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Fisika Teknik

Taharuddin

chxtahar@unila.ac.id

Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1 Gd. Meneng

Jurusan Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik

UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG

2012

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Introduction(1)

As a first step in studying classical mechanics,

we describe motion in terms of space and time

while ignoring the agents that caused that motion.

This portion of classical mechanics is called

kinematics. (The word kinematics has the same root

as cinema. Can you see why?) In this chapter we

consider only motion in one dimension. We first

define displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

Then, using these concepts, we study the motion of

objects traveling in one dimension with a constant

acceleration.

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Introduction(2)

From everyday experience we recognize that

motion represents a continuous change in the

position of an object. In physics we are concerned

with three types of motion: translational, rotational,

and vibrational. A car moving down a highway is an

example of translational motion, the Earths spin on

its axis is an example of rotational motion, and the

back-and-forth movement of a pendulum is an

example of vibrational motion. In this and the next

few chapters, we are concerned only with

translational motion.

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Introduction(3)

In our study of translational motion, we describe

the moving object as a particle regardless of its

size. In general, a particle is a point-like mass

having infinitesimal size. For example, if we wish to

describe the motion of the Earth around the Sun, we

can treat the Earth as a particle and obtain

reasonably accurate data about its orbit. This

approximation is justified because the radius of the

Earths orbit is large compared with the dimensions

of the Earth and the Sun.

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The Meaning of Shape for a p-t Graph

Our study of 1-dimensional kinematics has been

concerned with the multiple means by which the

motion of objects can be represented. Such means

include the use of words, the use of diagrams, the

use of numbers, the use of equations, and the use

of graphs. Lesson 3 focuses on the use of position

vs. time graphs to describe motion. As we will learn,

the specific features of the motion of objects are

demonstrated by the shape and the slope of the

lines on a position vs. time graph. The first part of

this lesson involves a study of the relationship

between the shape of a p-t graph and the motion of

the object.

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rightward (+) velocity - say of +10 m/s.

such a car were graphed, then

the resulting graph would look

like the graph at the right.

Note that a motion described

as a constant, positive velocity

results in a line of constant

and positive slope when

plotted as a position-time

graph.

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changing velocity - that is, a car that is moving

rightward but speeding up or accelerating.

graphs for the two types of

motion - constant velocity

and changing velocity (

acceleration) - are depicted

as follows.

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Resume

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The shapes of the position versus time graphs for these two

basic types of motion - constant velocity motion and

accelerated motion (i.e., changing velocity) - reveal an

important principle. The principle is that the slope of the line

on a position-time graph reveals useful information about

the velocity of the object. It is often said, "As the slope goes,

so goes the velocity." Whatever characteristics the velocity

has, the slope will exhibit the same (and vice versa). If the

velocity is constant, then the slope is constant (i.e., a

straight line). If the velocity is changing, then the slope is

changing (i.e., a curved line). If the velocity is positive, then

the slope is positive (i.e., moving upwards and to the right).

This very principle can be extended to any motion

conceivable.

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concerning the slope of the line on a position versus time graph. The

graph on the left is representative of an object that is moving with a

positive velocity (as denoted by the positive slope), a constant velocity

(as denoted by the constant slope) and a small velocity (as denoted by

the small slope). The graph on the right has similar features - there is a

constant, positive velocity (as denoted by the constant, positive slope).

However, the slope of the graph on the right is larger than that on the

left. This larger slope is indicative of a larger velocity. The object

represented by the graph on the right is traveling faster than the

object represented by the graph on the left. The principle of slope can

be used to extract relevant motion characteristics from a position vs.

time graph. As the slope goes, so goes the velocity.

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slope. The graph on the left is representative of an object that is

moving with a negative velocity (as denoted by the negative slope),

a constant velocity (as denoted by the constant slope) and a small

velocity (as denoted by the small slope). The graph on the right has

similar features - there is a constant, negative velocity (as denoted

by the constant, negative slope). However, the slope of the graph on

the right is larger than that on the left. Once more, this larger slope

is indicative of a larger velocity. The object represented by the graph

on the right is traveling faster than the object represented by the

graph on the left.

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As a final application of this principle of slope, consider the two graphs below.

Both graphs show plotted points forming a curved line. Curved lines have

changing slope; they may start with a very small slope and begin curving

sharply (either upwards or downwards) towards a large slope. In either case,

the curved line of changing slope is a sign of accelerated motion (i.e.,

changing velocity). Applying the principle of slope to the graph on the left, one

would conclude that the object depicted by the graph is moving with a

negative velocity (since the slope is negative ). Furthermore, the object is

starting with a small velocity (the slope starts out with a small slope) and

finishes with a large velocity (the slope becomes large). That would mean that

this object is moving in the negative direction and speeding up (the small

velocity turns into a larger velocity). This is an example of

negative acceleration - moving in the negative direction and speeding up. The

graph on the right also depicts an object with negative velocity (since there is

a negative slope). The object begins with a high velocity (the slope is initially

large) and finishes with a small velocity (since the slope becomes smaller). So

this object is moving in the negative direction and slowing down. This is an

example of positive acceleration.

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m/s for 5 seconds, abruptly stopping, and then remaining

at rest (v = 0 m/s) for 5 seconds.

car were graphed, then the resulting

graph would look like the graph at

the right. For the first five seconds

the line on the graph slopes up 5

meters for every 1 second along the

horizontal (time) axis. That is, the line

on the position vs. time graph has a

slope of +5 meters/1 second for the

first five seconds. Thus, the slope of

the line on the graph equals the

velocity of the car. During the last 5

seconds (5 to 10 seconds), the line

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Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts ahead of"

the red car. (The red car actually starts off the screen.) Since

the red car is moving faster, it eventually catches up with

and passes the blue car. Observe the position-time graphs

for these two cars. The position-time plot of each car's

motion is depicted by a diagonal line with a constant slope.

This diagonal line is an indicator of a constant velocity. At the

time that the cars are side by side, the lines intersect. That

is, the two cars share the same position at that instant in

time. The lines would not intersect for a

velocity vs. time graph; there is never an instant in time in

which they share the same velocity. The two cars have the

same position at seven seconds; yet they never have the

same velocity at any instant in time

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below.

much does it slope upwards for every 1 second along the horizontal

(time) axis? To answer this question we must use the slope equation.

determining the amount of rise of the line between any two points

divided by the amount of run of the line between the same two

points.

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In other words:

Pick two points on the line and determine their

coordinates.

Determine the difference in y-coordinates of these two

points (rise).

Determine the difference in x-coordinates for these two

points (run).

Divide the difference in y-coordinates by the difference

in x-coordinates (rise/run or slope).

The diagram below shows this method being applied to

determine the slope of the line. Note that three different

calculations are performed for three different sets of two

points on the line. In each case, the result is the same: the

slope is 10 m/s.

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Now let's attempt a more difficult example. Consider the

graph below. Note that the slope is not positive but

rather negative; that is, the line slopes in the downward

direction. Note also that the line on the graph does not

pass through the origin. Slope calculations are relatively

easy when the line passes through the origin since one

of the points is (0,0). But that is not the case here. Test

your understanding of slope calculations by determining

the slope of the line below. Then click the button to

check your answer.

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Determine the velocity (i.e., slope) of the object as

portrayed by the graph below. When you believe

you know the answer (and not before), click the

button to check it.

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velocity - say of +10 m/s. As learned in an earlier lesson,

a car moving with a constant velocity is a car with zero

acceleration.

If the velocity-time data for such a car were graphed, then the

resulting graph would look like the graph at the right. Note

that a motion described as a constant, positive velocity results

in a line of zero slope (a horizontal line has zero slope) when

plotted as a velocity-time graph. Furthermore, only positive

velocity values are plotted, corresponding to a motion with

positive velocity

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changing velocity - that is, a car that is moving rightward

but speeding up or accelerating. Since the car is moving

in the positive direction and speeding up, the car is said

to have a positive acceleration.

If the velocity-time data for such a car were graphed, then the

resulting graph would look like the graph at the right. Note

that a motion described as a changing, positive velocity

results in a sloped line when plotted as a velocity-time graph.

The slope of the line is positive, corresponding to the positive

acceleration. Furthermore, only positive velocity values are

plotted, corresponding to a motion with positive velocity.

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The velocity vs. time graphs for the two types of motion constant velocity and changing velocity (acceleration) - can be

summarized as follows.

The shapes of the velocity vs. time graphs for these two basic types

of motion - constant velocity motion and accelerated motion (i.e.,

changing velocity) - reveal an important principle. The principle is

that the slope of the line on a velocity-time graph reveals useful

information about the acceleration of the object. If the acceleration

is zero, then the slope is zero (i.e., a horizontal line). If the

acceleration is positive, then the slope is positive (i.e., an upward

sloping line). If the acceleration is negative, then the slope is

negative (i.e., a downward sloping line). This very principle can be

extended to any conceivable motion.

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object's acceleration. But how can one tell whether the object is

moving in the positive direction (i.e., positive velocity) or in the

negative direction (i.e., negative velocity)? And how can one tell if the

object is speeding up or slowing down?

The answers to these questions hinge on one's ability to read a graph.

Since the graph is a velocity-time graph, the velocity would be

positive whenever the line lies in the positive region (above the xaxis) of the graph. Similarly, the velocity would be negative whenever

the line lies in the negative region (below the x-axis) of the graph. As

learned in Lesson 1, a positive velocity means the object is moving in

the positive direction; and a negative velocity means the object is

moving in the negative direction. So one knows an object is moving in

the positive direction if the line is located in the positive region of the

graph (whether it is sloping up or sloping down). And one knows that

an object is moving in the negative direction if the line is located in

the negative region of the graph (whether it is sloping up or sloping

down). And finally, if a line crosses over the x-axis from the positive

region to the negative region of the graph (or vice versa), then the

object has changed directions.

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down? Speeding up means that the magnitude (or numerical

value) of the velocity is getting large. For instance, an object

with a velocity changing from +3 m/s to + 9 m/s is speeding

up. Similarly, an object with a velocity changing from -3 m/s to

-9 m/s is also speeding up. In each case, the magnitude of the

velocity (the number itself, not the sign or direction) is

increasing; the speed is getting bigger. Given this fact, one

would believe that an object is speeding up if the line on a

velocity-time graph is changing from near the 0-velocity point

to a location further away from the 0-velocity point. That is, if

the line is getting further away from the x-axis (the 0-velocity

point), then the object is speeding up. And conversely, if the

line is approaching the x-axis, then the object is slowing down.

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Acceleration

Observe the animation of the three cars below. Use the

animation to answer the three questions. (If necessary, review

the definition of acceleration.)

1.Which car or cars (red, green, and/or blue) are undergoing

an acceleration? Study each car individually in order to

determine the answer.

2.Which car (red, green, or blue) experiences the greatest

acceleration?

3.Consider the position-time graph at the right. Each one of

the three lines on the position-time graph corresponds to the

motion of one of the three cars. Match the appropriate line to

the particular color of car.

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Observe that the object below moves with a constant

velocity in the positive direction. The dot diagram shows

that each consecutive dot is the same distance apart

(i.e., a constant velocity). The position-time graph shows

that the slope is both constant (meaning a constant

velocity) and positive (meaning a positive velocity). The

velocity-time graph shows a horizontal line with zero

slope (meaning that there is zero acceleration); the line

is located in the positive region of the graph

(corresponding to a positive velocity). The accelerationtime graph shows a horizontal line at the zero mark

(meaning zero acceleration).

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Observe that the object below moves with a constant velocity

in the negative direction. The dot diagram shows that each

consecutive dot is the same distance apart (i.e., a constant

velocity). The position-time graph shows that the slope is both

constant (meaning a constant velocity) and negative (meaning

a negative velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a

horizontal line with zero slope (meaning that there is zero

acceleration); the line is located in the negative region of the

graph (corresponding to a negative velocity). The

acceleration-time graph shows a horizontal line at the zero

mark (meaning zero acceleration).

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Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction with

a changing velocity. An object which moves in the positive

direction has a positive velocity. If the object is speeding up, then

its acceleration vector is directed in the same direction as its

motion (in this case, a positive acceleration). The dot diagram

shows that each consecutive dot is not the same distance apart

(i.e., a changing velocity). The position-time graph shows that the

slope is changing (meaning a changing velocity) and positive

(meaning a positive velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a

line with a positive (upward) slope (meaning that there is a

positive acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of

the graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The accelerationtime graph shows a horizontal line in the positive region of the

graph (meaning a positive acceleration).

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Observe that the object below moves in the positive direction

with a changing velocity. An object which moves in the

positive direction has a positive velocity. If the object is

slowing down then its acceleration vector is directed in the

opposite direction as its motion (in this case, a negative

acceleration). The dot diagram shows that each consecutive

dot is not the same distance apart (i.e., a changing velocity).

The position-time graph shows that the slope is changing

(meaning a changing velocity) and positive (meaning a

positive velocity). The velocity-time graph shows a line with a

negative (downward) slope (meaning that there is a negative

acceleration); the line is located in the positive region of the

graph (corresponding to a positive velocity). The accelerationtime graph shows a horizontal line in the negative region of

the graph (meaning a negative acceleration).

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Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts ahead of" the

red car. (The red car actually starts off the screen.) Since the

red car is moving faster, it eventually catches up with and

passes the blue car. Observe the position-time graphs for

these two cars. The position-time plot of each car's motion is

depicted by a diagonal line with a constant slope. This

diagonal line is an indicator of a constant velocity. At the time

that the cars are side by side, the lines intersect. That is, the

two cars share the same position at that instant in time. The

lines would not intersect for a velocity vs. time graph; there is

never an instant in time in which they share the same velocity.

The two cars have the same position at seven seconds; yet

they never have the same velocity at any instant in time.

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Observe the two cars below. The blue car starts ahead of" the red

car. (The red car actually starts off the screen.) Since the red car

is moving faster, it eventually catches up with and passes the

blue car. Observe the velocity-time graphs for these two cars.

Each car's motion is represented by a horizontal line, indicating a

constant velocity. Observe that even though the cars pass each

other, the lines on the velocity-time graphs do not intersect.

Since the cars never have the same velocity, the lines on the

velocity-time graph never cross. The lines would intersect for a

position vs. time graph; the fact that the red car passes the blue

car means that there is an instant in which they occupy the same

position. The two cars have the same position at seven seconds;

yet they never have the same velocity at any instant in time.

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The Stoplight

A blue car moving at a constant speed of 10 m/s passes a red car that is at rest. This

occurs at a stoplight the moment that the light turns green. The clock is reset to 0

seconds and the velocity-time data for both cars are collected and plotted. The red car

accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three seconds and then maintains a constant speed.

The blue car maintains a constant speed of 10 m/s for the entire 12 seconds. Observe

the motion and make meaning of the accompanying graphs to answer the following

questions:

1. What is the final velocity of a car that accelerates from rest at 4 m/s/s for three

seconds?

2. What is the displacement of each individual car after three seconds? (Consider a

kinematic equation or the area of the velocity-time graph.)

3. What is the slope of the line for the red car for the first three seconds?

4. What is the displacement of each individual car after nine seconds (use the area of

the velocity-time graph)?

5. Does the red car pass the blue car at three seconds? If not, then when does the red

car pass the blue car?

6. When lines on a velocity-time graph intersect, does it mean that the two cars are

passing by each other? If not, what does it mean?

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2. 12 m/s

3. Red Car: Area of Triangle = 0.5*b*h = 0.5*(3 s)*(12 m/s) =

18 m

Blue Car: Area of Rectangle = b*h = (3 s)*(10 m/s) = 30 m

4. slope = rise/run = (12 m/s- 0 m/s) / (3 s) = 4 m/s/s

5. Red Car: Area of Triangle + Area of Rectangle = 0.5*b1*h1

+ b2*h2 = 0.5*(3 s)*(12 m/s) +(9 s)*(12 m/s) = 18 m + 72

m = 90 m

Blue Car: Area of Rectangle = b*h = (9 s)*(10 m/s) = 90 m

6. No! The red car passes the blue car at 9 seconds. See

animation and the result of the above question.

7. No! When lines intersect on a velocity-time graph, it

means that the two cars have the same velocity. When

lines intersect on a position-time graph, it means that the

two cars are passing each other.

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The motion of a particle is completely known if the

particles position in space is known at all times.

Consider a car moving back and forth along the x

axis, as shown in Figure 2.1a. When we begin

collecting position data, the car is 30 m to the right

of a road sign. (Let us assume that all data in this

example are known to two significant figures. To

convey this information, we should report the initial

position as 3.0 x 101 m. We have written this value

in this simpler form to make the discussion easier to

follow.) We start our clock and once every 10 s note

the cars location relative to the sign.

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moving to the right (which we have defined

as the positive direction) during the first 10 s

of motion, from position A to position B. The

position values now begin to decrease,

however, because the car is backing up from

position B through position F. In fact, at D, 30

s after we start measuring, the car is

alongside the sign we are using as our origin

of coordinates. It continues moving to the left

and is more than 50 m to the left of the sign

when we stop recording information after our

sixth data point. A graph of this information

is presented in Figure 2.1b. Such a plot is

called a positiontime graph.

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change in position. The displacement of a particle is

defined as its change in position. As it moves from

an initial position xi to a final position xf , its

displacement is given by xf - xi We use the Greek

letter delta () to denote the change in a quantity.

Therefore, we write the displacement, or change in

position, of the particle as:

greater than xi and negative if xf is less than xi .

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between displacement and distance traveled (Fig. 2.2). A baseball

player hitting a home run travels a distance of 360 ft in the trip

around the bases. However, the players displacement is zero

because his final and initial positions are identical.

Displacement is an example of a vector quantity. Many other

physical quantities, including velocity and acceleration, also are

vectors. In general, a vector is a physical quantity that requires

the specification of both direction and magnitude. By contrast, a

scalar is a quantity that has magnitude and no direction. In this

chapter, we use plus and minus signs to indicate vector direction.

We can do this because the chapter deals with one-dimensional

motion only; this means that any object we study can be moving

only along a straight line.

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specify to the right as being the positive direction. It

follows that any object always moving to the right

undergoes a positive displacement + x, and any object

moving to the left undergoes a negative displacement -

x.

There is one very important point that has not yet been

mentioned. Note that the graph in Figure 2.1b does not

consist of just six data points but is actually a smooth

curve. The graph contains information about the entire

50-s interval during which we watched the car move. It is

much easier to see changes in position from the graph

than from a verbal description or even a table of numbers.

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