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Fractions

Index
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What are Fractions


Examples
Need of Fractions
Parts of Fractions
Example
Types of Fractions-

7.

Operations of Fractions

Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division

8.

Comparison

Proper fractions & Improper


Fractions
Mixed Fractions
Like Fractions & Unlike
Fractions
Equivalent Fractions

Greater than and Smaller


than
How does the Denominator
controls the Fraction
How does the Denominator
controls the Fraction

What are Fractions?


Fractions are for counting part of something.
Loosely speaking, a fraction is a quantity that cannot be
represented by a whole number.
A fraction (from the Latin fractus, broken) is a number that
can represent part of a whole. The earliest fractions were
reciprocals of integers: ancient symbols representing one part
of two, one part of three, one part of four, and so on. A much
later development were the common or "vulgar" fractions
which are still used today (, , , etc.)

Examples
/60

55

/8

/12

11

/12

1 2/10

Need Of Fractions?
Consider the following scenario.
Can you finish the whole cake?
If not, how many cakes did you eat?
1 is not the answer, neither is 0.
This suggest that we need a new
kind of number i.e. Fraction.

Parts Of Fractions?
The denominator tells us how
many congruent pieces the whole is
divided into, thus this number cannot
be 0. (b)

a
b

The numerator tells us how many


such pieces are being considered. (a)

Im the NUMERATOR.
I tell you the number of parts

Im the DENOMINATOR.
I tell you the name of part

Example
How much of a pizza do we have below?
The blue circle is our whole.
if we divide the whole into 8 congruent pieces,
- the denominator would be 8.
We can see that we have 7 of these pieces.
Therefore the numerator is 7, and we
have

7 of a pizza.
8

Types Of Fractions

Proper
Properfractions
fractions
&&
Improper
ImproperFractions
Fractions

Like
LikeFractions
Fractions
&&
Unlike
UnlikeFractions
Fractions
Mixed
MixedFractions
Fractions

Equivalent
Equivalent
Fractions
Fractions
Unit
UnitFractions
Fractions
&&
Whole
WholeFractions
Fractions

Proper & Improper Fractions


In
InProper
ProperFractions
Fractionsthe
the
numerator
numeratorisisless
lessthan
thanthe
the
denominator.
denominator.
E.g..
1/2
ImBigger
E.g..
1/2,3/4
,3/4,2/7
,2/7etc.
etc.

7
4

Im Smaller

1
4

In
InImproper
ImproperFractions
Fractionsthe
the
numerator
numeratorisisgreater
greaterthan
than(or
(or
equal
equalto)
to)the
thedenominator.
denominator.
E.g.
E.g.4/2
4/2,9/5
,9/5,6/6
,6/6etc.
etc.
Every
Everywhole
wholeno
noisisImproper
Improper
Fraction
Fraction
E.g.
E.g.24
24==24/1
24/1

Mixed Fractions
In Mixed Fractions a whole number
and a proper fraction are together.
E.g.. 2 1/4, 16 2/5 etc.
Mixed Fractions and Improper
Fractions are same.

We can use any to show the same


amount.

7/8

Conversion
Improper Fraction to Mixed Fraction
8
divide the numerator by the denominator the
quotient is the leading number, the remainder as
the new numerator.
9
1
= 1
8
8
Mixed Fraction to Improper Fraction
multiply the whole number with the denominator
and add the numerator to it. The answer is the
numerator and the denominator is same

3 2 7 3 17

2
7
7
7

1
9
8
1

Like & Unlike Fractions


In Like Fractions the denominators of
the Fractions are same

In Unlike Fractions the denominators


of the Fractions are different.

Unit Fractions &


Whole Fractions
In Unit Fractions the
numerator of the
Fraction is 1.

In Whole Fractions the


denominators of the Fraction is
1.

Convert Unlike Fractions to Like


Fractions
Simplify all the Fractions.
Find LCM of all the Denominators.
Multiply all the fractions with a special form of 1
to get 84 (here). Now these are Like Fractions.
2 2 3 7 = 84

2 2 3 7 = 84

3
4

5
3

4
7

= 63

113
48
,
,
84 84 84

2
2
3
7

4,3,7
2,3,7
1,3,7
1,1,7
1,1,1

Equivalent Fractions
They are the fractions that may have many different
appearances, but are same.
In the following picture we have of a cake as the
cake is divided into two congruent parts and we have
only one of those parts.
But if we cut the cake into smaller congruent
pieces, we can see that
= 2/4 = 4/8 = 3/6

Equivalent Fractions

To know that two or more Fractions are


Equivalent we must simplify (change to its lowest
term) them.
Simplify: A fraction is in its lowest terms (or is
reduced) if we cannot find a whole number (other
than 1) that can divide into both its numerator and
denominator.
E.g.- 5 : 5 & 10 can be divided by 5. 5 1
10
10 2

Example
Are 14 & 30 equal ?
21
45
14
21

2 = 2
3 3

reduce

14 7 2
21 7 3

14 = 30
21
45

30
45

reduce

30 15 2
45 15 3

Making Equivalent Fractions

To make Equivalent Fractions we multiply the


Fraction with a special form of 1 (same numerator &
denominator- 4/4, 10/10 etc.)
E.g. : 4 = 4 5 = 20
5
5 5
25

Operations Of Fractions

Addition
Addition

Subtraction
Subtraction

Division
Division

Multiplication
Multiplication

Addition Of Fractions
Things To Know !!!!

Simplifying
Like and Unlike Fractions
Like fractions are Compulsory to add.
If there are Unlike Fractions then convert them to like
fractions.
The Denominator should not be added.
Always change Improper fraction to a mixed
fraction.

Adding Fractions

Addition means combining objects in two or more


sets
The objects must be of the same type, i.e. we
combine bundles with bundles and sticks with sticks.
In fractions, we can only combine pieces of the
same size. In other words, the denominators must be
the same.

Adding Fractions With


Same Denominators

+
1

2
+

3
=

1
=

6
6
6
2
Add the numerator
and
leave the denominator as it is.

Adding Fractions with


Different Denominators
If there are different denominators in the
fractions, then we change them to like
fractions.

3 5
2
6
5
1

5 15
3 15
1 2 5
6 11

3 5 15 15 15

Adding Mixed Fractions

Change the Mixed fractions to


Improper Fractions and then to
Like Fractions.
At last add the Improper Like
Fractions.
Dont forget to change the
answer to Mixed Fraction again.

Subtraction Of Fractions
Things To Know !!!!

Simplifying
Like and Unlike Fractions
Like fractions are Compulsory to subtract.
If there are Unlike Fractions then convert them to like
fractions.
The Denominator should not be subtracted.
Always change Improper fraction to a mixed
fraction.
The numerator can be negative.

Subtracting Fractions

Subtraction means taking objects away.


The objects must be of the same type, i.e. we
can only take away apples from a group of
apples.
In fractions, we can only take away pieces of
the same size.
In other words, the denominators must be
the same.

Subtracting Fractions With


Same Denominators

2
=

1
=

6
6
6
3
Subtract the numerator
and
leave the denominator as it is.

Subtracting Fractions with


Different Denominators
If there are different denominators in the
fractions, then we change them to like
fractions.

2
2 10

3 15

2
5

2 2 10 6 4

3 5 15 15 15

2
6

5 15

Subtracting Mixed Fractions

Change the Mixed fractions to


Improper Fractions and then to
Like Fractions.
At last subtract the Improper
Like Fractions.
Dont forget to change the
answer to Mixed Fraction again.

Multiplication Of Fractions
Things To Know !!!!

Simplifying
The Denominator are always multiplied.
Of : Of means multiply. E.g. : of 2 = 2 = 1
Product of two Proper Fractions is always less than both of them.
Product of two Improper Fractions is always greater than both of
them.
Product of one Improper Fraction and one Proper
Fraction is always less than the Improper Fraction
and greater than the Proper Fraction.

Multiplying Fractions

To Multiply Fractions we Multiply both - The


numerators and the Denominators separately.

23
=

6
=

42

3
=

Multiplying Mixed Fractions

Change the Mixed fractions to


Improper Fractions.
Then multiply the Improper
Fraction.
Dont forget to change the
answer to Mixed Fraction again.

Addition Of Fractions
Things To Know !!!!

Simplifying
Multiplication
Always change Improper fraction to a mixed fraction.
Reciprocal: The inverse of fraction
E.g. 2/3 = 3/2 = 1 , 2 = 5/2 = 2/5

Dividing Fractions

To Divide Fractions we change the Second Fraction


with its Reciprocal.
Then Multiply the Reciprocal with the First
Fraction.
2

25
=

10
=

44

5
=

16

Dividing Mixed Fractions

Change the Mixed fractions to


Improper Fractions.
Then Multiply the Improper
Fraction.
Dont forget to change the
answer to Mixed Fraction again.

Comparison

Comparison

Greater than and Smaller than


How does the Denominator controls the Fraction
How does the Numerator controls the Fraction

Greater than and Smaller than


Change the Fractions to Like Fractions.
The fraction with greater numerator is bigger
than the other one.
If the Numerators are same, then the Fraction
with smallest Denominator is the Biggest.
2

3
&

10
=

15

>

9
15

How does the Denominator


controls the Fraction
Denominator represents the total number of pieces.
If we share a Pizza with 2 people, we get of pizza.
If we share a Pizza with 4 people, we get of pizza.
If we share a Pizza with 8 people, we get 1/8 of pizza.
Conclusion:
The larger the denominator the smaller the pieces, and
if the numerator is kept fixed, the larger the
denominator the smaller the fraction,

How does the Numerator controls


the Fraction
Numerator represents the number of pieces.
If we share a Pizza with 16 people, we get 1/16 of pizza.
If we share a Pizza with 13 people, we get 3/16 of pizza.
If we share a Pizza with 5 people, we get 5/16 of pizza.
Conclusion :
When the numerator gets larger we have more pieces.
And if the denominator is kept fixed, the larger numerator
makes a bigger fraction.