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Mar 28, 2016

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Analysis of Variance part 1

© All Rights Reserved

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45 visualizzazioni136 pagineAnalysis of Variance part 1

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What

NEXT?

TESTS we have covered so

far.

We started with

PARAMETRIC TESTS!

First we took tests related to MEAN.

We have ONE Sample Mean Test Large

Sample.

We have ONE Sample Proportion Test

Large Sample.

SAMPLE TESTS!

We took tests related to MEAN.

We have TWO Samples Difference of

Mean Test Large Sample:

Samples coming from SAME population

Samples coming from TWO INDEPENDENT

POPULATION.

Proportion Test Large Sample.

Samples coming from SAME population

Samples coming from TWO INDEPENDENT

POPULATION.

Then,

Then, we

we move

move to

to cases

cases

where

where the

the population

population is

is

NORMAL

NORMAL but

but the

the standard

standard

Deviation

Deviation of

of the

the

Population

Population is

is NOT

NOT known;

known;

and

and above

above the

the sample

sample

size

size is

is SMALL.

SMALL.

PARAMETRIC TESTS!

We took tests related to MEAN.

We have ONE Sample Mean Test Small

Sample.

We have ONE Sample Proportion Test

Small Sample.

SAMPLE TESTS!

We took tests related to MEAN.

We have TWO Samples Difference of

Mean Test Small Sample:

Samples coming from SAME population

Samples coming from TWO INDEPENDENT

POPULATION.

Proportion Test Small Sample.

Samples coming from SAME population

Samples coming from TWO INDEPENDENT

POPULATION.

Then,

Then, we

we move

move from

from

One Sample

Use Chi-Square ( 2)

TWO Samples

Lets apply.

obtained by YOU

people in the second

quiz out of 20.

What do

you think

Which is more

important from

obtained are 7.42 with

a standard deviation

of 3.95 .

evaluation point of

view Mean or

Standard

Deviation?

Assume that

There are 31 students who appeared in the QuizII.

Desirable level of variation should NOT be less

than 4.

of each others marks.

Hypotheses:

H 0 : 2 42

H a : 2 42

It is a ONE-Tailed Test.

Test Statistic

2

(

n

1

)

s

2

20

The critical

value of 2

for 30 df

and = 5%

is 43.773

29.2547 which is less than the Critical

Value of 43.773; hence, null hypothesis is

not rejected.

R

Is there a

el

relation

at

io between F Test

n

Remember that F is a ratio of TWO VARIANCES!

t2 =

=F

to F.

Whats Next?

interesting

Badnaam

Kulfi

Nitin

can you prove that this kind of

marketing strategy results in more

sales?

MAIN BUSINESS the one

which we have to do!!!

What do

you say?

Are they

different?

Do you think

that there are

differences?

Do you think

that there are

differences?

ANALYSIS OF

VARIANCE

following information

Motivation Level

(Measured on a composit index of 20 points)

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Respondent 1

14

Respondent 2

10

14

Respondent 3

11

Respondent 4

infer from the data?

Motivation Level

(Measured on a composit index of 20 points)

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Respondent 1

14

Respondent 2

10

14

Respondent 3

11

Respondent 4

Is Motivation f ( Plants ) ?

Dependent

Variable

Ratio/Interval Scale

Variable

Independent

Variable

Categorical

Variable

by the plant in which they are working?

ANALYSIS OF

VARIANCE

O

AN

VA

AN ANOVA

OANOVA

VA

ANOVA

It is applied when one has more than one

samples under study coming from

different populations or same population

with different treatments.

It is a hypothesis testing procedure used

to determine whether mean differences

exist for two or more samples or

treatments.

The term ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE appears

to be a misnomer since the objective is to

analyse differences among means of the

samples rather than the variances of the

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

(continued)

the same population or the treatments across has

no effect, then the variation among the means and

the standard deviation across the group will be due

to only sampling error. If it is so then the variation

within groups and the variation among the

groups should be same. To test whether these

variations are equal is the main purpose of ANOVA.

Therefore, ANOVA tests equality of means among a

number of groups via testing of equality of

variations due to WITHIN GROUPS and due to

AMONG GROUPS.

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

(continued)

to one factor then such an analysis is called as ONE-WAY

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE.

In it, if differences are found to be significant then it

could be concluded that the differences are due to the

treatment of ONE FACTOR.

ANOVA divides the TOTAL VARIATION into two - AMONGGROUP VARIATION and WITHIN-GROUP VARIATION.

One-Way Analysis of

Variance: Partitioning of

TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES OF

VARIATION

TOTAL VARIATION

(TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES)

DUE TO TREATMENT

(TREATMENT SUM OF SQUARES)

(ERROR SUM OF SQUARES)

Composition of VARIATION

Let

SStot = Sum of Squares (TOTAL)

SSwith = Sum of Squares (WITHIN A GROUP)

Then,

i 1

j 1

j 1 i 1

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

(continued)

differences among the means of populations.

That is-

And,

Alternative Hypothesis H1: At least two

means are different.

It assumes that there is no difference between K

samples behaviour and hence, their means should

be same; alternatively their means should not be

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

(continued)

Therefore, the variation between the groups and among the

groups must be same. Thus, it uses test statistics called F

statistics which is a ratio defined as below F=

VARIATION WITHIN THE GROUPS

within the groups and the variation between the groups.

If Null Hypothesis were to be true then F statistic is

approximately equal to 1 otherwise it would be substantially

larger than 1.

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

(continued)

means and not that of variances.

That is to say that it has nothing to

test about the variances of the

samples.

It says that at least two means are

different out of the K-means of the

K-samples.

It assumes that the variances of the

ANOVA TABLE...

ANOVA TABLE ---- ONE WAY

SOURCE OF

VARI ATI ON

SUM OF

SQUARES

BETWEEN

WI THI N

TOTAL

BETWEEN SS

WI THI N SS

TOTAL SS

DEGREE

OF

FREEDOM

(C-1)

(N-C)

(N-1)

MEAN SUM OF

SQARE

F- RATI O

MSS(BETWEEN)

MSS(WI THI N)

MSS(BETWEEN)

MSS(WI THI N)

problem:

Plant (Employee Age)

1

29

32

25

27

33

24

30

31

24

27

34

25

28

30

26

employees across the plants are different?

Plant (Employee Age)

1

29

32

25

27

33

24

30

31

24

27

34

25

28

30

26

141

160

124

Count

Mean

28.2

32.0

24.8

Sum

Grand

Mean

28.33

TREATMENT EFFECT

RESIDUALS

-0.13

3.67

-3.53

0.80

0.00

0.20

-0.13

3.67

-3.53

-1.20

1.00

-0.80

-0.13

3.67

-3.53

1.80

-1.00

-0.80

-0.13

3.67

-3.53

-1.20

2.00

0.20

-0.13

3.67

-3.53

-0.20

-2.00

1.20

TREATMENT EFFECT

(SQUARE)

RESIDUALS (SQUARE)

0.0178

13.4444

12.4844

0.6400

0.0000

0.0400

0.0178

13.4444

12.4844

1.4400

1.0000

0.6400

0.0178

13.4444

12.4844

3.2400

1.0000

0.6400

0.0178

13.4444

12.4844

1.4400

4.0000

0.0400

0.0178

13.4444

12.4844

0.0400

4.0000

1.4400

ANOVA TABLE

ANOVA-TABLE

Source of Variation

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

SS

df

MS

129.733

19.6

12

149.333

14

64.867

1.633

39.714

problem:

Machine Operator (Valve Opening)

1

6.33

6.26

6.44

6.29

6.26

6.36

6.38

6.23

6.31

6.23

6.58

6.19

6.29

6.27

6.54

6.21

6.40

6.19

6.56

6.50

6.34

6.19

6.58

6.22

Valves across the machine operators are

different?

Go to

Motivation Level

(Measured on a composit index of 20 points)

Plant 1

Plant 2

Plant 3

Respondent 1

14

Respondent 2

10

14

Respondent 3

11

Respondent 4

dependent on which plant?

example..

An experiment was conducted to understand recall

mechanism among the people. 50 people were

selected and they were randomly assigned into five

groups four incidental-learning groups

Counting Group

Rhyming Group

Adjective Group

ISrecall

recallmechanism

mechanismaafunction

functionof

of

IS

towhich

whichgroup

groupaaperson

personbelongs?

belongs?

to

Imagery Group

Each group was given a list of 27 words and each

one was asked to read them carefully 3 times.

function of level of

processing

NO. OF WORDS RECALLED AS A FUNCTION OF LEVEL OF

COUNTING

9

8

6

8

10

4

6

5

7

7

RHYMING

7

9

6

6

6

11

6

3

8

7

ADJECTIVE

11

13

8

6

14

11

13

13

10

11

IMAGERY

12

11

16

11

9

23

12

10

19

11

INTENTIONAL

10

19

14

5

10

11

14

15

11

11

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

COUNTING

RHYMING

10

10

70

69

7.00

6.90

3.33

4.54

ADJECTIVE

10

110

11.00

6.22

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

10

10

134

120

13.40

12.00

20.27

14.00

Source of Variation

Between Groups

Within Groups

SS

351.52

435.3

df

Total

786.82

ANOVA

4

45

MS

87.880

9.673

49

P-value

9.085

0.000

F crit

2.579

end here?

of Variance

Test of Homogeneity of Variances

NUMBER OF WORDS RECALLED

Levene

Statistic

2.529

df1

df2

4

45

Sig.

.054

Second, POST-HOC

ANALYSIS

Multiple Comparisons

Bonferroni

(I) LEVEL OF

PROCESSING

COUNTING

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

(J) LEVEL OF

PROCESSING

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

COUNTING

ADJECTIVE

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

COUNTING

RHYMING

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

COUNTING

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE

INTENTIONAL

COUNTING

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE

IMAGERY

Mean

Difference

(I-J)

1.00E-01

-4.00

-6.40*

-5.00*

-1.00E-01

-4.10

-6.50*

-5.10*

4.00

4.10

-2.40

-1.00

6.40*

6.50*

2.40

1.40

5.00*

5.10*

1.00

-1.40

Std. Error

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

1.39

Sig.

1.000

.061

.000

.008

1.000

.051

.000

.006

.061

.051

.913

1.000

.000

.000

.913

1.000

.008

.006

1.000

1.000

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

-4.01

4.21

-8.11

.11

-10.51

-2.29

-9.11

-.89

-4.21

4.01

-8.21

6.11E-03

-10.61

-2.39

-9.21

-.99

-.11

8.11

-6.11E-03

8.21

-6.51

1.71

-5.11

3.11

2.29

10.51

2.39

10.61

-1.71

6.51

-2.71

5.51

.89

9.11

.99

9.21

-3.11

5.11

-5.51

2.71

Third, MEAN-PLOT.

14

12

10

6

COUNTING

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE

LEVEL OF PROCESSING

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

out of the

story!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sudhanshu!!!

Should I major

in Marketing,

HR or Finance?

areas and collected information about their pay-package.

HR

Marketin

Finance

g

2.70

2.30

4.80

2.20

3.60

3.50

3.30

2.70

4.60

2.50

4.40

3.60

3.80

3.90

2.80

2.90

3.20

2.90

there are significant

differences in the paypackages?.... Ohhhhh!!!

Yes! I can use ANOVA!!!

results

I think Finance

would be the

right choice for

me!!!

SUMMARY

Groups

Average Variance

Count

Sum

HR

17.4

2.90

0.332

Marketing

20.1

3.35

0.603

Finance

28.05

4.675

0.9958

ANOVA

Source of

Variation

SS

df

MS

PF crit

value

Between Groups

10.2175

5.1088

7.938

0.0045 3.6823

Within Groups

9.65375

15

0.6436

19.87125

17

Total

Sudhanshu! It is not

the Area that matters,

it is the Grade that

matters in getting a

good package.

Is it

really

so?!!!

seniors and the collected data is ...

Now, he is lost!!!

What to do with

the data?

Grade

s

HR

A+

3.80

4.40

5.80

3.30

3.90

5.75

A-

2.90

3.60

4.80

B+

2.70

3.20

4.60

2.50

2.70

3.60

B-

2.20

2.30

3.50

Marketing Finance

For

For that

that we

we have

have to

to

stretch

stretch ourselves

ourselves

and

and

...

MOVING FROM

ONE FACTOR TO

TWO FACTORS

firm that does electrical work

in Offices.

In India, there is lot of variation in the voltage of

electricity supplied which may have a bad impact

on the life of electrical appliances. Mr. Padam Jain

wants to study the impact of Voltage on the Life

of Tubes. For that he tool 10 tubes and

experimented with variations in the voltage he

took three levels of voltage Low, Medium

(correct one) and High. And, he collected the data

about their lives measured in terms of hours.

Data

LIFE OF TUBES IN (THOUSAND

HOURS)

SLOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

3.7

4.5

3.1

3.4

3.9

2.8

3.5

4.1

3.0

3.2

3.5

2.6

3.9

4.8

3.4

Picture speaks

What do say

about the

impact of

variations in

Voltage on the

life of tubes?

tubes from five different

manufactures

THINK!!!!!

###$$

$?????!!

!!!!!!!!!!

???

So

what?

effects of Brands so

at to get the impact

of only voltage on

the life of tubes?

following information

BRAND

SLOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

SURYA

3.7

4.5

3.1

BAJAJ

3.4

3.9

2.8

PHILIPS

3.5

4.1

3.0

OSRAM

3.2

3.5

2.6

HAVELLS

3.9

4.8

3.4

speaks!!!

of us!

TWO-WAY ANALYSIS

OF VARIANCE

WITHOUT

REPLICATION

(RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN )

WITHOUT REPLICATION

(RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN )

When the observations are subjected to experiment related

to two factors then such an analysis is called as TWO-WAY

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE.

If the variation among the samples is due to TWO

FACTORS, then a researcher may be interested in

knowing whether variation due to each factor is significant.

The advantage of such an experimental design over ONEWAY design is that it could better explain the variation

among the observations and therefore, the variation due to

error term would be minimized. Further, such a model has

more power of explaining the observed variations.

RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN

Are all the three machines properly adjusted in a manner that they are on the

average filling same quantity of cola drink given the fact that these machines

are operated at different points of time by different operators?

3

BLOCKING

Measurements

of quantity

filledIndividual

observations

VARIABLE

(OPERATORS)

in this example .???

Is Measurements of Quantity Filled f (Time , Operator ) ?

Dependent

Variable

Ratio/Interval Scale

Variable

Independent

Variables

Categorical

Variable

following example

TWO-WAY ANALYSIS OF

VARIANCE (continued)

In case of TWO-WAY ANOVA without replication, no value

of a particular factor is allowed to repeat in the trail. As a

result, the values of factors are independent and so their

effects are. In such a case, there will not be any interaction

effect between factors.

TWO-WAY ANALYSIS OF

VARIANCE (continued)

In case of TWO-WAY ANOVA without replication, no value

of a particular factor is allowed to repeat in the trail. As a

result, the values of factors are independent and so their

effects are. In such a case, there will not be any interaction

effect between factors.

BLOCKING

VARIABLE

TWO-WAY ANALYSIS OF

VARIANCE (continued)

In it, if differences are found to be significant then

they could be attributed to either of factors.

VARIATION

which

is

further

WITHIN-GROUP VARIATION.That is-

Analysis of Variance: Partitioning of

TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES OF VARIATION

TOTAL VARIATION

(TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES)

DUE TO TREATMENT

(TREATMENT SUM OF SQUARES)

BLOCKING VARIABLE

(BLOCKS SUM OF SQUARES)

(ERROR SUM OF SQUARES)

(NEW ERROR SUM OF SQUARES)

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE..

VARIATION

BETWEEN

THE

TREATMENTS

WITHIN THE

BLOCKS

RESIDUAL/

ERROR

TOTAL

SUM OF

SQUARES

d.f.

MEAN SUM OF

SQUARES

FRATIOS

second factor in our

example

blocking factor store in our

example

SPSS output

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: SALES OF CHAIRS

Source

Model

STYLE

STORERS

Error

Total

of Squares

45324.417a

935.083

698.667

487.583

45812.000

df

10

2

7

14

24

Mean Square

4532.442

467.542

99.810

34.827

F

130.140

13.425

2.866

Sig.

.000

.001

.044

SPSS Graph

E s tim a te d M a r g in a l M e a n s

70

60

50

40

STYLE OF CHAIR

CHAIR STYLE#1

30

CHAIR STYLE#2

20

CHAIR STYLE#3

A

STORES

results!!!!

Which is more

important

Area or

Grades?

SUMMARY

Averag Varianc

e

e

Count

Sum

A+

14.00

4.67

1.05

12.95

4.32

1.63

A-

11.30

3.77

0.92

B+

10.50

3.50

0.97

8.80

2.93

0.34

B-

8.00

2.67

0.52

HR

17.40

2.90

0.33

Marketing

20.10

3.35

0.60

Finance

28.05

4.68

1.00

ANOVA

Source of

Variation

df

Rows (Grades)

8.982916667

Columns (Area)

10.2175

0.670833333

10

0.0671

19.87125

17

Total

PF crit

value

SS

Error

MS

1.74E3.3258

05

8.88E5.1088 76.155

4.1028

07

1.7966 26.781

Anova: Two-Factor Without

Replication

SUMMARY

Groups

Average Variance

Count

Sum

HR

17.4

2.90

0.332

Marketing

20.1

3.35

0.603

Finance

28.05

4.675

0.9958

ANOVA

Source of

Variation

Between Groups

Within Groups

Total

SS

10.2175

df

MS

5.1088

SUMMARY

Count

Sum

Average

A+

A

AB+

B

BHR

Marketing

Finance

3

3

3

3

3

3

6

6

6

14.00

12.95

11.30

10.50

8.80

8.00

17.40

20.10

28.05

4.67

4.32

3.77

3.50

2.93

2.67

2.90

3.35

4.68

ANOVA

PF crit

value

0.004 3.682

7.938

5

3

9.65375

15

0.6436

19.87125

17

Varianc

e

1.05

1.63

0.92

0.97

0.34

0.52

0.33

0.60

1.00

PF

valu

crit

e

Source of

Variation

SS

df

MS

Rows (Grades)

8.98291666

7

1.7966

26.781

Columns (Area)

10.2175

5.1088

10

0.0671

17

Error

Total

0.67083333

3

19.87125

1.74E- 3.32

05

58

8.88E- 4.10

76.155

07

28

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable:Annual Pay Package (Rs. in Lakhs)

Type III Sum of

Source

Grades

Squares

Sig.

8.983

.671

10

10.217

.671

10

1.797 26.781

.000

.067a

Hypothesis

Error

a. MS(Error)

Mean Square

Hypothesis

Error

Area

df

5.109 76.155

.067a

.000

Plot

Jains Experiment!

LIFE OF TUBES IN (THOUSAND HOURS)

BRAND

SLOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

SURYA

3.7

4.5

3.1

BAJAJ

3.4

3.9

2.8

PHILIPS

3.5

4.1

3.0

OSRAM

3.2

3.5

2.6

HAVELLS

3.9

4.8

3.4

Single Factor

Anova: Single

Factor

SUMMARY

Averag Varian

Count Sum

e

ce

5 17.7

3.54 0.073

5 20.8

4.16 0.258

5 14.9

2.98 0.092

Groups

SLOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

ANOVA

Source of

Variation

SS

Between Groups 3.484

Within Groups

1.692

Total

5.176

Pdf

MS

F

value F crit

2 1.742 12.355 0.0012

3.8853

12 0.141

14

Anova: Two-Factor Without

Replication

SUMMARY

Count

Sum

Average Variance

SURYA

11.3

3.767

0.493

BAJAJ

10.1

3.367

0.303

PHILIPS

10.6

3.533

0.303

OSRAM

9.3

3.100

0.210

HAVELLS

12.1

4.033

0.503

SLOW

17.7

3.540

0.073

MEDIUM

20.8

4.160

0.258

HIGH

14.9

2.980

0.092

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

P-value

F crit

Rows (Brands)

1.5493

0.3873

21.7196

0.0002

3.8379

Columns (Voltage)

3.4840

1.7420

97.6822

0.0000

4.4590

Error

0.1427

0.0178

Total

5.176

14

filters out the effects of

FACTORS?

Jains Experiment!

Total

Variance

SLOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

MEAN

SURYA

3.7

4.5

3.1

3.77

BAJAJ

3.4

3.9

2.8

3.37

PHILIPS

3.5

4.1

3.0

3.53

OSRAM

3.2

3.5

2.6

3.10

HAVELL

S

3.9

4.8

3.4

4.03

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

BRAND

MEANS

Notice!!!

BRAND

MEAN

MEDIUM

HIGH

3.77

3.77

3.77

3.77

3.37

PHILIPS

3.37

3.37

Same Across Voltage

3.53

3.53

3.53

OSRAM

3.10

3.10

3.10

3.10

HAVELLS

4.03

4.03

4.03

4.03

3.56

3.56

3.56

3.56

SURYA

BAJAJ

Different Across

Brand

SLOW

MEANS

3.37

3.53

Notice!!!

BRAND

BAJAJ

SURYA

LOW

MEDIUM

HIGH

MEAN

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

PHILIPS

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

OSRAM

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

HAVELLS

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

3.54

4.16

2.98

3.56

MEANS

the filtering process of

variation?

Take means

and filter out

the variation!

He has data about the

Life of Inverters Batteries

produced

by

three

manufacturers and sold

under

two

model

He is curious to know

whether life of batteries

differs across model and

manufacturers?

of Model and of

Manufacturers?

data

STANDARD

PREMIUM

MANUFACTURER-1

61.50

66.00

66.00

63.00

62.50

63.00

MANUFACTURER-2

64.50

67.00

65.00

70.50

67.00

67.50

MANUFACTURER-3

65.50

61.50

68.00

63.00

66.50

66.00

Life in thousand hours.

Picture speaks

something!!!

answering the question?

For

For that

that we

we have

have to

to

stretch

stretch ourselves

ourselves

and

and

ANALYSIS OF

VARIANCE:

TWO-WAY

FACTORIAL

DESIGN

following problem:

A professor from MDI was curious to know

whether students used to score more in

closed-book examination or from the

open-book. He took eight students on

random basis from PGPM, NMP and EMP;

four students from each programme were

administered a closed-book examination

and the remaining four students from

each programme took the same question

paper but under open-book examination.

The scores obtained by the students

are

100

MARKS OUT OF 100

PGPM

NM P

EM P

75

58

61

68

56

63

71

61

65

75

60

64

66

62

61

70

60

66

68

59

63

68

68

61

ONE..

TWO..

ANOTHER OTHER

Are the students from PGPM, NPM, and EMP scoring same marks for the

same question paper AND THAT TOO IN OPEN-BOOK AND CLOSEDBOOK EXAMINATION?

PROGRAMMES (COLUMN TREATMENT)

PGPM

Marks

obtained in

the

examination

-Individual

observations

NMP

EMP

1

TYPE OF

and

2 means CLOSED-BOOK.

EXAM

(ROW

TREATMENT)

2

Analysis of Variance: Partitioning of

TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES OF VARIATION

TOTAL VARIATION

(TOTAL SUM OF SQUARES)

TO ROW TREATMENT

(ROW TREATMENT SUM OF

SQUARES)

VARIATION AMONG GROUPS DUE

TO COLUMN TREATMENT

(COLUMN TREATMENT SUM OF

SQUARES)

(ERROR SUM OF SQUARES)

TO INTERACTION BETWEEN ROW

AND COLUMN TREATMENTS

(INTERACTION SUM OF SQUARES)

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE..

TWO

TWO -- WAY

WAY ANOVA

ANOVA

TABLE

TABLE ...................

...................

---- FACTORIAL

FACTORIAL DESIGN

DESIGN ----

SUMMARY

PGPM

NMP

EMP

Total

OPEN-BOOK EXAMINATION

Count

4.0000

4.0000

4.0000

12.0000

289.0000

235.0000

253.0000

777.0000

Average

72.2500

58.7500

63.2500

64.7500

Variance

11.5833

4.9167

2.9167

39.6591

4.0000

4.0000

4.0000

12.0000

272.0000

249.0000

251.0000

772.0000

Average

68.0000

62.2500

62.7500

64.3333

Variance

2.6667

16.2500

5.5833

14.0606

8.0000

8.0000

8.0000

561.0000

484.0000

504.0000

Average

70.1250

60.5000

63.0000

Variance

11.2679

12.5714

3.7143

Sum

CLOSED-BOOK EXAMINATION

Count

Sum

Total

Count

Sum

ANOVA

Source of Variation

Sample

SS

df

MS

P-value

F crit

1.0417

1.0000

1.0417

0.1423

0.7104

4.4139

399.0833

2.0000

199.5417

27.2619

0.0000

3.5546

60.0833

2.0000

30.0417

4.1044

0.0340

3.5546

Within

131.7500

18.0000

7.3194

Total

591.9583

23.0000

Columns

Interaction

Dependent Variable: MARKS OBTAINED OUT OF 100

Source

Corrected Model

Intercept

PROG

EXAM

PROG * EXAM

Error

Total

Corrected Total

of Squares

460.208a

99975.042

399.083

1.042

60.083

131.750

100567.000

591.958

df

5

1

2

1

2

18

24

23

Mean Square

F

92.042

12.575

99975.042 13658.829

199.542

27.262

1.042

.142

30.042

4.104

7.319

Sig.

.000

.000

.000

.710

.034

OBTAINED OUT OF 100

74

72

70

68

TYPE OF EXAMINATION

66

64

OPEN-BOOK EXAMINATIO

62

60

CLOSED-BOOK EXAMINAT

58

PGPM

ION

PROGRAMME

NMP

EMP

example

An experiment was conducted to understand recall

mechanism among the people. 100 people were

selected 50 OLD and 50 YOUNG; and they were

randomly assigned into five groups four

incidental-learning groups

Counting Group

Rhyming Group

Adjective Group

divided into 2 groups

OLD and YOUNG.

Imagery Group

Each group was given a list of 27 words and each

one was asked to read them carefully 3 times.

function of level of

processing

AGE

GROUP

COUNTING

OLD

YOUNG

9

8

6

8

10

4

6

5

7

7

8

6

4

6

7

6

5

7

9

7

RHYMING

7

9

6

6

6

11

6

3

8

7

10

7

8

10

4

7

10

6

7

7

ADJECTIVE

11

13

8

6

14

11

13

13

10

11

14

11

18

14

13

22

17

16

12

11

IMAGERY

12

11

16

11

9

23

12

10

19

11

20

16

16

15

18

16

20

22

14

19

INTENTIONAL

10

19

14

5

10

11

14

15

11

11

21

19

17

15

22

16

22

22

18

21

SUMMARY

COUNTING

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL Total

OLD

Count

Sum

10.0000

70.0000

10.0000

69.0000

10.0000

110.0000

10.0000

134.0000

10.0000

120.0000

50.0000

503.0000

7.0000

3.3333

6.9000

4.5444

11.0000

6.2222

13.4000

20.2667

12.0000

14.0000

10.0600

16.0576

10.0000

65.0000

10.0000

76.0000

10.0000

148.0000

10.0000

176.0000

10.0000

193.0000

50.0000

658.0000

Average

6.5000

7.6000

14.8000

17.6000

19.3000

13.1600

Variance

2.0556

3.8222

12.1778

6.7111

7.1222

33.4841

Count

20.0000

20.0000

20.0000

20.0000

20.0000

Sum

135.0000

145.0000

258.0000

310.0000

313.0000

Average

6.7500

7.2500

12.9000

15.5000

15.6500

Variance

2.6184

4.0921

12.5158

17.4211

24.0289

Average

Variance

YOUNG

Count

Sum

Total

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

P-value

F crit

Sample

240.2500

1.0000

240.2500

29.9356

0.0000

3.9469

Columns

1514.9400

4.0000

378.7350

47.1911

0.0000

2.4729

Interaction

190.3000

4.0000

47.5750

5.9279

0.0003

2.4729

Within

722.3000

90.0000

8.0256

Total

2667.7900

99.0000

WORDS RECALLED

22

20

18

LEVEL OF PROCESSING

16

14

COUNTING

12

RHYMING

10

ADJECTIVE

8

IMAGERY

6

4

INTENTIONAL

OLD

AGE GROUP

YOUNG

WORDS RECALLED

22

20

18

16

14

12

AGE GROUP

10

8

OLD

6

4

COUNTING

YOUNG

RHYMING

ADJECTIVE

LEVEL OF PROCESSING

IMAGERY

INTENTIONAL

data

STANDARD

PREMIUM

MANUFACTURER-1

61.50

66.00

66.00

63.00

62.50

63.00

MANUFACTURER-2

64.50

67.00

65.00

70.50

67.00

67.50

MANUFACTURER-3

65.50

61.50

68.00

63.00

66.50

66.00

Life in thousand hours.

ANOVA

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable:LIFE OF BATTERY IN HOURS THOUSANDS

Type III Sum

of Squares

df

76630.5000

12771.7500

MANUF

31.8611

15.9306

4.6064

0.033

MODEL

0.0556

0.0556

0.0161

0.901

27.6944

13.8472

4.0040

0.047

Source

Model

MANUF * MODEL

Error

Total

41.5

76672

12

18

Mean

Square

3.4583

Sig.

3693.0361 0.000

effect?

Variance!!!!!

Any Question?