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The Tools of Quality

Dr. Rathanraj K J
Professor, BMSCE

Improving the System


The objective of the system is to
satisfy the customer.
A quality system uses the
business model with a focus on
the customer and includes
dynamics of continual
improvement, change, planning,
and renewal.

Quality System Model


Re
ne
w

al

Im Co
pr nti
ov nu
em al
Procedures
en
t
Plant &
Legal
Equipment
Reqts

Customer
People
n
an
Pl

Technology

in
g

Ch
an
ge

R&D

Adapted from S.
Thomas Foster

Quality System Model


The variables and relationships of the
quality system are an interconnected
network that interact to achieve an end.
People are the most important aspect
of the system.
How people are managed is important
in releasing an organizations potential.

Basic 7 (B7) Tools of Quality


Big
Picture
Flow
Chart

Data
Collection
Check
Sheet

Data
Analysis

Problem
Identification

Prioritization

Histograms

Scatter
Plots

Control
Charts

Cause
Effect

Pareto
Analysis

Adapted from S.
Thomas Foster

Flowcharts
Graphic representation of system
or procedure flow
Can be used for both macro and
micro level processes
Promotes system understanding
and will identify gaps in procedural
logic

Flowcharting Steps
Agree on a standard set of
symbols
Clearly communicate purpose of
the flowchart
Observe the work; shadow the
workers
Develop flowchart of the process
Review with the employees and
adjust as necessary.

Flowcharts
Flowcharts
Graphical description of how work is
done.
Used to describe processes that are to
be improved.

Flow Diagrams
" Draw a flowchart for whatever you
do. Until you do, you do not know
what you are doing, you just have a
job.
-- Dr. W. Edwards Deming.

Flowchart
Activity

Decision

No

Yes

Flowchart

Flow Diagrams

Flow Diagrams

Check Sheets

Check Sheets tabular or schematic


data gathering tools used to form
histograms and other graphs

To set up a check sheet:


1. Identify common defects occurring in the
process.
2. Draw a table with common defects in the
left column and time period in the right
column to track the defects.
3. The user of the check sheet then places
checkmarks on the sheet whenever the
defect is encountered.

Check Sheets
The format for recording all the
necessary information to execute
preventive plans and to enable
development of strategies for
improvement, commonly known
as Data Sheet, Log Book,
Inspection Record, Schedule of
Enquiry has been termed check
sheet in this context.

Total

Friday

Thursday

Wednesday

Tuesday

Problem Type

Monday

Check Sheet Example

Setup routines
not standardized
Missing equipment
for setup
Failure to separate
internal and external
tasks
Extensive machine
resetting and paper
change
Other

Adapted from S.
Thomas Foster

CONTENTS OF A CHECK SHEET


Identity particulars to enable traceability like organization, date,
project, customer, supplier, specifications, batch or lot number, as
applicable.
Associated human resource and Equipments if any
Input(s), implying consumption of resources of all kinds with
pertinent details of their quantity and allied parameters like purity or
strength or size as the case may be.
Process parameters
Environmental parameters of concern if any
Method of sampling, sample size, frequency of sampling
Inspection and test facilities used or availed
Inspection and test method, least count or visual standards adapted
Corresponding output(s) with details of parameters of interest
Indices or appropriate functions of observations made

Attribute Inspection

An illustrative check sheet for an attribute data

Variable Inspection

Packing Process
A typical check sheet for list of items to be packed and or dispatched
to a customer such as a standard list of spares accompanying a
machine tool as accessories

Work Sampling Study

A specimen check sheet for recording


Feed back from Customers

A specimen check sheet for setting


approval

2k n

Histograms
Histograms bar chart graphical
representation of data, also used to
observe the shape of data
Rules for developing histograms:
Width of bars must be consistent
Classes must be mutually exclusive and
all-inclusive
Rule of thumb for the number of classes:
k log n / log 2

Histograms (cont.)
n = number of raw data values
k = number of classes

k log n / log 2
Using this formula, we find:
Number of Observations

Number of Classes

9 to 16

17 to 32

33 to 64

65 to 128

129 to 256

H
i
s
t
o
g
r
a
m
6
0
5
0
4
0

F
re
q
u
n
c
y

Histogram Example

3
0
2
0
1
0
M
e
a
n
=
2
4
.
7
6
S
t
d
.
D
v
1
2
9
5
6
0.1
N
5
9
0
0
.2
0
.3
.D
0
.A
4
0
5
0
.
6
0
.
R
T
S

Reference:
Lab 1, CIT 320
Spring 2004
Lindsay Howard

Histogram of weight of tablets in grams

Histogram (It is called Bar Chart, when applied to


attribute data) showing frequency of nonconforming bobbins in samples of size 20 each.

Histogram of honing angle of shaving blades.

Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
Cause-and-Effect Diagrams used to
move to lower levels of abstraction in
solving problems
A.K.A.: Ishikawa Cause-and-Effect or
Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
Fish skeleton shape, the problem is the
head, major causes are the ribs, subcauses form smaller bones of the ribs

Cause-and-Effect (cont.)

Fishbone diagrams created during


brainstorming with these steps:
1. State the problem clearly as the head.
2. Draw backbone and ribs. Ask brainstorming participants to identify major causes
for the problem. Possible bones: materials, machines, people, and methods.
3. Fill out diagram asking Why? about
each problem or cause of problem until
completed. Five Whys?
4. View diagram and identify core causes.
5. Set goals to address core causes.

Fishbone Diagram Example

Ref: http://courses.bus.ualberta.ca/orga432-reshef/fishbone.html

Cause and Effect diagram of nonconforming


thickness of coating

Cause and Effect diagram of slag


inclusion in a cast iron product

Cause and effect diagram of a thermos flask failing


to pass the temperature retention test.

Cause and effect diagram for preparation of tasty


tea

Improved version of the cause and effect diagram


for preparation of tasty tea

Cause and effect diagram of performance


of a team in a game of sport

Cause and effect diagram for national status on


quality in the world market

Pareto Principle
Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian
economist
20% of the population has 80% of the
wealth

Juran used the term vital few, trivial


many. He noted that 20% of the
quality problems caused 80% of the
dollar loss.

Pareto Charts
Pareto Charts used to identify
and prioritize problems to be
solved
Histograms aided by the 80/20
rule

Pareto Charts (cont.)


Rules for constructing Pareto
charts:
Information must be selected based
on types or classifications of defects
that occur as a result of a process.
Data must be collected and
classified into categories.
A histogram or frequency chart is
constructed showing the number of
occurrences.

Pareto Charts (cont.)

Steps used in Pareto Analysis:


1. Gathering categorical data relating
to quality problems.
2. Drawing a histogram of the data.
3. Focusing on the tallest bars in the
histogram first when solving the
problem.

SOME EXAMPLES
Table Showing Nature, Frequency and Rank of Nonconformity.
Organisation: ORG Product: PRO Month: MO/YR

Table Showing Rank, Percent frequency and percent causes.


Organisation: ORG Product: PRO Month: MO/YR

Pareto Diagram of nonconforming batches of an


adhesive

Heavy Electrical Plant


Table Showing cause wise percent contribution to
nonconformities among Turbine Blades

Pareto analysis of nonconformities among Turbine


Blades

Scatter Diagrams

Scatter Plots (Diagrams) used to


examine relationships between
variables

Steps for setting up a scatter plot:


1. Determine x (independent) and y
(dependent) variables
2. Gather process data relating to the
variables identified in step 1.
3. Plot the data on a two-dimensional plane
4. Observe data to see if there is a
relationship between the variables

N
o
r
m
a
l
Q
P
l
o
t
f
S
c
a
l
o
p
s
2
1

E
x
p
e
c
td
N
o
rm
a
l

Scatter Diagram Example

0
--1
20
.80
.9O
.b
1
0
1
.
1
.
2
s
e
rvd
V
a
lu
e

Reference:
Lab 3, CIT 320
Spring 2004
Lindsay Howard

Figure Showing relationship between initial


and final setting times of cement

COMMONLY OBSERVED SCATTER


DIAGRAMS

Figure Showing scatter diagrams indicating no


worthwhile relationship.

Figure Showing scatter diagrams indicating


weak linear relationships

Figure Showing scatter diagrams indicating


strong linear and curvilinear relationships

Control Charts

Control Charts
Control Charts used to determine if a
process will produce a product or
service with consistent measurable
properties
X and R charts are used together, and
are calculated from the same raw data
d

X and R Chart Examples

Control chart functions


Control charts are decision-making
tools - they provide an economic basis
for deciding whether to alter a process
or leave it alone
Control charts are problem-solving
tools - they provide a basis on which to
formulate improvement actions
SPC exposes problems; it does not
solve them!

Control Charts

Control charts
Control charts are powerful aids to
understanding the performance of
a process over time.
Output

Input

PROCESS
Whats causing variability?
Control Charts

Control charts identify


variation
Chance causes - common cause
inherent to the process or random and not
controllable
if only common cause present, the process
is considered stable or in control
Assignable causes - special cause
variation due to outside influences
if present, the process is out of control

Control Charts

Control charts help us learn more


about processes

Separate common and special


causes of variation
Determine whether a process is in a
state of statistical control or out-ofcontrol
Estimate the process parameters
(mean, variation) and assess the
performance of a process or its
capability
Control Charts

Control charts to monitor


processes
To monitor output, we use a control chart
we check things like the mean, range,
standard deviation
To monitor a process, we typically use two
control charts
mean (or some other central tendency
measure)
variation (typically using range or standard
deviation)

Control Charts

Control chart
components
Centerline
shows where the process average is
centered or the central tendency of
the data

Upper control limit (UCL) and


Lower control limit (LCL)
describes the process spread

Control Charts

Control chart for variables


Variables are the measurable
characteristics of a product or
service.
Measurement data is taken and
arrayed on charts.

Control Charts

X-bar and R charts


The X-bar chart - used to detect
changes in the mean between
subgroups
tests central tendency or location
effects

The R chart - used to detect


changes in variation within
subgroups
tests dispersion effects
Control Charts

Step 1 Define the problem


Use other quality tools to help
determine the general problem
thats occurring and the process
thats suspected of causing it.
brainstorm using cause and effect
diagram, why-why, Pareto charts,
etc.

Control Charts

Step 2 Select a quality


characteristic to be measured
Identify a characteristic to study - for
example, part length or any other
variable affecting performance
typically choose characteristics which
are creating quality problems
possible characteristics include: length,
height, viscosity, color, temperature,
velocity, weight, volume, density, etc.
Control Charts

Step 3 Choose a subgroup size


to be sampled
Choose homogeneous subgroups
Homogeneous subgroups are produced
under the same conditions, by the same
machine, the same operator, the same mold,
at approximately the same time.

Try to maximize chance to detect


differences between subgroups, while
minimizing chance for difference with a
group.
Control Charts

Other guidelines
The larger the subgroup size, the more
sensitive the chart becomes to small
variations.
This increases data collection costs.
Destructive testing may make large
subgroup sizes infeasible.
Subgroup sizes smaller than 4 arent
representative of the distribution averages.
Subgroups over 10 should use S chart.
Control Charts

Step 4 Collect the data


Run the process untouched to gather
initial data for control limits.
Generally, collect 20-25 subgroups (100
total samples) before calculating the
control limits.
Each time a subgroup of sample size n is
taken, an average is calculated for the
subgroup and plotted on the control chart.

Control Charts

Step 5 Determine trial


centerline
The centerline should be the population mean,
Since it is unknown, we use X double bar, or the
grand average of the subgroup averages.
m

X
Control Charts

X
i 1

Step 6 Determine trial control limits


- Xbar chart
The normal curve displays the
distribution of the sample averages.
A control chart is a time-dependent
pictorial representation of a normal
curve.
Processes that are considered under
control will have 99.73% of their
graphed averages fall within six
standard deviations.
Control Charts

UCL LCL calculation

UCL X 3
LCL X 3
standard deviation
Control Charts

Determining an alternative value for


the standard deviation
m

R
i 1

UCL X A 2 R
LCL X A 2 R
Control Charts

Step 7 Determine trial control


limits - R chart
The range chart shows the spread or
dispersion of the individual samples within
the subgroup.
If the product shows a wide spread,
then the individuals within the
subgroup are not similar to each other.
Equal averages can be deceiving.
Calculated similar to x-bar charts;
Use D3 and D4
Control Charts

R-bar chart exceptions


Because range values cannot be
negative, a value of 0 is given for
the lower control limit of sample
sizes of six or less.

Control Charts

Step 8 Examine the process Interpret the charts


A process is considered to be stable and in a
state of control, or under control, when the
performance of the process falls within the
statistically calculated control limits and
exhibits only chance, or common causes.

Control Charts

Consequences of
misinterpreting the process
Blaming people for problems that they cannot
control
Spending time and money looking for
problems that do not exist
Spending time and money on unnecessary
process adjustments
Taking action where no action is warranted
Asking for worker-related improvements
when process improvements are needed first
Control Charts

Process variation
When a system is subject to only
chance causes of variation, 99.73% of
the measurements will fall within 3
standard deviations
If 1000 subgroups are measured, 997 will
fall within the six sigma limits.

Control Charts

Chart zones
Based on our knowledge of the normal curve, a
control chart exhibits a state of control when:
Two thirds of all points are near the center
value.
The points appear to float back and forth
across the centerline.
The points are balanced on both sides of the
centerline.
No points beyond the control limits.
No patterns or trends.
Control Charts

Identifying patterns
Trends
steady, progressive changes in level
Change, jump, or shift in level
Runs - 7 points above or below; six
increasing or decreasing, clusters
Recurring cycles
Two populations
Mistakes

Control Charts

Step 9 Revise the charts


In certain cases, control limits are
revised because:
out-of-control points were included in
the calculation of the control limits.
The process is in-control but the
within subgroup variation significantly
improves.

Control Charts

Revising the charts

Interpret the original charts


Isolate the causes
Take corrective action
Revise the chart
Only remove points for which you
can determine an assignable cause

Control Charts

Step 10 Achieve the purpose


Our goal is to decrease the
variation inherent in a process over
time.
As we improve the process, the
spread of the data will continue to
decrease.
Quality improves!!

Control Charts

Process Capability

Process Capability

Defining process
capability
Process capability refers to the
ability of the process to meet the
specifications set by the customer
or designer.

Process Capability

Process capability analysis


Objective is to determine how well the
output from a process meets
specification limits
Compare total process variation and
tolerance.
LSL

USL

-3

Target
Process Capability

+3

Individual values compared


with averages
When distributions of averages are
compared to distributions of individual
values, the averages are grouped
closer to the center value than are the
individual values, as described by the
central limit theorem.
What does this imply for averages in
control limits versus individual values in
specification limits?
Process Capability

Estimation of population sigma


from sample data
The relationship between the standard
deviation for individual values and the
standard deviation for their averages is given
by the formula:

x
n

Where n = subgroup sample size

Process Capability

To simplify calculation
If the process can be assumed to be normal,
the population standard deviation can be
estimated from either the standard deviation
associated with the sample standard
deviation or the range:

or

2
Process Capability

Control limits and specification


limits
Xbar charts do not reflect how widely
the individual values composing the
plotting averages spread.
The spread can only be seen by
observing what is happening on the s
or r chart.

Process Capability

The Six sigma spread versus


specification limits
Case I: 6 < USL - LSL
Most desirable; individual values fall within
specification limits

Case II: 6 = USL - LSL


Okay, as long as the process remains in control

Case III: 6 > USL - LSL


Undesirable; process incapable of meeting
specifications

Process Capability

Calculating process capability


indices

Process capability indices: ratios


that quantify the ability of a
process to produce within
specifications

Process Capability

New 7 (N7) Tools for Improvement


Focuses on group processes and
decision making
Recommended that the N7 tools
be used in a cycle of activity,
wherein on tool provides inputs to
another tool (p. 292-3)

N7 Cycle of Activity Example


Interrelationship
Diagraph

Affinity Diagram
Creative

Logical
Tree Diagram/
System Flow

Prioritization
Matrices

Matrix
Diagram
Unknown

Process Decision
Program Chart

Known
Activity Network
Diagram

Affinity Diagrams
Affinity Diagrams creates a hierarchy
of ideas on a large surface
Useful to surface all issues related to a
problem
Helps groups converge on a set
number of themes or ideas

Affinity Diagram Steps


1. Identify problem. Create a clear,
concise statement of the issue.
2. Supply team members with note
cards and pen to write issues (one
per card) pertaining to the problem
using four to five words for clarity.
3. Allow 10 minutes for writing activity.
4. Place written cards on a flat surface.
5. Lay out finished cards to see and for
access by participants.

Affinity Diagram Steps (cont.)


6. All participants silently and quickly
move cards into piles with similar
themes.
7. Do not discuss disagreement on card
placement, simply move it.
8. Once consensus (all cards in groups
and card movement has stopped)
create header cards.
9. Draw finished affinity diagram and
provide a working copy for all
participants.

Affinity Diagram Example

Ref:
http://www.infodesign.com.au/usab
ilityresources/general/affinitydi
agramming.asp

Ref:
http://mot.vuse.van
derbilt.edu/mt322/A
ffinity.htm

Interrelationship Diagrams
Interrelationship Diagrams show
relationships between different
issues
Helpful in identifying the most
important issue

Interrelationship Diagram Steps


1. Place cards with related issues from
affinity diagram in columns with gaps
between them.
2. Examine cards individually looking for
issues caused or influenced by the
issue. Draw a one-way arrow from
the cause to the one influenced by
the cause. Repeat until all issues
discussed.
3. Review, make revisions, then count
the # of arrows pointing to each note
and write the #s on the notes.

Interrelationship Diagram Steps


4. Identify cards with the most arrows as
key factors (no more than 5 to 10).
Boxes with several arrows although
not key factors can be dropped at this
point. Boxes with outgoing arrows
tend to be root causes, those with
incoming arrows tend to be
performance indicators.
5. Draw a double box around key
factors and brainstorm ways to
address these issues.

Interrelationship Diagram Example

Ref:
http://www.sm
artdraw.com/t
utorials/bpm/
bpm10.htm

Tree Diagrams

Tree Diagrams useful to identify the


steps needed to address the problem

Steps to complete tree diagram:


1. From the affinity diagram header cards,
choose the most important issue.
2. Determine goal statement, then determine
the steps to resolve or achieve goal.
3. For each previous task determine the
steps required to resolve or achieve them.
4. Continue process for successive levels
until you have exhausted ideas for steps.

Tree Diagram Example

Ref:
www.smartdraw.com/resources/exa
mples/business/orgchart9.htm

Prioritization Grids

Prioritization Grid used to make


decisions based on multiple criteria

Steps to complete a prioritization grid:


1. Determine goal, alternatives, and criteria
to make the decision with.
2. Place selection criteria in order from
most important to least important.

Prioritization Grid Steps (cont.)


3. Apply percentage weight (totaling to
1) to each of the criteria for each
option.
4. Add the individual rating per criterion
to figure overall ranking, divide by #
of options to find average ranking.
5. Rank each option with respect to
criteria, average rankings, and apply
a completed ranking.

Prioritization Grid Steps (cont.)


6. Multiply criteria weight by its assoc.
criterion rank for each criterion in the
matrix (4 is the best and 1 the worst).
Result in each cell is called an
importance score.
7. Add importance scores for each
alternative.
8. Rank alternatives according to
importance

Prioritization Grid Examples

Ref:
http://www.smartdraw.
com/tutorials/bpm/bpm
13.htm

Matrix Diagrams
Matrix Diagrams brainstorming
tools used in a group to show
relationships between ideas or
issues
Can be used in two, three, or four
dimensions

Matrix Diagram Steps


1. Determine the number of issues
or dimensions to be used in the
matrix.
2. Choose the appropriate matrix.
3. Place the appropriate symbols in
the matrix, based on the legend.

Matrix Diagram Example

Ref:
http://www.vanderbil
t.edu/Engineering/CI
S/Sloan/web/es130/qu
ality/newtool.htm#ma
trix

Process Decision Program Charts


Process Decision Program Charts
tool to help brainstorm possible
contingencies or problems
associated with the
implementation of some program
or improvement
Can be in either tree form or
outline form

PDP Chart Steps


1. Place the first level boxes in
sequential order.
2. Second level, list implementation
details at a fairly high level. Try to be
all-inclusive at a macro level.
3. Third level, unexpected or out of
order things.
4. Forth level, brainstorm countermeasures to problems in third level.
5. Evaluate countermeasures, mark X
for feasible and O for not feasible.

PDP Chart Example

Ref:
http://www.flo
wbiz.com.au/fl
owbiz/products
/charter

Activity Network Diagrams


Activity Network Diagrams tool
used in controlling projects
A.K.A.: PERT (Program
Evaluation and Review Technique)
Diagram or Critical-Path (longest
path in time from beginning to
end) Diagram

PERT Diagram Example

Ref:
http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/p
ert/groupsculpture.htm