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PLC

SELECTING, INSTALLING,
MAINTENANCE AND
TROUBLESHOOTING
PLC SYSTEM

Prepared by: Aftas Azman


jke/psa/jun2012

Introduction
A good PLC system are from PLC
specification and maintenance aspect.

Input and output Capacity


PLC

have various Input and Output


capacity.
Capacity mean extension terminal number
that in Input and Output Unit.
A consumer should choose Input and
Output capacity that fit with project so that
Input and Output terminal sufficient for
extension.

Input and output type


PLC

have variety Input and Output.


Before you use PLC as a controller, you should
ensure type of supply either AC or DC.
You are not allow to connect AC supply to DC
input unit.
to control output device in usual switching, you
have to use Output RELAY .
For faster switching type have to used Output
TRANSISTOR type.

Memory capacity
PLC

Memory size are referring to space


capacity keep program in your PLC
memory system.

Programming language
Every

PLC have its own programming


language.
Therefore you need to be careful before
developing PLC program.
Ladder diagram is a popular programming
language currently used.

Future system expansion


Control

system in now a day are changes fromtr


aditional control to automation control where
PLC takes a major part.
Many industries have implemented automation
control system such as Flexible Manufacturing
System ( FMS ) and Computer Integrated
Manufacturing ( CIM ).
PLC selection should look to future industry
needs, so that PLC may save costs to the
industry.

Support and Backup unit


Industrial

Automation control system need


support and backup unit to overcome
malfunction or damage in future.
PLC role as support and backup unit must
made easy and quick.
Delay replacement for control system will
cause industry suffer losses.

Input / output unit specification


UNIT INPUT
JENIS

NO. MODEL

KAPASITI

DC Input

CQM1-ID211

8 points

CQM1-ID212

16 points

CQM1-ID213

32 points

CQM1- IA121

8 points

CQM1-IA221

8 points

AC Input

UNIT OUTPUT
JENIS

NO.MODEL

KAPASITI

Relay Output
Units

CQM1-OC211

8 points

CQM1-OC222

16 points

Transistor
Output
Units

CQM1-OD211

8 points

CQM1-OD212

16 points

CQM1-OD213

32 points

CQM1-OD214

16 points

CQM1-OD215

8 points

CQM1-OD221

8 points

AC Output
Unit

CPU unit specification


No. Model

Memory size

CQM1-CPU11-E 3.2 K-word Program Memory


1K-word Data Memory
CQM1-CPU21-E
CQM1-CPU41-E 7.2 K-word Program Memory
6K-word Data Memory
CQM1-CPU42-E
CQM1-CPU43-E
CQM1-CPU44-E

I/O malfunction ( SENSOR and ACTUATOR )


From

studies, find out usually 60% - 80%


damages in automation control system occurred
due to Input and Output equipment. This
damage cause by: Sensor in cylinder changing from home
position.
Sensor burning by over current.
Sensor Internal contact disconnect.
Motor coil or solenoid valve burning by over
current.

Wiring damage
Wiring

damage which occurred in PLC


control system cause by: Cable Conductor are disconnect.
Input and Output terminal screws
loosed.
Oxidation process at Conductor.

Communication link damage


Communication

link damage in PLC control


system possibility cause by:
Conductor in communication cable broken.
Connection pin in terminal crooked or broke.
Loose pin connection.
Interference in communication cable
connection cause by motor, coil, high voltage,
soldering and so on.
Short circuit in communication cable

Disruption of energy supply


Disruption

of energy supply occurs in


automation control system when supply
voltage under 85% from proportion value.
This may cause PLC stop immediately

Internal PLC damage


Internal

PLC damage possibility cause by:

Relay or Transistor Output Unit / Module in


PLC burn.
Optocoupler input Unit / module does not
work.
Fuse burn.
Weak reserve battery.
Electronic micro component (up) , RAM, ROM
burn.

To reduce damage problem in automation control system,


installation and PLC wiring have to give consideration that
is serious on matters following :

Do not install PLC installation in place such as: Straight Exposed to sunlight.
Ambient temperature exceeding 0oC to 55oC range.
Relative humidity exceeding 10% to 90% RH range.
Condensation that cause temperature suddenly.
Contain inflammable gas and poisonous gas.
Containing water, oil, chemical substance dust.
Easy to happen tremor.

To reduce damage problem in automation control system,


installation and PLC wiring have to give consideration that
is serious on matters following :

Install

PLC in panel / cabinet that has


following features :
Enough Space for air circulation.
Cooling fan .
Equipment that produces heat are
located under PLC.
No contain high voltage equipment.
Power line located approximately 200
mm from PLC.

Wiring method

According to wiring guide.


cable Use as short as posible.
Use single line between equipment and do not
join cable to make long. Avoid from making
sharp bending in cable.
Put away high power wiring from control system
wiring.
Sort input wiring, output wiring and other wiring
type.
Sort AC and DC wiring.
Create good grounding for all component.

GROUNDING PROBLEM

PLC contains many active component ( Transistor, Cips,


IC ), which it would be DAMAGE due to surge voltage
from lightning . To overcome this problem use the
guideline such as:
Make sure earth protection terminal and earth
function in PLC with value maximum 100ohm.
Make sure cable that used, at least earthling with 2
mm2.
Earth and green cable site must be in terminate with
cable lug. This cable lug must be tighten and solder.
Coating and paint erosion must be removed in area
earth connection.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE

Conduct a periodic check on screw tightness for Input


and Output terminal.
Ensure all component free from dust. Cooling system in
PLC cannot in perform if there is dust.
Possibility erosion occurring on some state. Doing
periodic erosion check at extension terminal, PCB and
connector.
Keep and guard spare parts nicely. Consumer will suffer
loss if long durations to get spare part.
Keep documentation of programming operation and
wiring circuit neatly. You probably need in emergency
situation.