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25 visualizzazioni120 paginequality control tools

Apr 12, 2016

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quality control tools

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quality control tools

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Dr. Rathanraj K J

Professor, BMSCE

The objective of the system is to

satisfy the customer.

A quality system uses the

business model with a focus on

the customer and includes

dynamics of continual

improvement, change, planning,

and renewal.

Re

ne

w

al

Im Co

pr nti

ov nu

em al

Procedures

en

t

Plant &

Legal

Equipment

Reqts

Customer

People

n

an

Pl

Technology

in

g

Ch

an

ge

R&D

Adapted from S.

Thomas Foster

The variables and relationships of the

quality system are an interconnected

network that interact to achieve an end.

People are the most important aspect

of the system.

How people are managed is important

in releasing an organizations potential.

Big

Picture

Flow

Chart

Data

Collection

Check

Sheet

Data

Analysis

Problem

Identification

Prioritization

Histograms

Scatter

Plots

Control

Charts

Cause

Effect

Pareto

Analysis

Adapted from S.

Thomas Foster

Flowcharts

Graphic representation of system

or procedure flow

Can be used for both macro and

micro level processes

Promotes system understanding

and will identify gaps in procedural

logic

Flowcharting Steps

Agree on a standard set of

symbols

Clearly communicate purpose of

the flowchart

Observe the work; shadow the

workers

Develop flowchart of the process

Review with the employees and

adjust as necessary.

Flowcharts

Flowcharts

Graphical description of how work is

done.

Used to describe processes that are to

be improved.

Flow Diagrams

" Draw a flowchart for whatever you

do. Until you do, you do not know

what you are doing, you just have a

job.

-- Dr. W. Edwards Deming.

Flowchart

Activity

Decision

No

Yes

Flowchart

Flow Diagrams

Flow Diagrams

Check Sheets

data gathering tools used to form

histograms and other graphs

1. Identify common defects occurring in the

process.

2. Draw a table with common defects in the

left column and time period in the right

column to track the defects.

3. The user of the check sheet then places

checkmarks on the sheet whenever the

defect is encountered.

Check Sheets

The format for recording all the

necessary information to execute

preventive plans and to enable

development of strategies for

improvement, commonly known

as Data Sheet, Log Book,

Inspection Record, Schedule of

Enquiry has been termed check

sheet in this context.

Total

Friday

Thursday

Wednesday

Tuesday

Problem Type

Monday

Setup routines

not standardized

Missing equipment

for setup

Failure to separate

internal and external

tasks

Extensive machine

resetting and paper

change

Other

Adapted from S.

Thomas Foster

Identity particulars to enable traceability like organization, date,

project, customer, supplier, specifications, batch or lot number, as

applicable.

Associated human resource and Equipments if any

Input(s), implying consumption of resources of all kinds with

pertinent details of their quantity and allied parameters like purity or

strength or size as the case may be.

Process parameters

Environmental parameters of concern if any

Method of sampling, sample size, frequency of sampling

Inspection and test facilities used or availed

Inspection and test method, least count or visual standards adapted

Corresponding output(s) with details of parameters of interest

Indices or appropriate functions of observations made

Attribute Inspection

Variable Inspection

Packing Process

A typical check sheet for list of items to be packed and or dispatched

to a customer such as a standard list of spares accompanying a

machine tool as accessories

Feed back from Customers

approval

2k n

Histograms

Histograms bar chart graphical

representation of data, also used to

observe the shape of data

Rules for developing histograms:

Width of bars must be consistent

Classes must be mutually exclusive and

all-inclusive

Rule of thumb for the number of classes:

k log n / log 2

Histograms (cont.)

n = number of raw data values

k = number of classes

k log n / log 2

Using this formula, we find:

Number of Observations

Number of Classes

9 to 16

17 to 32

33 to 64

65 to 128

129 to 256

H

i

s

t

o

g

r

a

m

6

0

5

0

4

0

F

re

q

u

n

c

y

Histogram Example

3

0

2

0

1

0

M

e

a

n

=

2

4

.

7

6

S

t

d

.

D

v

1

2

9

5

6

0.1

N

5

9

0

0

.2

0

.3

.D

0

.A

4

0

5

0

.

6

0

.

R

T

S

Reference:

Lab 1, CIT 320

Spring 2004

Lindsay Howard

attribute data) showing frequency of nonconforming bobbins in samples of size 20 each.

Cause-and-Effect Diagrams

Cause-and-Effect Diagrams used to

move to lower levels of abstraction in

solving problems

A.K.A.: Ishikawa Cause-and-Effect or

Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram

Fish skeleton shape, the problem is the

head, major causes are the ribs, subcauses form smaller bones of the ribs

Cause-and-Effect (cont.)

brainstorming with these steps:

1. State the problem clearly as the head.

2. Draw backbone and ribs. Ask brainstorming participants to identify major causes

for the problem. Possible bones: materials, machines, people, and methods.

3. Fill out diagram asking Why? about

each problem or cause of problem until

completed. Five Whys?

4. View diagram and identify core causes.

5. Set goals to address core causes.

Ref: http://courses.bus.ualberta.ca/orga432-reshef/fishbone.html

thickness of coating

inclusion in a cast iron product

to pass the temperature retention test.

tea

for preparation of tasty tea

of a team in a game of sport

quality in the world market

Pareto Principle

Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian

economist

20% of the population has 80% of the

wealth

many. He noted that 20% of the

quality problems caused 80% of the

dollar loss.

Pareto Charts

Pareto Charts used to identify

and prioritize problems to be

solved

Histograms aided by the 80/20

rule

Rules for constructing Pareto

charts:

Information must be selected based

on types or classifications of defects

that occur as a result of a process.

Data must be collected and

classified into categories.

A histogram or frequency chart is

constructed showing the number of

occurrences.

1. Gathering categorical data relating

to quality problems.

2. Drawing a histogram of the data.

3. Focusing on the tallest bars in the

histogram first when solving the

problem.

SOME EXAMPLES

Table Showing Nature, Frequency and Rank of Nonconformity.

Organisation: ORG Product: PRO Month: MO/YR

Organisation: ORG Product: PRO Month: MO/YR

adhesive

Table Showing cause wise percent contribution to

nonconformities among Turbine Blades

Blades

Scatter Diagrams

examine relationships between

variables

1. Determine x (independent) and y

(dependent) variables

2. Gather process data relating to the

variables identified in step 1.

3. Plot the data on a two-dimensional plane

4. Observe data to see if there is a

relationship between the variables

N

o

r

m

a

l

Q

P

l

o

t

f

S

c

a

l

o

p

s

2

1

E

x

p

e

c

td

N

o

rm

a

l

0

--1

20

.80

.9O

.b

1

0

1

.

1

.

2

s

e

rvd

V

a

lu

e

Reference:

Lab 3, CIT 320

Spring 2004

Lindsay Howard

and final setting times of cement

DIAGRAMS

worthwhile relationship.

weak linear relationships

strong linear and curvilinear relationships

Control Charts

Control Charts

Control Charts used to determine if a

process will produce a product or

service with consistent measurable

properties

X and R charts are used together, and

are calculated from the same raw data

d

Control charts are decision-making

tools - they provide an economic basis

for deciding whether to alter a process

or leave it alone

Control charts are problem-solving

tools - they provide a basis on which to

formulate improvement actions

SPC exposes problems; it does not

solve them!

Control Charts

Control charts

Control charts are powerful aids to

understanding the performance of

a process over time.

Output

Input

PROCESS

Whats causing variability?

Control Charts

variation

Chance causes - common cause

inherent to the process or random and not

controllable

if only common cause present, the process

is considered stable or in control

Assignable causes - special cause

variation due to outside influences

if present, the process is out of control

Control Charts

about processes

causes of variation

Determine whether a process is in a

state of statistical control or out-ofcontrol

Estimate the process parameters

(mean, variation) and assess the

performance of a process or its

capability

Control Charts

processes

To monitor output, we use a control chart

we check things like the mean, range,

standard deviation

To monitor a process, we typically use two

control charts

mean (or some other central tendency

measure)

variation (typically using range or standard

deviation)

Control Charts

Control chart

components

Centerline

shows where the process average is

centered or the central tendency of

the data

Lower control limit (LCL)

describes the process spread

Control Charts

Variables are the measurable

characteristics of a product or

service.

Measurement data is taken and

arrayed on charts.

Control Charts

The X-bar chart - used to detect

changes in the mean between

subgroups

tests central tendency or location

effects

changes in variation within

subgroups

tests dispersion effects

Control Charts

Use other quality tools to help

determine the general problem

thats occurring and the process

thats suspected of causing it.

brainstorm using cause and effect

diagram, why-why, Pareto charts,

etc.

Control Charts

characteristic to be measured

Identify a characteristic to study - for

example, part length or any other

variable affecting performance

typically choose characteristics which

are creating quality problems

possible characteristics include: length,

height, viscosity, color, temperature,

velocity, weight, volume, density, etc.

Control Charts

to be sampled

Choose homogeneous subgroups

Homogeneous subgroups are produced

under the same conditions, by the same

machine, the same operator, the same mold,

at approximately the same time.

differences between subgroups, while

minimizing chance for difference with a

group.

Control Charts

Other guidelines

The larger the subgroup size, the more

sensitive the chart becomes to small

variations.

This increases data collection costs.

Destructive testing may make large

subgroup sizes infeasible.

Subgroup sizes smaller than 4 arent

representative of the distribution averages.

Subgroups over 10 should use S chart.

Control Charts

Run the process untouched to gather

initial data for control limits.

Generally, collect 20-25 subgroups (100

total samples) before calculating the

control limits.

Each time a subgroup of sample size n is

taken, an average is calculated for the

subgroup and plotted on the control chart.

Control Charts

centerline

The centerline should be the population mean,

Since it is unknown, we use X double bar, or the

grand average of the subgroup averages.

m

X

Control Charts

X

i 1

- Xbar chart

The normal curve displays the

distribution of the sample averages.

A control chart is a time-dependent

pictorial representation of a normal

curve.

Processes that are considered under

control will have 99.73% of their

graphed averages fall within six

standard deviations.

Control Charts

UCL X 3

LCL X 3

standard deviation

Control Charts

the standard deviation

m

R

i 1

UCL X A 2 R

LCL X A 2 R

Control Charts

limits - R chart

The range chart shows the spread or

dispersion of the individual samples within

the subgroup.

If the product shows a wide spread,

then the individuals within the

subgroup are not similar to each other.

Equal averages can be deceiving.

Calculated similar to x-bar charts;

Use D3 and D4

Control Charts

Because range values cannot be

negative, a value of 0 is given for

the lower control limit of sample

sizes of six or less.

Control Charts

A process is considered to be stable and in a

state of control, or under control, when the

performance of the process falls within the

statistically calculated control limits and

exhibits only chance, or common causes.

Control Charts

Consequences of

misinterpreting the process

Blaming people for problems that they cannot

control

Spending time and money looking for

problems that do not exist

Spending time and money on unnecessary

process adjustments

Taking action where no action is warranted

Asking for worker-related improvements

when process improvements are needed first

Control Charts

Process variation

When a system is subject to only

chance causes of variation, 99.73% of

the measurements will fall within 3

standard deviations

If 1000 subgroups are measured, 997 will

fall within the six sigma limits.

Control Charts

Chart zones

Based on our knowledge of the normal curve, a

control chart exhibits a state of control when:

Two thirds of all points are near the center

value.

The points appear to float back and forth

across the centerline.

The points are balanced on both sides of the

centerline.

No points beyond the control limits.

No patterns or trends.

Control Charts

Identifying patterns

Trends

steady, progressive changes in level

Change, jump, or shift in level

Runs - 7 points above or below; six

increasing or decreasing, clusters

Recurring cycles

Two populations

Mistakes

Control Charts

In certain cases, control limits are

revised because:

out-of-control points were included in

the calculation of the control limits.

The process is in-control but the

within subgroup variation significantly

improves.

Control Charts

Isolate the causes

Take corrective action

Revise the chart

Only remove points for which you

can determine an assignable cause

Control Charts

Our goal is to decrease the

variation inherent in a process over

time.

As we improve the process, the

spread of the data will continue to

decrease.

Quality improves!!

Control Charts

Process Capability

Process Capability

Defining process

capability

Process capability refers to the

ability of the process to meet the

specifications set by the customer

or designer.

Process Capability

Objective is to determine how well the

output from a process meets

specification limits

Compare total process variation and

tolerance.

LSL

USL

-3

Target

Process Capability

+3

with averages

When distributions of averages are

compared to distributions of individual

values, the averages are grouped

closer to the center value than are the

individual values, as described by the

central limit theorem.

What does this imply for averages in

control limits versus individual values in

specification limits?

Process Capability

from sample data

The relationship between the standard

deviation for individual values and the

standard deviation for their averages is given

by the formula:

x

n

Process Capability

To simplify calculation

If the process can be assumed to be normal,

the population standard deviation can be

estimated from either the standard deviation

associated with the sample standard

deviation or the range:

or

2

Process Capability

limits

Xbar charts do not reflect how widely

the individual values composing the

plotting averages spread.

The spread can only be seen by

observing what is happening on the s

or r chart.

Process Capability

specification limits

Case I: 6 < USL - LSL

Most desirable; individual values fall within

specification limits

Okay, as long as the process remains in control

Undesirable; process incapable of meeting

specifications

Process Capability

indices

that quantify the ability of a

process to produce within

specifications

Process Capability

Focuses on group processes and

decision making

Recommended that the N7 tools

be used in a cycle of activity,

wherein on tool provides inputs to

another tool (p. 292-3)

Interrelationship

Diagraph

Affinity Diagram

Creative

Logical

Tree Diagram/

System Flow

Prioritization

Matrices

Matrix

Diagram

Unknown

Process Decision

Program Chart

Known

Activity Network

Diagram

Affinity Diagrams

Affinity Diagrams creates a hierarchy

of ideas on a large surface

Useful to surface all issues related to a

problem

Helps groups converge on a set

number of themes or ideas

1. Identify problem. Create a clear,

concise statement of the issue.

2. Supply team members with note

cards and pen to write issues (one

per card) pertaining to the problem

using four to five words for clarity.

3. Allow 10 minutes for writing activity.

4. Place written cards on a flat surface.

5. Lay out finished cards to see and for

access by participants.

6. All participants silently and quickly

move cards into piles with similar

themes.

7. Do not discuss disagreement on card

placement, simply move it.

8. Once consensus (all cards in groups

and card movement has stopped)

create header cards.

9. Draw finished affinity diagram and

provide a working copy for all

participants.

Ref:

http://www.infodesign.com.au/usab

ilityresources/general/affinitydi

agramming.asp

Ref:

http://mot.vuse.van

derbilt.edu/mt322/A

ffinity.htm

Interrelationship Diagrams

Interrelationship Diagrams show

relationships between different

issues

Helpful in identifying the most

important issue

1. Place cards with related issues from

affinity diagram in columns with gaps

between them.

2. Examine cards individually looking for

issues caused or influenced by the

issue. Draw a one-way arrow from

the cause to the one influenced by

the cause. Repeat until all issues

discussed.

3. Review, make revisions, then count

the # of arrows pointing to each note

and write the #s on the notes.

4. Identify cards with the most arrows as

key factors (no more than 5 to 10).

Boxes with several arrows although

not key factors can be dropped at this

point. Boxes with outgoing arrows

tend to be root causes, those with

incoming arrows tend to be

performance indicators.

5. Draw a double box around key

factors and brainstorm ways to

address these issues.

Ref:

http://www.sm

artdraw.com/t

utorials/bpm/

bpm10.htm

Tree Diagrams

steps needed to address the problem

1. From the affinity diagram header cards,

choose the most important issue.

2. Determine goal statement, then determine

the steps to resolve or achieve goal.

3. For each previous task determine the

steps required to resolve or achieve them.

4. Continue process for successive levels

until you have exhausted ideas for steps.

Ref:

www.smartdraw.com/resources/exa

mples/business/orgchart9.htm

Prioritization Grids

decisions based on multiple criteria

1. Determine goal, alternatives, and criteria

to make the decision with.

2. Place selection criteria in order from

most important to least important.

3. Apply percentage weight (totaling to

1) to each of the criteria for each

option.

4. Add the individual rating per criterion

to figure overall ranking, divide by #

of options to find average ranking.

5. Rank each option with respect to

criteria, average rankings, and apply

a completed ranking.

6. Multiply criteria weight by its assoc.

criterion rank for each criterion in the

matrix (4 is the best and 1 the worst).

Result in each cell is called an

importance score.

7. Add importance scores for each

alternative.

8. Rank alternatives according to

importance

Ref:

http://www.smartdraw.

com/tutorials/bpm/bpm

13.htm

Matrix Diagrams

Matrix Diagrams brainstorming

tools used in a group to show

relationships between ideas or

issues

Can be used in two, three, or four

dimensions

1. Determine the number of issues

or dimensions to be used in the

matrix.

2. Choose the appropriate matrix.

3. Place the appropriate symbols in

the matrix, based on the legend.

Ref:

http://www.vanderbil

t.edu/Engineering/CI

S/Sloan/web/es130/qu

ality/newtool.htm#ma

trix

Process Decision Program Charts

tool to help brainstorm possible

contingencies or problems

associated with the

implementation of some program

or improvement

Can be in either tree form or

outline form

1. Place the first level boxes in

sequential order.

2. Second level, list implementation

details at a fairly high level. Try to be

all-inclusive at a macro level.

3. Third level, unexpected or out of

order things.

4. Forth level, brainstorm countermeasures to problems in third level.

5. Evaluate countermeasures, mark X

for feasible and O for not feasible.

Ref:

http://www.flo

wbiz.com.au/fl

owbiz/products

/charter

Activity Network Diagrams tool

used in controlling projects

A.K.A.: PERT (Program

Evaluation and Review Technique)

Diagram or Critical-Path (longest

path in time from beginning to

end) Diagram

Ref:

http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/p

ert/groupsculpture.htm

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