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# <+++< 2012

Fisika Teknik
Taharuddin
chxtahar@unila.ac.id
Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Gd. Meneng
Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik
UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG
2012

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Introduction(1)
As a first step in studying classical mechanics,
we describe motion in terms of space and time
while ignoring the agents that caused that motion.
This portion of classical mechanics is called
kinematics. (The word kinematics has the same root
as cinema. Can you see why?) In this chapter we
consider only motion in one dimension. We first
define displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Then, using these concepts, we study the motion of
objects traveling in one dimension with a constant
acceleration.

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Introduction(2)
From everyday experience we recognize that
motion represents a continuous change in the
position of an object. In physics we are concerned
with three types of motion: translational, rotational,
and vibrational. A car moving down a highway is an
example of translational motion, the Earths spin on
its axis is an example of rotational motion, and the
back-and-forth movement of a pendulum is an
example of vibrational motion. In this and the next
few chapters, we are concerned only with
translational motion.

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Introduction(3)
In our study of translational motion, we describe
the moving object as a particle regardless of its
size. In general, a particle is a point-like mass
having infinitesimal size. For example, if we wish to
describe the motion of the Earth around the Sun, we
can treat the Earth as a particle and obtain
reasonably accurate data about its orbit. This
approximation is justified because the radius of the
Earths orbit is large compared with the dimensions
of the Earth and the Sun.

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## DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, AND SPEED

The Meaning of Shape for a p-t Graph
Our study of 1-dimensional kinematics has been
concerned with the multiple means by which the
motion of objects can be represented. Such means
include the use of words, the use of diagrams, the
use of numbers, the use of equations, and the use
of graphs. Lesson 3 focuses on the use of position
vs. time graphs to describe motion. As we will learn,
the specific features of the motion of objects are
demonstrated by the shape and the slope of the
lines on a position vs. time graph. The first part of
this lesson involves a study of the relationship
between the shape of a p-t graph and the motion of
the object.
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## To begin, consider a car moving with a constant,

rightward (+) velocity - say of +10 m/s.

## If the position-time data for

such a car were graphed, then
the resulting graph would look
like the graph at the right.
Note that a motion described
as a constant, positive velocity
results in a line of constant
and positive slope when
plotted as a position-time
graph.
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## Now consider a car moving with a rightward (+),

changing velocity - that is, a car that is moving
rightward but speeding up or accelerating.

## The position vs. time

graphs for the two types of
motion - constant velocity
and changing velocity (
acceleration) - are depicted
as follows.

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Resume

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## The Importance of Slope

The shapes of the position versus time graphs for these two
basic types of motion - constant velocity motion and
accelerated motion (i.e., changing velocity) - reveal an
important principle. The principle is that the slope of the line
on a position-time graph reveals useful information about
the velocity of the object. It is often said, "As the slope goes,
so goes the velocity." Whatever characteristics the velocity
has, the slope will exhibit the same (and vice versa). If the
velocity is constant, then the slope is constant (i.e., a
straight line). If the velocity is changing, then the slope is
changing (i.e., a curved line). If the velocity is positive, then
the slope is positive (i.e., moving upwards and to the right).
This very principle can be extended to any motion
conceivable.
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## Consider the graphs below as example applications of this principle

concerning the slope of the line on a position versus time graph. The
graph on the left is representative of an object that is moving with a
positive velocity (as denoted by the positive slope), a constant velocity
(as denoted by the constant slope) and a small velocity (as denoted by
the small slope). The graph on the right has similar features - there is a
constant, positive velocity (as denoted by the constant, positive slope).
However, the slope of the graph on the right is larger than that on the
left. This larger slope is indicative of a larger velocity. The object
represented by the graph on the right is traveling faster than the
object represented by the graph on the left. The principle of slope can
be used to extract relevant motion characteristics from a position vs.
time graph. As the slope goes, so goes the velocity.

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## Consider the graphs below as another application of this principle of

slope. The graph on the left is representative of an object that is
moving with a negative velocity (as denoted by the negative slope),
a constant velocity (as denoted by the constant slope) and a small
velocity (as denoted by the small slope). The graph on the right has
similar features - there is a constant, negative velocity (as denoted
by the constant, negative slope). However, the slope of the graph on
the right is larger than that on the left. Once more, this larger slope
is indicative of a larger velocity. The object represented by the graph
on the right is traveling faster than the object represented by the
graph on the left.

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As a final application of this principle of slope, consider the two graphs below.
Both graphs show plotted points forming a curved line. Curved lines have
changing slope; they may start with a very small slope and begin curving
sharply (either upwards or downwards) towards a large slope. In either case,
the curved line of changing slope is a sign of accelerated motion (i.e.,
changing velocity). Applying the principle of slope to the graph on the left, one
would conclude that the object depicted by the graph is moving with a
negative velocity (since the slope is negative ). Furthermore, the object is
starting with a small velocity (the slope starts out with a small slope) and
finishes with a large velocity (the slope becomes large). That would mean that
this object is moving in the negative direction and speeding up (the small
velocity turns into a larger velocity). This is an example of
negative acceleration - moving in the negative direction and speeding up. The
graph on the right also depicts an object with negative velocity (since there is
a negative slope). The object begins with a high velocity (the slope is initially
large) and finishes with a small velocity (since the slope becomes smaller). So
this object is moving in the negative direction and slowing down. This is an
example of positive acceleration.

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## Now consider a car moving at a constant velocity of +5

m/s for 5 seconds, abruptly stopping, and then remaining
at rest (v = 0 m/s) for 5 seconds.

## If the position-time data for such a

car were graphed, then the resulting
graph would look like the graph at
the right. For the first five seconds
the line on the graph slopes up 5
meters for every 1 second along the
horizontal (time) axis. That is, the line
on the position vs. time graph has a
slope of +5 meters/1 second for the
first five seconds. Thus, the slope of
the line on the graph equals the
velocity of the car. During the last 5
seconds (5 to 10 seconds), the line
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Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts ahead of"
the red car. (The red car actually starts off the screen.) Since
the red car is moving faster, it eventually catches up with
and passes the blue car. Observe the position-time graphs
for these two cars. The position-time plot of each car's
motion is depicted by a diagonal line with a constant slope.
This diagonal line is an indicator of a constant velocity. At the
time that the cars are side by side, the lines intersect. That
is, the two cars share the same position at that instant in
time. The lines would not intersect for a
velocity vs. time graph; there is never an instant in time in
which they share the same velocity. The two cars have the
same position at seven seconds; yet they never have the
same velocity at any instant in time

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below.

## The line is sloping upwards to the right. But mathematically, by how

much does it slope upwards for every 1 second along the horizontal
(time) axis? To answer this question we must use the slope equation.

## The slope equation says that the slope of a line is found by

determining the amount of rise of the line between any two points
divided by the amount of run of the line between the same two
points.
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In other words:
Pick two points on the line and determine their
coordinates.
Determine the difference in y-coordinates of these two
points (rise).
Determine the difference in x-coordinates for these two
points (run).
Divide the difference in y-coordinates by the difference
in x-coordinates (rise/run or slope).
The diagram below shows this method being applied to
determine the slope of the line. Note that three different
calculations are performed for three different sets of two
points on the line. In each case, the result is the same: the
slope is 10 m/s.

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## So that was easy - rise over run is all that is involved.

Now let's attempt a more difficult example. Consider the
graph below. Note that the slope is not positive but
rather negative; that is, the line slopes in the downward
direction. Note also that the line on the graph does not
pass through the origin. Slope calculations are relatively
easy when the line passes through the origin since one
of the points is (0,0). But that is not the case here. Test
your understanding of slope calculations by determining
the slope of the line below. Then click the button to

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Determine the velocity (i.e., slope) of the object as
portrayed by the graph below. When you believe
you know the answer (and not before), click the
button to check it.

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## Consider a car moving with a constant, rightward (+)

velocity - say of +10 m/s. As learned in an earlier lesson,
a car moving with a constant velocity is a car with zero
acceleration.

If the velocity-time data for such a car were graphed, then the
resulting graph would look like the graph at the right. Note
that a motion described as a constant, positive velocity results
in a line of zero slope (a horizontal line has zero slope) when
plotted as a velocity-time graph. Furthermore, only positive
velocity values are plotted, corresponding to a motion with
positive velocity

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## Now consider a car moving with a rightward (+),

changing velocity - that is, a car that is moving rightward
but speeding up or accelerating. Since the car is moving
in the positive direction and speeding up, the car is said
to have a positive acceleration.

If the velocity-time data for such a car were graphed, then the
resulting graph would look like the graph at the right. Note
that a motion described as a changing, positive velocity
results in a sloped line when plotted as a velocity-time graph.
The slope of the line is positive, corresponding to the positive
acceleration. Furthermore, only positive velocity values are
plotted, corresponding to a motion with positive velocity.

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The velocity vs. time graphs for the two types of motion constant velocity and changing velocity (acceleration) - can be
summarized as follows.

The shapes of the velocity vs. time graphs for these two basic types
of motion - constant velocity motion and accelerated motion (i.e.,
changing velocity) - reveal an important principle. The principle is
that the slope of the line on a velocity-time graph reveals useful
information about the acceleration of the object. If the acceleration
is zero, then the slope is zero (i.e., a horizontal line). If the
acceleration is positive, then the slope is positive (i.e., an upward
sloping line). If the acceleration is negative, then the slope is
negative (i.e., a downward sloping line). This very principle can be
extended to any conceivable motion.

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## The slope of a velocity-time graph reveals information about an

object's acceleration. But how can one tell whether the object is
moving in the positive direction (i.e., positive velocity) or in the
negative direction (i.e., negative velocity)? And how can one tell if the
object is speeding up or slowing down?
The answers to these questions hinge on one's ability to read a graph.
Since the graph is a velocity-time graph, the velocity would be
positive whenever the line lies in the positive region (above the xaxis) of the graph. Similarly, the velocity would be negative whenever
the line lies in the negative region (below the x-axis) of the graph. As
learned in Lesson 1, a positive velocity means the object is moving in
the positive direction; and a negative velocity means the object is
moving in the negative direction. So one knows an object is moving in
the positive direction if the line is located in the positive region of the
graph (whether it is sloping up or sloping down). And one knows that
an object is moving in the negative direction if the line is located in
the negative region of the graph (whether it is sloping up or sloping
down). And finally, if a line crosses over the x-axis from the positive
region to the negative region of the graph (or vice versa), then the
object has changed directions.

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## Now how can one tell if the object is speeding up or slowing

down? Speeding up means that the magnitude (or numerical
value) of the velocity is getting large. For instance, an object
with a velocity changing from +3 m/s to + 9 m/s is speeding
up. Similarly, an object with a velocity changing from -3 m/s to
-9 m/s is also speeding up. In each case, the magnitude of the
velocity (the number itself, not the sign or direction) is
increasing; the speed is getting bigger. Given this fact, one
would believe that an object is speeding up if the line on a
velocity-time graph is changing from near the 0-velocity point
to a location further away from the 0-velocity point. That is, if
the line is getting further away from the x-axis (the 0-velocity
point), then the object is speeding up. And conversely, if the
line is approaching the x-axis, then the object is slowing down.

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Acceleration
Observe the animation of the three cars below. Use the
animation to answer the three questions. (If necessary, review
the definition of acceleration.)
1.Which car or cars (red, green, and/or blue) are undergoing
an acceleration? Study each car individually in order to
2.Which car (red, green, or blue) experiences the greatest
acceleration?
3.Consider the position-time graph at the right. Each one of
the three lines on the position-time graph corresponds to the
motion of one of the three cars. Match the appropriate line to
the particular color of car.

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## Constant Positive Velocity

Observe that the object below moves with a constant
velocity in the positive direction. The dot diagram shows
that each consecutive dot is the same distance apart
(i.e., a constant velocity). The position-time graph shows
that the slope is both constant (meaning a constant
velocity) and positive (meaning a positive velocity). The
velocity-time graph shows a horizontal line with zero
slope (meaning that there is zero acceleration); the line
is located in the positive region of the graph
(corresponding to a positive velocity). The accelerationtime graph shows a horizontal line at the zero mark
(meaning zero acceleration).

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## Constant Negative Velocity

Observe that the object below moves with a constant velocity
in the negative direction. The dot diagram shows that each
consecutive dot is the same distance apart (i.e., a constant
velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is both
constant (meaning a constant velocity) and negative (meaning
a negative velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a
horizontal line with zero slope (meaning that there is zero
acceleration); the line is located in the negative region of the
graph (corresponding to a negative velocity). The
acceleration-time graph shows a horizontal line at the zero
mark (meaning zero acceleration).

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## Positive Velocity and Positive Acceleration

Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction with
a changing velocity. An object which moves in the positive
direction has a positive velocity. If the object is speeding up, then
its acceleration vector is directed in the same direction as its
motion (in this case, a positive acceleration). The dot diagram
shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart
(i.e., a changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the
slope is changing (meaning a changing velocity) and positive
(meaning a positive velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a
line with a positive (upward) slope (meaning that there is a
positive acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of
the graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The accelerationtime graph shows a horizontal line in the positive region of the
graph (meaning a positive acceleration).

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## Positive Velocity and Negative Acceleration

Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction
with a changing velocity. An object which moves in the
positive direction has a positive velocity. If the object is
slowing down then its acceleration vector is directed in the
opposite direction as its motion (in this case, a negative
acceleration). The dot diagram shows that each consecutive
dot is not the same distance apart (i.e., a changing velocity).
The position-time graph shows that the slope is changing
(meaning a changing velocity) and positive (meaning a
positive velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with a
negative (downward) slope (meaning that there is a negative
acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of the
graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The accelerationtime graph shows a horizontal line in the negative region of
the graph (meaning a negative acceleration).

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## The Passing Lane

Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts ahead of" the
red car. (The red car actually starts off the screen.) Since the
red car is moving faster, it eventually catches up with and
passes the blue car. Observe the position-time graphs for
these two cars. The position-time plot of each car's motion is
depicted by a diagonal line with a constant slope. This
diagonal line is an indicator of a constant velocity. At the time
that the cars are side by side, the lines intersect. That is, the
two cars share the same position at that instant in time. The
lines would not intersect for a velocity vs. time graph; there is
never an instant in time in which they share the same velocity.
The two cars have the same position at seven seconds; yet
they never have the same velocity at any instant in time.

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## The Passing Lane

Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts ahead of" the red
car. (The red car actually starts off the screen.) Since the red car
is moving faster, it eventually catches up with and passes the
blue car. Observe the velocity-time graphs for these two cars.
Each car's motion is represented by a horizontal line, indicating a
constant velocity. Observe that even though the cars pass each
other, the lines on the velocity-time graphs do not intersect.
Since the cars never have the same velocity, the lines on the
velocity-time graph never cross. The lines would intersect for a
position vs. time graph; the fact that the red car passes the blue
car means that there is an instant in which they occupy the same
position. The two cars have the same position at seven seconds;
yet they never have the same velocity at any instant in time.

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The Stoplight
A blue car moving at a constant speed of 10 m/s passes a red car that is at rest. This
occurs at a stoplight the moment that the light turns green. The clock is reset to 0
seconds and the velocity-time data for both cars are collected and plotted. The red car
accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three seconds and then maintains a constant speed.
The blue car maintains a constant speed of 10 m/s for the entire 12 seconds. Observe
the motion and make meaning of the accompanying graphs to answer the following
questions:
1. What is the final velocity of a car that accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three
seconds?
2. What is the displacement of each individual car after three seconds? (Consider a
kinematic equation or the area of the velocity-time graph.)
3. What is the slope of the line for the red car for the first three seconds?
4. What is the displacement of each individual car after nine seconds (use the area of
the velocity-time graph)?
5. Does the red car pass the blue car at three seconds? If not, then when does the red
car pass the blue car?
6. When lines on a velocity-time graph intersect, does it mean that the two cars are
passing by each other? If not, what does it mean?

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## 1. Answers to the questions:

2. 12 m/s
3. Red Car: Area of Triangle = 0.5*b*h = 0.5*(3 s)*(12 m/s) =
18 m
Blue Car: Area of Rectangle = b*h = (3 s)*(10 m/s) = 30 m
4. slope = rise/run = (12 m/s- 0 m/s) / (3 s) = 4 m/s/s
5. Red Car: Area of Triangle + Area of Rectangle = 0.5*b1*h1
+ b2*h2 = 0.5*(3 s)*(12 m/s) +(9 s)*(12 m/s) = 18 m + 72
m = 90 m
Blue Car: Area of Rectangle = b*h = (9 s)*(10 m/s) = 90 m
6. No! The red car passes the blue car at 9 seconds. See
animation and the result of the above question.
7. No! When lines intersect on a velocity-time graph, it
means that the two cars have the same velocity. When
lines intersect on a position-time graph, it means that the
two cars are passing each other.

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## DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, AND SPEED

The motion of a particle is completely known if the
particles position in space is known at all times.
Consider a car moving back and forth along the x
axis, as shown in Figure 2.1a. When we begin
collecting position data, the car is 30 m to the right
of a road sign. (Let us assume that all data in this
example are known to two significant figures. To
convey this information, we should report the initial
position as 3.0 x 101 m. We have written this value
in this simpler form to make the discussion easier to
follow.) We start our clock and once every 10 s note
the cars location relative to the sign.
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## As you can see from Table 2.1, the car is

moving to the right (which we have defined
as the positive direction) during the first 10 s
of motion, from position A to position B. The
position values now begin to decrease,
however, because the car is backing up from
position B through position F. In fact, at D, 30
s after we start measuring, the car is
alongside the sign we are using as our origin
of coordinates. It continues moving to the left
and is more than 50 m to the left of the sign
when we stop recording information after our
sixth data point. A graph of this information
is presented in Figure 2.1b. Such a plot is
called a positiontime graph.

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## If a particle is moving, we can easily determine its

change in position. The displacement of a particle is
defined as its change in position. As it moves from
an initial position xi to a final position xf , its
displacement is given by xf - xi We use the Greek
letter delta () to denote the change in a quantity.
Therefore, we write the displacement, or change in
position, of the particle as:

## From this definition we see that x is positive if xf is

greater than xi and negative if xf is less than xi .
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## A very easy mistake to make is not to recognize the difference

between displacement and distance traveled (Fig. 2.2). A baseball
player hitting a home run travels a distance of 360 ft in the trip
around the bases. However, the players displacement is zero
because his final and initial positions are identical.
Displacement is an example of a vector quantity. Many other
physical quantities, including velocity and acceleration, also are
vectors. In general, a vector is a physical quantity that requires
the specification of both direction and magnitude. By contrast, a
scalar is a quantity that has magnitude and no direction. In this
chapter, we use plus and minus signs to indicate vector direction.
We can do this because the chapter deals with one-dimensional
motion only; this means that any object we study can be moving
only along a straight line.

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## For example, for horizontal motion, let us arbitrarily

specify to the right as being the positive direction. It
follows that any object always moving to the right
undergoes a positive displacement + x, and any object
moving to the left undergoes a negative displacement -
x.
There is one very important point that has not yet been
mentioned. Note that the graph in Figure 2.1b does not
consist of just six data points but is actually a smooth
curve. The graph contains information about the entire
50-s interval during which we watched the car move. It is
much easier to see changes in position from the graph
than from a verbal description or even a table of numbers.

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