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Lec.

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

ARTIFICIAL
LIGHTING

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

INRODUCTION

Without proper lighting design, by using too much


light, or using out-dated technology energy can
be wasted
Proper lighting can:
- enhance task performance,
performance
- improve the appearance of an area &
- have positive psychological effects on
occupants
For any space to be used by humans, one of the
core tenets of proper lighting is uniform
illumination,
illumination
Artificial lighting is of prime importance for both
interior and exterior spaces
Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

COMPONENTS OF ARTIFICIAL
The provision ofLIGHTING
Artificial lighting is
governed by:
LAMP
The actual source of light

LUMINAIR
The fitting in which the lamp is fixed

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING


Lighting is classified by intended use,
depending largely on the distribution of the
light produced by the fixture as :
GENERAL LIGHTING
ACCENT LIGHTING
TASK LIGHTING

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING


GENERAL LIGHTING (sometimes referred to as
ambient light) is intended for general illumination
of an area.
this would be a basic lamp on a table or floor, or a
fixture on the ceiling

TASK LIGHTING is mainly functional & is usually


the most concentrated, for purposes such as
reading, cooking, drafting and the like. For
example reproductions may require task lighting
levels up to 1500 lux and some inspection tasks
or surgical procedures require even higher levels
ACCENT LIGHTING is mainly decorative,
intended to highlight pictures, plants, or other
elements of interior design or landscaping
Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL
DOWNLIGHTING
LIGHTING
This is the most common, with fixtures on or
recessed in the ceiling casting light
downward
This tends to be the most used method,
used in both offices and homes
Although it is easy to design it has dramatic
problems with glare and excess energy
consumption due to large number of fittings

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL
UPLIGHTING (indirect)
LIGHTING
is less common, often used to bounce indirect
light off the ceiling and back down.
It is commonly used in lighting applications
that require minimal glare and uniform
general luminance levels
It uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a
space and can minimize disabling glare on
computer displays and other dark glossy
surfaces.
It gives a more uniform light output in
operation.
indirect lighting is completely dependent
Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

METHODS OF ARTIFICIAL
indirect lighting
can create a diffused
LIGHTING

and shadow free light effect


it can be regarded as an uneconomical
lighting principle.
FRONT LIGHTING: is quite common, but
tends to make the subject look flat as its
casts almost no visible shadows.
SIDE LIGHTING: Lighting from the side is
the less common, as it tends to produce
glare near eye level.
BACK LIGHTING either around or through
an object is mainly for accent.
Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

LIGHTING FIXTURES

Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of


styles for various functions such as a holder
for the light source, to provide directed
light and to avoid visual glare.
Some are very plain and functional, while
some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly
any material can be used, so long as it can
tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping
with safety codes.
An important property of light fixtures is the
luminous efficacy (meaning the amount of
usable light emanating from the fixture per used
energy), usually measured in lumen per watt.
Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

Efficacy - measure of bulb efficiency


ratio of the light output power (visible region, measured in lumens) to
the electrical input power (measured in watts).
Standard incandescent bulbs range from 8 to 20, halogen
incandescent range from 12 to 24, while fluorescent bulbs range from
32 to 104.2

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

LIGHTING FIXTURES

A fixture using replaceable light sources can


also have its efficiency quoted as the
percentage of light passed from the "bulb" to
the surroundings.
The more transparent the lighting fixture is,
the higher efficacy it has.
Shading the light will normally decrease
efficacy but increase the directionality and
the visual comfort probability.

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

INDOOR LIGHTING
ALCOVE LIGHTING
SOFFIT LIGHTING
RECESSED LIGHTING
FLOOD LIGHTING
TRACK LIGHTING
WALL WASHES
SCONES
ROW LIGHTING LIKE IN MOVIE HALLS

Prof. (Ar.) TG

Lec. 7

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
2nd year, Term 1

Assignment no. 6
max.mrk:20
1.What is artificial lighting and its various
components.
2.What are types of artificial lighting .
OR
3.What are various methods artificial lighting.

Prof. (Ar.) TG