MIN. SOLU TIO N S

SPEL LIN G RELEMENTS


EA D NATU OF READ-VOCAB.
RALLY
COLLABORATIVE STRAT.
RREAD.
EA D 1 8 0
How does the data
system and
measuring RtI all fit
together with
Intervention Systems
and Problem Solving?
Once Screening Data is Collected You
Begin to Make Informed Decisions…

Data-Based Decisions!

• District or School Level Decisions

• Classroom or Group Decisions

• Individual Student Decisions


ALWAYS THINK ABOUT STUDENT NEEDS IN THIS FRAMEWORK:

INDIVIDUAL
TIER III
NEEDS

TIER II •CLASS NEEDS


•SMALL GROUP NEEDS

•DISTRICT NEEDS
TIER I •SCHOOL NEEDS
•GRADE LEVEL NEEDS
Old System of Problem Solving
Special Education
Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

General Education

General Education
with Support

Severity of Educational Need or Problem


Bridging the Gap
Core + Intensive
Core + Supplemental
Amount of Resources Needed To Benefit

Weekly
Core

Weekly-Monthly

3x/year
Severity of Educational Need or Problem
Intensive
3%-5%

Targeted/
Plan Problem
Supplemental
Evaluation 7%-15% Identification

Universal
80%-90%
Plan Problem
Implementation Analysis

Plan
Development
Problem Solving Approach

Amount Universal Special


of Education
Resources
Interventio
Needed ns
To Solve
Problem
DEFINE THE PROBLEM
• Is there a problem? What is
it?
General ANALYZE
Education • Why is it happening?
DEVELOP A PLAN
• What shall we do about it?
EVALUATE
• Did our plan work?
Intensity of Problem
Intensive
5%

Targeted/
Supplemental
We want these percentages: 15%

Tier 1.: 50%


or better on
Universal
Aimsweb 80%
norms.
Tier 3.: 25% or
lower on
Aimsweb
norms.
Tier 2:
Everyone in
between.
Screening Detects a Problem with
Core Curriculum

• Classwide Intervention

• Large Group

• Most students will respond

• Typically this is a general education responsibility

Joe Witt, www.isteep.com/compcenters


How Do you KNOW if Core Instruction is
Working: Screen-Many students not Learning
at Tier 1

Grade Level
Standard

Now does she look


Kalisha in Red Seems like a problem?
to be a Problem
Universal Screening Identified School
Wide Reading Deficits in Vail

Mastery

Instructional

At Risk

Reading data- 1st grade


After Grade Wide Intervention--No
Systemic Problem

First Grade
5

100%
20
15
90%

80%

30
70%

60% High Risk


Some Risk
50% Low Risk
80

40%

30% 50

20%

10%

0%
Fall '05 National
At what tier should problem
solving occur?
Tier 1

Are the majority (80% or more) of students


responding to the curriculum?

- If “No”, then focus on Tier I

- If “Yes”, consider Tier 2 interventions for


some students
UNIVERSAL TIER 1:
Benchmark/Core Programs: ~5%

1. Rigby Literacy (Harcourt Rigby Education, ~15%


2000)
2. Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)
3. The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)
4. Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)
5. Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)
6. Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/
McGraw-Hill, 2002)
7. Scott Foresman Reading (2004)
8 Wright Group Literacy (2002)

Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First


~80% of Students
Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas
and included at least grades K-3
School-Wide Reading Improvement in a
School Using Problem-Solving

Courtesy of Christine Martin, Indian Prairie School Di


Problem Solving Approach
Targeted,
Supplemental
Interventions
Amount
of
Resources
Needed
To Solve 1 2
Problem
General Education
With Support
DEFINE THE PROBLEM
5
3
• Is there a problem? What is it?
4
ANALYZE
• Why is it happening?
DEVELOP A PLAN
• What shall we do about it?
EVALUATE
• Did our plan work?
Intensity of Problem
2.

Intensive
5%

Targeted/
We want these Supplemental
percentages: 15%

Tier 1.: 50%


or better on
Universal
Aimsweb 80%
norms.
Tier 3.: 25% or
lower on
Aimsweb
norms.
Tier 2:
Everyone in
between.
5
100% 10
20
15
90%

25
80%

70% 30

60%
High Risk
Some Risk
50%
Low Risk
80
40%
65

30% 50

20%

10%

0%
Fall '05 Winter National
~5%
TIER 2 TARGETED:
~15%
Strategic/Supplemental:
1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton
Mifflin)
2. Read Well (Sopris West)
3. Reading Mastery (SRA)
4. 6 Minute Solutions
5. Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)
6. REWARDS (Sopris West)
7. Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)
8. Read Naturally
• Peer Assisted Learning Strategies
(KPALS)
~80% of Students
D122/KOLB FRAMEWORK for READING INTERVENTIONS

Heggerty (to grade 5)


TIER III Great Leaps
Highly at-risk students REWARDS
Intensive interventions Wilson,
SRA DI series
The Six Minute Solution

The Six Minute Solution: Increase Intensity

TIER II Vocabulary through Morphemes Students identified through


data. Team matches
At-risk students- REWARDS
students to appropriate
Supplemental interventions Great Leaps
intervention..
Collaborative Strategic Reading
Heggerety Phonemic Awareness Curriculum: Increase Intensity

KPALS

TIER I Heggerety Phonemic Awareness Curriculum


The Six Minute Solution More intensive
Vocabulary through Morphemes individual support
Collaborative Strategic Reading, Think Alouds
Selected Interventions from Trophies Series
Data Review
Intervention Group 1

Median GOAL
ROI = 1.3

Median TREND
ROI = 4.71

Intervention
Effective?
Problem Solving Approach
Intensive
Amount
Interventions 1 2
of More Intensive Support
Resources 5 3
Needed 4
To Solve
Problem
DEFINE THE PROBLEM
• Is there a problem? What is it?
ANALYZE
• Why is it happening?
DEVELOP A PLAN
• What shall we do about it?
EVALUATE
• Did our plan work?
Intensity of Problem
Intensive
5%

Targeted/
We want these Supplemental
percentages: 15%

Tier 1.: 50%


or better on
Universal
Aimsweb 80%
norms.
Tier 3.: 25% or
lower on
Aimsweb
norms.
Tier 2:
Everyone in
between.
~5% TIER 3: INTENSIVE
Intervention
~15%
1. Corrective Reading (SRA)
2. Language! (Sopris West)
3. Wilson Reading System
4. Reading Mastery
5. Earobics (phonics/phonemic
awareness; Cognitive Concepts)
6. Great Leaps/ Read Naturally
(Fluency)
7. REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and
Vocab. in Plus Program)
8. Soar to Success (comp.)

~80% of Students
D122/KOLB FRAMEWORK for READING INTERVENTIONS

Heggerty (to grade 5)


TIER III Great Leaps
Highly at-risk students REWARDS
Intensive interventions Wilson,
SRA DI series
The Six Minute Solution

The Six Minute Solution: Increase Intensity

TIER II Vocabulary through Morphemes Students identified through


data. Team matches
At-risk students- REWARDS
students to appropriate
Supplemental interventions Great Leaps
intervention..
Collaborative Strategic Reading
Heggerety Phonemic Awareness Curriculum: Increase Intensity

KPALS

TIER I Heggerety Phonemic Awareness Curriculum


The Six Minute Solution More intensive
Vocabulary through Morphemes individual support-
Collaborative Strategic Reading, Think Alouds
Selected Interventions from Trophies Series
Student Progress Monitoring:
Is the student benefiting from the intervention?
Is the student’s rate of improvement sufficient?
Does the intervention need to be modified?

Intervention line

l / A i mline
Goa
Changethe

Trendline intervention

Data points planimmediately

Error rates
Role of the Principal
Within a RtI/PS System
• Sets vision for problem-solving/RtI process
• Gives permission
• Supports development of expectations
• Responsible for allocation of resources
• Facilitates priority setting
• Ensures follow-up
• Supports program evaluation
• Monitors staff support/climate
Principals aren’t the only ones
who can exercise leadership
within a school.

Teachers do so as well.
Stages of Implementing
Problem-Solving/RtI
• Consensus
 Beliefs are shared and agreed upon
 Vision statement exists
 RtI and PS are understood
 Implementation requirements are understood
 Leadership is provided by the principal and key school staff

• Infrastructure Development
 System self-study completed
 Universal screening and benchmarking system has been developed
 System of prevention/intervention has been developed
 Core Leadership team identified and committed
 Problem solving team(s) and processes developed
 Plan for sustainability has been developed
 Revision of special education eligibility processes has been developed

• Implementation
o Roll out of RtI/PS begins or continues with increasing sophistication
o Evaluation of student outcomes, system data, problem solving process and consumer
satisfaction exists

Batsche, G., Response to Intervention: Blueprints for State, District and School Implementation
(modified)
Think on-going School
Improvement Process

Building and Sustaining your


process/model
Consensus Activities
(How will you get staff
On-board?)

What Needs to Be Done? Who Should Be Involved? Who is Responsible? When Should It be Implemented
or Completed?

Infrastructure Activities
(Tiers of Intervention)

What Needs to Be Done? Who Should Be Involved? Who is Responsible? When Should It be Implemented
or Completed?

Implementation Activities
(Scheduling, reorganizing)

What Needs to Be Done? Who Should Be Involved? Who is Responsible? When Should It be Implemented
or Completed?
Lessons from Oz
It takes courage
It takes heart
It takes knowledge

We have all that is required to support a


system of change and success for all
children. We should make this our work,
our passion, and our purpose.
Excellent Websites

• Doing What Works for ELL:


http://dww.ed.gov/learn/learn.cfm?PA_ID=6&T_ID=13&P_ID=20&rID=1
• Illinois School Psychologists’ Association: www.ilispa.org/consumer
resources
• Florida Center for Reading Research: www.fcrr.org

• Oregon Reading First Center: reading.uoregon.edu


• Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts: www.texasreading.org
• Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE): www.corelearn.com
• What Works Clearing House http://www.whatworks.ed.gov/
• National Technical Assistance Center on
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): www.pbis.org

• National Center on Student Progress Monitoring www.studentprogress.org


I CAN BE REACHED AT:

bcurl@d105.net

THANK YOU!