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Specification &

Quantities
Estimating
Lecturer
Maha Muhaisen

College of Applied Engineering& Urban Planning

Course Aims & Objectives


At the completion of this course, the student will:
Recognize the preliminary and detailed estimating methods
and focusing on the elements for construction projects
To be familiar with cost analysis and preparation for bidding.
Understanding and be
familiar with the construction
specification in particular for building.

Course Outline
Part 1 : Quantity Survey
Introduction to Engineering project including
project cycle, & bidding documents.
Quantities surveying and calculation of
different areas.
Methods of measurement of the works.
Pricing & cost analysis.
Payment certificate.
Application on Engineering project

Part 2 : Technical specification


Earth works
Concrete works
Masonry works
Plastering
Tiling
Metal work
Carpentry work
Painting works
Glazing
Plumbing works
Electrical works

The Engineering Project


Project

Mechanical
Works

Electrical
Works

Structural
works

Architectural
Works

Types of construction Engineering


Projects :
- Building construction
- Roads Construction
- Water Systems
- Sewerage and Storm water systems

Project Cycle

Taking- over,
and operation

Studies, design,
tendering

Implementation
& supervision

Main stages in construction


project
1- Concept : identify the project needs, and objectives
2- technical studies as feasibility study, possibility of
implementation, primary cost, and possibility of financing ..etc.
3- Preliminary design
4- Detailed design including architectural , structural, electrical,
mechanical.
5- Tender documents.
6 Tendering
7- Contract Award
8- contract agreement
9- starting construction
10- Preliminary handing over the project
11- the operation of the project
12- maintenance period
13- Project final handing over.

Construction Project
Cycle

Tender Documents

Invitation to bid
Instruction to bidders
Information to bidders & bid data
Biding Forms
General conditions of contract
Specific condition of contract
Specification
BOQ
Drawings
Contract forms

The Project Parties


The Employer /Owner
The consultant: who appointed by the

employer to do the design and bidding


documents and supervise the
construction work.
The contractor: who was approved by
the employer to implement the works
according to the submitted bid.

Other Parties
Municipalities, ministries,
suppliers, technicians
Subcontracts, workers,
Insurance companies
Banks and other financing agencies.

Construction Project Teams


Main tasks for engineering teams in
the project are :
- design
- Implementation / construction
- supervision

Construction Project
Teams

Quantity Surveyor
He the person who is responsible on

estimating the quantities from the


design drawings, and measurement of
the quantities in the site during the
project implementation, and preparing
the current and final payments.

Quantity Surveys (take off)


It is the quantity of works/material take off ,
required for the completion of project
implementation, and listed as items in table of
quantities.
In general we can describe quantity survey
as follows:
1.Description and preparation of the bill of
quantities and its items required for the tender.
2.Preparation of the site material, material types,
and material distribution.

Quantity surveys (take off) ..


Cont.
Describe the items and preparing BOQ
Preparing of the cost estimate in BOQ.
Preparation of the list of the site needs

(technician / workers)
Preparation of the due payment statements
(contractor payments during the construction)

Tasks of the Quantity


Surveyor
First : in the consultant office :
Stage 1 :During the preparation of bidding
documents :
- Preparation of the BOQ from the design drawing
which part of bidding documents.
- Preparation of cost estimate for items listed in BOQ
- Review and check the bids submitted from bidders.
- Preparation of the lists of the contents of bids
received.
- Sharing in evaluation and preparation of t
recommendation to award the contract to be
submitted to owner.

Quantity Surveyor Tasks


2 Stage 2 :

During the supervision of the


construction

Review and checking the payments submitted


from the contractor.
Preparation of the reports about the
conformity of the quantities items with
contract documents.

Second : In the Contractor


Company
- During the implementation :
- Review and checking the BOQ at the starting of the
-

work.
Prepare the eng. Measurement for the quantities of the
finished works.
Prepare lists of the site needs (material, workers,
technicians)
Calculate the remuneration of the subcontractors,
workers, equipments,etc.
Prepare the payment statements
Prepare the detailed reports describing the situation of
the items quantities, (plus or minus the contract BOQ)

Required Skills
Ability to understand the drawings details, design

drawings, shop drawings, as built ).


Excellent knowledge of the calculation of the
areas and volumes, knowledge of fees of workers
e /technicians/ , rules and law of the contracts,
In addition to the knowledge of related financial
issues/ taxes, banks transactions, insurances and
its implication.
Knowledge of the productivity of the workers and
technicians.

Stages of the Quantity Survey


Stage1 : preparation of the engineering

measurement and calculations of the works


during the preparation of the bidding
documents (consultant) and
- preparation of the measurement of the
accomplished works in the site and prepare
the payment (contractor)
Stage 2 : preparing BOQ
Stage 3 : review and check the financial
payments.

Areas, Volumes, & Surface


areas

See attached PDF file

Next Lecture :
Special calculations of the areas and volumes.
Measurement of the works.

Method of measurements
1- Conventional measurement ( )
Depends on experience, and type of project.
Doesn't govern by theories or engineering basics.
Not considered as scientific method.
Doesn't subtract the opening as windows or doors from the

block, plastering, painting works and computing whole wall.


Another example : as the every 3 steps in stair = 1 m3
2- Engineering measurement ( )
It is calculating all the works finished after subtracting all
opening.

unit

measurement

example

(L.S)

Works have details


difficult to be
calculated

Earth work, earthling system


(electrical),,

M.R

Works have specific


length and width

As pipes

No.

Works have 3 dim.


fixed

Windows, doors,

M2

Works with specific


thickness,

as plastering, painting,

M3

Variable dimensions

Footings, columns, stairs,

Ton / kg

Have specific width

As steel

Day / hrs

Labor / equipment

Workers wages, equipment,

Cont.
Lump-sum

Types of construction
works
Building construction
Roads construction
Water Booster P.S and piping,
Sewage and storm water P.S and piping.
Electrical construction

Preparation of engineering
measurements
measurement sheet

project name _________________


contractor name ____________
engineer name _______________

Measurement of works /
Earth unit
Work
Item
Method of measurement
Site leveling

Lump sum

It takes into consideration all site leveling


including the excavation, fill, till reach 0+B.M
according to design drawing.

Excavation (cut)

m3

Measured by 2 methods :
1- footings areas according to blinding area *
depth of excavation according to drawings.
2- external dimensions of the building *depth
of footings

Fill (backfill)

m3

= excavation concrete work for footings and


columns under ground level.
= ground plan *depth of ground beams
(concrete for ground beams and ground floors)

Measurement of works /
concrete works
Concrete works measures engineering

measurement
All opening more than 0.1m2 or 0.1 m3 are
deducted.
The concrete works more than the areas,
volumes in the drawings doesnt included.

Measurement of works /
Item
unit
Method of measurement
concrete
works= length * width (the thickness should be
Blinding
m2
concrete, ground
concrete,
benching, and
slabs concrete
with fixed
thickness

specified in the drawings and specifications)


Ribs blocks dont subtract from the slabs
concrete.

Footings,
columns, ground
beams, stairs, and
canopies,

m3

= length*width*thickness
-Ground beams are measured from its
connection with columns
- concrete stars include the stairs , steps, stair
slabs, walls supporting the stairs.

Concrete
decoration works
as curves.

No.

The dimensions must be specified in the


drawings.

Measurement
of
works
/
block
Item
unit
Method of measurement
Block
works
m2
= length * width (the thickness should be
works

specified in the drawings and specifications)


- subtracting all openings more than 0.1 cm2.

Measurement of works /
Plastering/ painting works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Length * width

M2

= length * width
(engineering measurement after subtracting the
openings, more than 0.1 m2)
- the area is measured above the skirting
(terrazzo chips)
Internal plastering = walls + slabs

Measurement of works / tilling


works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Terrazzo,
marble, ceramic

m2

= length * width
(engineering measurement)

Measurement of works /
Plastering/ painting works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Plastering &
painting

M2

= length * width
(engineering measurement after subtracting the
openings, more than 0.1 m2)
- the area is measured above the skirting
(terrazzo chips)
Internal plastering = walls + ceiling

Measurement of works / Doors


Item

unit

Method of measurement

Doors

No.

The exact dimensions should be specified in the


design drawings.
Sometimes carpentry works measured in m2 or
m length according to the item described in
BOQ.

Measurement of works /
Windows
Item

unit

Method of measurement

windows

No.

The exact dimensions should be specified in the


design drawings.
Sometimes carpentry works measured in m2 or
m length according to the item described in
BOQ.

Measurement of works / electrical &


sanitary works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Electrical and
sanitary pieces /
accessories

No.

The dimensions should be specified clearly in


the design drawings as the sockets, lamps,
fluorescent lighting,etc
(W.C. , washing basins, sinks, manholes,
pumpsetc)

piping

M.R

The dimension and details should be specified


in the drawings, as (cables, pipes, ..etc)

Works with
special detail

Lumps sum

All details should be specified in the drawings,


as earthing, gas network,

Bill of Quantities
The results in the quantities book, are recorded in the BOQ table.
It is preferable to add 5-10% percentage on the quantities for

contingency to avoid any errors or any.

Preparation of engineering
measurements
measurement sheet
project name _________________
contractor name ____________
engineer name _______________

Measurement of works / Earth


Work

Item

unit

Method of measurement

Site leveling

Lump sum

It takes into consideration all site leveling


including the excavation, fill, till reach
0+B.M according to design drawing.

Excavation (cut)

m3

Measured by 2 methods :
1- footings areas according to blinding area *
depth of excavation according to drawings.
2- external dimensions of the building
*depth of footings

Fill (backfill)

m3

= excavation concrete work for footings


and columns under ground level.
= ground plan *depth of ground beams
(concrete for ground beams and ground
floors)

Measurement of works /
concrete works
Concrete works measures engineering
measurement
All openinng more than 0.1m2 or 0.1 m3 are
deducted.
The concrete works more than the areas,
volumes in the drawings doesnt included.

Measurement of works /
concrete works

Item

unit

Method of measurement

Blinding
concrete, ground
concrete,
benching, and
slabs concrete
with fixed
thickness

m2

= length * width (the thickness should be


specified in the drawings and specifications)

Footings,
columns, ground
beams, stairs,
and canopies,

m3

= length*width*thickness
-Ground beams are measured from its
connection with columns
- concrete stars include the stairs , steps, stair
slabs, walls supporting the stairs.

Concrete
decoration works
as curves.

No.

The dimensions must be specified in the


drawings.

Ribs blocks dont subtract from the slabs


concrete.

Measurement of works / block


works

Item

unit

Method of measurement

Block works

m2

= length * width (the thickness should be


specified in the drawings and specifications)
- subtracting all openings more than 0.1
cm2.

Measurement of works /
Plastering/ painting works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Length * width

M2

= length * width
(engineering measurement after subtracting
the openings, more than 0.1 m2)
- the area is measured above the skirting
(terrazzo chips)
Internal plastering = walls + slabs

Measurement of works / tilling


works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Terrazzo,
marble, ceramic

m2

= length * width
(engineering measurement)

Measurement of works /
Plastering/ painting works
Item

unit

Method of measurement

Plastering &
painting

M2

= length * width
(engineering measurement after subtracting
the openings, more than 0.1 m2)
- the area is measured above the skirting
(terrazzo chips)
Internal plastering = walls + ceiling

Measurement of works / Doors


Item

unit

Method of measurement

Doors

No.

The exact dimensions should be specified in


the design drawings.
Sometimes carpentry works measured in m2
or m length according to the item described
in BOQ.

Bill of Quantities
The results in the quantities book, are recorded in the

BOQ table.
It is preferable to add 5-10% percentage on the
quantities for contingency to avoid any errors or any.

Bill of Quantities
No.

Item description

unit

The works include

L.S

See the attached example

Quantity

Unit
price
($ or
NIS
)

Total
amount
($ or NIS
)

Bill of Quantities
The items are classified into categories as

shown in the next table.


at the end of BOQ, summary of the items are
shown as well as the total amount of the
price

Summary
table
Item

No.

1-

EXCAVATION & EARTH WORKS

CONCRETE WORKS

3-

BLOCK WORK

4-

CARPENTRY

5-

METAL WORK

6-

FINISHING WORKS

7-

PLUMBING WORKS

8-

ELECTRICAL WORKS

9-

MISCELLANEOUS

Total amount
($ or NIS )

Item description
Based on drawings, specification.
It should be accurate and reflect the

drawings and specifications,


Description should include :
1- description of the works
2- unit
3- determine the method of measurement.

How to read the


description
Description of the items
Drawings, details
Specifications
General and specific conditions
Instruction of the supervisor engineer

the work price should

include

The description of the item should include


all the work that the unit price will take
account of as will be illustrated in the
following

1- Earth work

The unit price should include : Excavation in any kind of soil, rock, etc., starting at reduced

level (bottom of G.B. blinding) down to bottom of foundation


blinding including compacting backfill around foundations and
shall be applied on layers, 200 mm thick, watered and
compacted to 95 % (98%) according to modified AASHTO
Density Test T-80.for the excavated foundation and removal of
surplus material from site to an approved dumping area
complete as per specifications.
Site Leveling. (Excavation of all Site including External Works).
Cut and / or fill in any kind of soil, concrete, or asphalt; to the
required Levels approved by the Engineer (Reduced Level).
Including scraping of top. Any damage to the external walls,
fence, etc. should be maintained without any compensations..
Test of the soil (4 points at least)
Safety around the site,
Work according to engineer instruction and specifications

Concrete work
Concrete works include:
All formworks and shuttering in any form, shape and size.
Making chamfered and curved edges, allowing for and making
grooves and sleeves and the like; removal of forms and cleaning
of all exposed tie wires and rods; making good the harmed
surfaces and
Supplying, Casting, vibrating and curing as per specifications.
Approved additives and admixtures.
Incurred costs on Concrete Mix Designs, Sample taking, testing
and providing test results certificates, storing and saving of
samples, and preparation of bar bending schedules and
workshops.
Supplying reinforcement of any grade, size and length as
detailed in the drawings, storing on site including cutting,
bending and fixing in position and providing all tying wires,
spacers, shop drawings, testing and bar bending schedules

Concrete work (contd)


Painting of exposed surfaces of underground reinforced

concrete elements with two coats of Bituminous Emulsion.


Supply of Polyethylene sheets under ground slabs.
Steel bars used for alignment and fixing of reinforcement
works, and extra steel added to assure proper detailing
and safety.
Measurement of Concrete elements shall be the net
dimensions as detailed in the drawings. All recesses,
openings and voids shall be deducted.
Measurement shall be only for the seen surfaces of
elements, overlapping and measuring items twice under
separate headings shall not be allowed.
Supplying and fixing of the required steel reinforcement as
per drawings and specifications.

Block works

Rates of Block works include


All works of the bill shall be of Concrete blocks of high
quality standards and as per specifications.
Vertical and horizontal joints., Cement and mortar,
Galvanized angles and ties., Closed end blocks at all
ends, door and window jambs, reveals and the like.
Concrete filling including reinforcing steel to cavities at
quoins and door and window openings.
Lintels and bond beams to the full length of the wall,
and all needed to complete job as per drawings and
specifications
concrete infill and transporting, placing compacting,
curing, surface finishing, protection, construction and
expansion joints and all labors and materials and tests.

Block works (contd)


Block work shall be bonded to concrete

columns, wall and the like with concrete infill


B250. block must be stopped in graded
shape (10-15 cm from the concrete face) one
8 mm bar must cast in columns during
casting with 40 cm length fixed every 42 cm
horizontally, in addition to two vertical 10
mm bars.

Plastering works, includes


The price shall include, all narrow widths, for taking out

joints on block walls or backing concrete face for key, for


making good to frames around pipes and other fittings ,
plastering to jambs and reveals of openings (
) , side of columns, window sills; all
of which shall be included Price shall also include Expanded
metal lath, angle beads at all corners and plaster stops at
opening edges, expansion joints, sills, labor, curing,
erecting and dismantling of scaffoldings ), additives,
pigments and all incidentals required as specified
Material, workmanship,
Galvanized mesh, or plastic mesh,

False ceiling from galvanized mesh and plastering


(fixing mesh , covering it by 3-coats of rough plaster)
reinforcement of the joints between different material as
the joints between the wall and columns.

Tilling works
Rate shall include preparation of surfaces under tiles, special tile

peaces for edges and the like, tile surface finishing, Plastic spacers.
Pointing and cleaning and all incidental as per specifications.
Supply, Install and Terrazzo Tiles, include, bedding and jointing in
cement and sand mortar, pointing with white cement, required sand fill,
and polishing, workmanship, and all incidental as per specifications
Isolation works for kitchen and bathroom (layer of fiber glass, and
bitumen layers)
Marble includes connections, joints, mortar, and any other needed
work.
Supply and install a layer of cement and sand under marble and
porcelain , ceramic, according to specification and engineer instruction.
Supply and spread a layer of sand under the tiles.
Any decoration works as drawings

Painting works
All Paints shall be supplied to site in sealed

container, as approved by the Engineer, and site


mixing shall not be permitted.
The Contractor rates shall include for supply of
all materials, workmanship, samples, surface
preparation , protection of painted surfaces ,
application to all heights as required of works,
repair of all damaged surface, as per
specification.

CARPENTRY AND JOINERY WORKS (window &


doors)
Sizes of carpentry works given in the Bills of Quantities are finished sizes and
shall be as per Drawings.
Sizes of doors and other items mentioned in the Bills of Quantities shall allow
for tolerance to suit the structural openings shown in the Drawings.
Wooden doors and pair of doors shall be measured in square meter for each
structural opening, unless stated otherwise in the Bills of Quantities. Rates
for carpentry and joinery work shall include :
Shop and coordinated drawings.
frames, architrave () , and other holders
Allowance for plastering and tiling and the like.
Cutting and fitting around obstructions, Bedding and painting.
Grounds, blocking and backings.
Plugging concrete, block work, and stone work , and making good.
Ironmongery including cylindrical locks, handles, stoppers, screws,
temporary fixing, re-fixing, oiling and adjusting.

STEEL AND ALUMINUM WORKS


Rates for metalwork shall include for :
Preparing shop drawings,
Drilling, counter sinking, screwing, bolting and riveting.
Sub frames, including galvanized steel frames for Aluminum
windows and architrave.
Gaskets, sashes, double weather strips and external and internal
approved quality silicon filling around frames.
Ironmonger including cylindrical locks (Union or equal) , stoppers,
handles, temporarily fixing, refitting, oiling and adjusting.
Providing two keys for each lock .
Glass and glazing including cutting to size, putty and rubber.
Preparing surfaces for and painting one coat of primer before fixing.
Sealing and Painting to any area or width in any location including
work in multicolor and cutting in edges.
All other accessories and incidentals required to execute the work.

Electrical works
All items price to include Supply, Installing, Connecting and

testing unless otherwise indicated, the contractor are requested


to have approved full coordinated work shop drawings before
starting contract activities, the price also includes all works
necessary to implement electrical works in approved manner.
The contractor intended to order main and final distribution
panel boards according to approved manufacturer drawings.
The price to include submittals, catalogs, any manufacturer
instruction .
The contractor should install and construct all works according
to drawings , specification tender documents, and requirement
of Electrical Co.
Contractor should also test & submit the electrical
Work to the Electricity Co. & Municipality.

PLUMBING, SANITARY AND MECHANICAL WORKS


Rates shall include all fittings , fixtures , appliances and

pipe laying Supply of material, workmanship, installation,


testing and commissioning.
Rates to include also all peaces and fittings, including by
passes , floats, cleaning outlets , automatic vents, vents
and stack covers, valves and non return valves and the
like needed to complete works as per specifications.
Insulation and painting as called for in specifications.
Excavation and cutting for all pipe laying works, bedding
back filling and all works connected with pipe laying.
All ties, sleeves, joints, tie bolts and rods, brackets and
the like.
Rates to include Workshops, Coordinated and as- built
drawings as approved by the Engineer

Pricing & price analysis


Before construction three types of pricing :
1- cost estimate
2- pricing
3- cost analysis

Factors affecting the pricing


Raw material
Workmanship, labor, sub-contractors
Administration cost including direct cost as salaries,

equipments, transportation ..etc. and indirect cost as


electricity, communication cost, banks , municipality
fees, ,,,etc.
Unforeseen expenses & risk (3-5%)
Insurances
Taxes as income tax, V.A.T,
Profit (7-10%)

Productivity of labor
It is necessary to calculate the productivity for

the work teams either worker or technicians /


equipments to calculate wages, for workers /
subcontractors.
Productivity is measured per hour or per day.

Pricing analysis stages :


Estimate the price for raw material and

workmanship.
Estimate the percentage of the specified work
from the total project work . (work item/total
work *100%)
Estimate the cost of administration /
management , tax, insurances, risk, and profit.
Estimate the total cost for all works item.
Estimate the unit price for each item.

Example:
Analyze the prices, and find the unit price for

the following, knowing that,


1- Administrative expenses is fixed (1000$) for
project
2- Unfixed expenses / indirect (400$)
3- Insurance 200 $

ID

Description of work

unit

quantity

Concrete footings

M3

78

Block works for wall


(20*20*24cm)

M2

100

Internal plastering

M2

200

Wooden door 90*220

No.

10

1- Price for raw material and


workmanship
- Concrete footing (B250)
ID

Description

1-

Concrete footings
(B250)

total
Total price (NIS)
Total price ($)
Total for 78 m3

Raw
material
per m3
Concrete
Steel
Wires
Nails, bolts

price

workmanship

190
170
5
2

100

Water
isolation

1
3
371
471
134$
134*78 =
10,960 $

100

Block work (20*20*40 cm)


ID

Description

Raw material
per m2

price

workmanshi
p

Block 20*20*40

block

12.5*2=25

Morter

Moving the
blocks

Joints,
concrete fill

total

35

Total price (NIS)

41

Total price ($)

11.7

Total for

78 m3

11.7*100=
1170$

Internal plastering
ID

Description

Internal plastering

total
Total price (NIS)
Total price ($)
Total for 200 m2

Raw
material
per m2
scaffolding
Morter
Angles,
metal
grid, ..etc
water

price

workmanship

o.5
4
0.5

0.5
6
12
3.4
3.4*200=
680$

Wooden doors 220*90 cm


ID

Description

Raw
material
per m2

price

workmanship

Wooden door
220*90

material

400

50

Misce.

20

total

420

Total price (NIS)

470

Total price ($)

135

Total for

10 doors

135*10
=1350$

50

percentage of the specified work


from the total project work
ID

Description

Total work price

% from total
work

Concrete footings
(B250)

10960

77.40%

Internal plastering

680

4.80%

Wooden door 220*90

1350

9.53%

Block 20*20*40

1170

8.26%

Total

14160

100.00%

2- the cost of administration /


management , tax, insurances, risk,
and profit.
administration
expenses

ID

Description

fixed
(1000$)

variab
le
(400$)

tax
(10%)

Insura
nce

risks
(5%)

profit
(10%)

Total

(200$)

Concrete
footings
(B250)

774.01

309.6

1096

154.8

548

1096

3978.4

Internal
plastering

48.02

19.21

68

9.61

34

68

246.83
62

Wooden
door 220*90

95.34

38.14

135

19.07

67.5

135

490.04

Block
20*20*40

82.63

33.05

117

16.53

58.5

117

424.70

total cost for all works


item
ID

Description

stage (1)

stage (2)

total

1.00

Concrete
footings (B250)

10,960.00

3,978.42

14,938.42

2.00

Internal
plastering

680.00

246.84

926.84

3.00

Wooden door
220*90

1,350.00

490.04

1,840.04

4.00

Block 20*20*40

1,170.00

424.70

1,594.70

unit price for each item


ID

Description

unit

quantit unit price


y

total

1.0 Concrete
0
footings
(B250)

m3

78.00

191.52

14,938.42

2.0 Internal
0
plastering

m2

200.00

4.63

926.84

3.0 Wooden door


0
220*90

no

10.00

184.00

1,840.04

4.0 Block
0
20*20*40

m2

100.00

15.95

1,594.70

Lecture 7
Estimating & Evaluation

Form of evaluation based


on cost per unit
ID

Description

unit

Unit price

Concrete footings

m3

200

Block 20*20*40

m2

20

Wooden door 220*90 cm

no

300

Internal plastering

m2

Cost per m2 of floor area


(residential building)
Descriptio
n (m2)

stores

Ground
floor

First floor

Structural
elements

70

80

60

finishing

40

80

80

total

110

160

140

Cost of housing unit


= cost of m2 * the areas of the unit

Analysis of quantities
Analysis to raw material quantities for
example :
- Concrete : cement, water, aggregate, steel,
- Cement in 1m3:
- Mixing proportion (4:2:1) = 300kg, 6:3:1 =
200 kg,
- 8:4:1 = 150 kg
- 1m3 concrete = 80% aggregates, 40% sand
- 1m3 (footings) = 60kg

Miscellaneous works
1m2 block (40*20*20) = 12.5 block
1m2 tiling (25*25) = 16
1 sack of cement = 1 m2 plastering
1 sack cement = built 100 blocks

Estimation of Concrete price


1 m3 concrete consist of :
350 kg cement
1.2 ton aggregates
0.8 ton sand
Price of mixing and pouring, transportation
The total price will be = 0.35

*300NIS+1.3*40+0.8*120+20 (mixing)

Steel reinforcement
In general and according to practices, the

following elements contains , Steel


reinforcement
Footings = 60kg/m3
Columns = 200 kg/m3
Ground beams, stairs,= 80kg/m3
Slabs = 17kg/m2

Payment certificate
Financial Request for payment, prepared by

contractors, and approved by consultant / owner ,


describing the actual achieved works , by
calculating the unit price by the quantity of item
done.
It is important for the contractor as well as for the
owner. For the contractor, he gets the value of
works done, and save to him liquidity
for the owner , he become aware of the progress,
achieved (actual) and planned, therefore, he can
know if there is any obstacles or delay.

Preparation of payment

Types of payment
certificates
1- interim payment certificate
2- final statement / final payment certificates

1- interim payment certificate


It is request for payment, contains quantity

survey for the accomplished works , and other


supporting details submitted by contractor
over the progress period of the project, .
The amount of each request should not be
less than 10% of the contract value or
according to contract conditions

Contents of the payment


certificate
1- Financial Payment Certificate: it is a survey of
the accomplished works (actual done),
multiplied by its value according to the
contract.
2- Measurements :
3- Drawings : as built drawings.

Content of the Payment Certificate


It contains :
1- summary, describing the commencement date,
project end date, in addition to other data as contract
value, variation order, percentage of the
accomplished works, value of the current payment,
and due payment, any amount to be deducted for
retention, Percentage of retention stated in the
Contract Data to the total of the above, and
Retention Money (if any) stated in the Contract Data;
any amounts to be added and deducted for the
advance payment , the deduction of amounts
certified in all previous Payment Certificates.

Payment Certificate
2- total price of the accomplished works, and
percentage of the work done in relation to total
project.
3- other supporting documents including the
description of the items, progress in each item
previously and also current, unit price, total
percentage of the project progress.
Second : measurements
And it is table of actual quantity survey
accomplished, including item description, number,
volume (length, width, height) and the total.

Payment Certificate
Third : As build drawings, describing the

details of the work done,

Final payment certificate


It is called the final payment / certificate after

the primary taking over the project.


The process of approval as follows:
1- after taking over the project, final request
for payment is prepared,
the contractor signed the request for payment
and the measurement sheet, and submitting it
to engineer / owner.
2- to be paid the following documents should
be attached :

Copy of taking over certificate signed form

the committee
Copy of the bid submitted from the contractor
after considering the prices in the request for
payment
defect liability security
All tests results
Deduction of the works that mentioned in the
taking over or any liquidated damages.
Letters of project extension if it was extended.

Final payment certificate


Contents of the final payment certificate :
Application for the request
List of the actual accomplished works and its
value.
List of measurements
As build drawings as it was approved from the
engineer.

Table of reinforcement steel weights :


Diam

Wt of 1m length(kg)

Area of section (mm2) Perimeter (mm)

0.222

0.283

1.884

0.395

0.502

2.521

10

0.617

0.785

3.14

12

0.888

1.13

3.768

14

1.209

1.539

4.396

16

1.58

2.01

5.024

18

1.999

2.543

5.652

20

2.468

3.14

6.28

22

2.986

3.799

6.908

25

3.856

4.906

7.85

28

4.837

6.154

8.792

32

6.318

8.038

10.048

36

7.996

10.174

11.304

40

9.872

12.56

12.56

Weight of 1m of steel bar = (diameter, cm) 2 *

0.617
Area of section = r2
Perimeter (mm) = 2 r

Footing table
F4, C4

F3, C3

F2,
C2

F1, C1

Length of steel Bars :


F1 : 1.5 x 1.3 x 0.45 m,

Reinforcement

= 1112 , & 9 12
F2 = 1.7 x 1.5 x 0.45 m,
Reinforcement = 1312 , & 11 12
F3 = 1.9 x 1.7 x 0.45 m,
Reinforcement
= 1412 , & 12 12
F4 = 2.1 X 1.9 X 0.5 m,
Reinforcement
= 1612 , & 14 12
Concrete cover = 5 cm

For F1:

Length of steel in longitudinal direction:


Ls = 1.5 - .05*2 =1.4 m
In vertical direction at both sides = (0.45-0.05*2)/3 *2= 0.24 m
The total for bar in longitudinal direction = 1.4+0.24+0.12*2=1.88

m
The total length for all steel in longitudinal direction = length of 1
bar *number of bars in the direction = 1.88*11=20.57 m
In traverse direction: = 1.3 0.05*2+0.12*2+0.24 = 1.68m
Total length for all steel in the short direction = 9 *1.68 = 15.12 m
The total in both direction = 35.69 m
WT of steel for one foot type F1 = 35.69 * 0.888= 31.693 kg
For all F1 = 31.693 *4 = 126.77kg.

I Item
unit
D description

Diam Length Total


.
of bar length

Wt of
1m

Total
Wt

No. of
footin
gs

Total
WT for
all F1

Reinforcem
ent steel
for footings
:
F1

Kg

12

In long
directi
on =
1.88
In
short
directi
on =
1.68

1.88*1 0.888 31.69 4


1+1.6
3
8*9 =

35.69
m

126.77

drawings

For column neck:


C1 = 25*60, 614
(F1 : 1.5 x 1.3 x 0.45 m,

Reinforcement = 1112 , & 9 12)


Length of one bar:
Excavation depth = 1.5 m, floor
height = 0.48 m
Steel leg = 1.5 (0.05*2)/4 = 0.35
m
The total length = 1.5
+0.48+0.35+0.14 0.1 0.05
0.024 = 2.296 m

For stirrups:
If length of column section <60cm, one
stirrup is needed, but if it is > 60cm, two ties
is needed
Concrete cover for column = 2.5 cm
For C1 = 25*60
Length of stirrups= (0.6 0.05)*2 = 1.1m
Width of stirrup= (0.25-0.05 )*2 = 0.4m
Total length of the stirrup= 1.1+0.4+0.08*2 =
1.66m