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Problem Analysis Using

the Problem Tree


Approach

04/14/16

Objectives

At the end of the session, the participants


shall:
have

a better understanding of the


Problem Analysis Using Problem Tree
Approach as a concept and as a tool in
problem analysis

Definition of Terms
Problem

any significant deviation from the normal and


standard condition or desired situation.
Causal

factor

a factor or condition that does or may influence a


problem.

Causal link
when a factor is connected or related to another
factor or condition

Causal chain
a representation of the causal links between
factors

Problem Tree Diagram


a simplified representation of the cause-and-effect
relationships of factors or problems

Problem Tree
Approach
BRANCHES

TRUNK

ROOTS

EFFECTS

CORE PROBLEM(S)
CAUSE(S)

Problem Analysis and Problem Tree


Effect
Focal
Problem/s
Cause

Malnutrition

Low rice production

Limited capital

Importance of Problem Tree Model


Ensures/guarantees

understanding of the scope


of the problem or situation and what really
happens

Helps

in understanding the mechanisms or


means of understanding the problem

useful tool for getting to the root of the problem

Facilitates

the identification of possible/


appropriate interventions

Guides

the decision making process for the


identification of the most appropriate strategy for
the resolution of the problem

serves

as reference in program/project planning

serves

as guide in identifying appropriate and


relevant interventions from the causal factors
identified

serves

as a framework of reference for monitoring


and evaluation

helps

in formulating hypothesis or opinions that


needs to be proven or examined

Guidelines in Building
Problem Tree Diagram
Schedule

The number of sessions to build a Problem Tree


Diagram depends on the scope of the
development goal
Team

composition

Multi-disciplinary team is needed and sub-groups


could be formed

Discussion

process

Brainstorming technique is used extensively


The

Facilitator/Moderator

The success of a brainstorming session depends


largely on the facilitation skills of the
facilitator/moderator
The

Recorder

Keeps track and takes down notes of the


proceedings of the discussion.

Requirements in Building
Problem Tree Diagram
Big

wall, or Brown paper if no wall


Strips of cartolina, cut into 4 x 8
Masking tapes
3-5 Pentel pens

Procedure in Building
Problem Tree Diagram
1. Write all possible problems on the strips;

one problem per strip.


2. Discuss the problems and determine the
major problem. Put the strip containing the
major problem on the upper part of the
wall.

3. Start brainstorming on the causes of the major


problem identified.

4. Branch out the causes either horizontally or


vertically. Agree on causal links.
Example:
Low Production
Lack of
Capital

Lack of
Irrigation

Marketing
Problem

5. Build diagram line by line.


Example:
Lack of
Capital

Low
income

Marketing
Problem

Lack of
credit

Low
price

Traders
monopoly

6. Continue breaking the causes into


secondary and tertiary level causes.
7. Identify the causal or logical
relationships among the different
problems by drawing lines or arrows.

8. Stop breaking the causes when ready for


intervention. Identify intervention(s) from the
last box in the diagram. Treating the problem
at its roots usually results in resolving the
higher order symptoms in the long term.
(Possible interventions can also be identified
at each level, but many underlying causes
remain unresolved and prevent an enduring
solution of the problem)

9. Check the logical consistency and


relationships.
10. Formulate

the indicators.

An example of Problem Analysis