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Effect of Sodium Alginate

Coating on Osmotic
Dehydration of Guava
Name : Tou Joon Hau
Matric Number : BK12110372
Supervisor : Dr Tham Heng Jin
Examiner
: Mdm Murni Sudang
Chairman : Dr Emma Suali

INTRODUCTION
GDP Malaysia 2014 - COMPOSITION, BY SECTOR
OF ORIGIN(%)
Agriculture; 9%

Services; 56%

Industry; 35%

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-worldfactbook/fields/2012.html

Year

Contribution of agriculture to
total GDP

2006

8.5%

2014

9.1%

Agricultur
al
Industry

Industrial Crops 61 % (oil palm, rubber,


cocoa)
Agricultural Food Crops 39% (fruits and
vegetables)

Fruits and vegetables are normally highly


perishable due to high water content.
Inappropriate handling of post harvest fruits and
vegetables will lead to undesirable food losses.

Source: Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., Otterdjik, R. van, & Meybeck, A. (2011).
Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Presented at the SAVE FOOD!, Interpack, Dsseldorf,
Germany: FAO.

Food Preservation
Drying and dehydration
conventional method to remove moisture
content of food in order to prolong its
shelf life
o High temperature need more energy
o Time consuming process

Osmotic Dehydration
o Partial removal of water

Problem Statement:
Guava has short shelf life
Become fully ripe between 3 5 days at room
temperature
Osmotic Dehydration
Osmotic solute uptake into the food material
affect organoleptic and nutritional
characteristics.
Coating prior to Osmotic Dehydration
Reduce osmotic solute uptake

Aim:
Study the effect of sodium alginate coating
on osmotic dehydrated guava (Psidium
Guajava L.).

Objectives:
Study the effect of coating condition on
osmotic dehydration of guava samples
and modeling such kinetics.
Determine the Water Loss (WL), Solid
Gains (SG) and WL/SG ratio of osmotic
dehydrated coated and uncoated guava.
Determine Effective Diffusion Coefficient
(Def) of solute and water during osmotic
dehydration of guava.

Scope of Study :
Common guava (Psidium Guajava L.) was chosen for
the experiment.
Sample guava was coated with the following
condition:
o Concentration : 0.5 2.0 %
o Dipping time : 60 300 s

Guava samples were then undergo osmotic


dehydration process with the following condition:
o Sucrose Concentration : 33.79% w/w
o Temperature : 30.00 0C
o Immersion time : 240 min

Significance of this Study :


There is no study on the effect of
concentration and dipping time of
edible coating on osmotic dehydration.
Hence, in this work, osmotic
dehydration experiment were carried
out on coated and uncoated guava
(Psidium Guajava L.) with sodium
alginate in order to study the mass
transfer kinetics by varying coating
concentration and dipping time.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Common Guava (Psidium Guajava
L.).

Edible Films and Coatings

Osmotic Dehydration
Require little energy, simple
Can be use as pretreatment prior to
other drying methods
Partially remove water content from
food

Factors affecting Osmotic


Dehydration

Temperature
Concentration
Type of osmotic agent
Agitation
Geometry
Operating pressure
Process duration

Mathematical Modeling
WL, SG and WL/SG ratio will be
determine
Mass transfer will be model
according to Pelegs equation.

Previous studies on different coating


conditions

METHODOLOGY
Apparatus
Oven (Memmert, USA)
Hot Plate Stirrer (HB502 Bibby/K)
Beaker (100 ml and 200 ml)
Precision Balance (A&Z, FZ-200i)
Measuring Cylinder
Chemicals
Sodium Alginate
Calcium Chloride
Commercial grade sucrose

Sample Preparation
Guava was washed, peeled,
destoned and sliced into
pieces of 5 x 2 x 0.5 cm.

Preparation of Sodium Alginate and


Calcium Chloride Solution
0.5 2 % w/w Sodium Alginate
Heated and stir to ensure homogenized
solution.
Set aside and cool to room temperature

2 % w/w Calcium Chloride

Coating prior to Osmotic


Dehydration
Sample dip in sodium alginate for
different time duration, ranges from
60s to 300s.
Coated sample was then dip in
calcium chloride solution for 30s for
cross linking purpose.
The sample was then washed by
immersion in distilled water for 30s.

Fix Coating
Samples were dried in a hot air oven for 10
minutes at 70oC to fix the layer of coating
1.35 m/s

Osmotic Dehydration
Sucrose Concentration : 33.79% w/w
Temperature
: 30.00 0C
Immersion time
: 240 min
(Source: Ganjloo, Rahman, Bakar, Osman, & Bimakr, 2014)

Weight ratio

: 1:10

Experiment Set

KAIZEN

PRELIMINARY RESULT
SET
A