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Introduction to Power

Systems
Instructor: Peng Xiong
elexiongp@tamu.edu

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Main Components of Power Systems


Generation
Transmission

Alternating current (AC) transmission


High-voltage direct current (HVDC)
transmission

Distribution
Load

Commercial/industrial customers
Residential customers
ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and
Protection

Main Components of Power Systems

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Types of Power Plants

Fossil fuel power plants


Nuclear power plants
Hydroelectric power plants
Other energy sources: wind, solar, tidal,
biomass, geothermal

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Fossil Fuel Plants

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Fossil Fuel Plants

Fuel types: coal, fuel oil, natural gas, or


oil shale
Dispatchable generation
Non-renewable
Environmental impacts
Carbon dioxide
Particulate matter
Water and air contaminations
ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and
Protection

Electric Power Generation


Nuclear Fuel Plants

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Nuclear Power Plants

Dispatchable generation
Non-renewable
Safety
Radioactive waste
Vulnerability

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Hydroelectric Power Plants

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Hydroelectric Power Plants

Kinetic energy of water


Difficulty in dispatching
Storage
Sustainable
Environmental impacts
Ecosystem damage and loss of land

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Wind Power Generation

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Wind Power Generation

Types of wind turbines


Fixed-speed wind turbine
Variable-speed wind turbine

Uncertain, intermittent, and nondispatchable


Sustainable
Environmental impacts
Emission free
Noise/animal mortality
ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and
Protection

Electric Power Generation


Wind Power Generation

Growth of wind power capacity

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Wind Power Generation

Installed wind power capacity in the US,


2009

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Wind Power Generation

Installed wind power capacity in the US,


2014

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Solar Power

Photovoltaic (PV) power

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Solar Power

Photovoltaic (PV) power


Photovoltaic effect
Uncertain, intermittent, and nondispatchable
Sustainable
Environmental impacts
Emission free
Waste during manufacturing phase

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Solar Power

Concentrated solar power

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Solar Power

Concentrated solar power


Solar thermal energy
Uncertain
Sustainable
Environmental impacts
Emission free
Animal mortality

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


U.S. Energy Mix

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Electric Power Generation


Future of Renewable Generation

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Transmission and
Distribution
Transmission and Distribution
Systems

Transformers used to step up voltages


from generation units to transmission
lines
High voltage transmission
Distribution systems provide power at
different voltage levels for various loads

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Transmission and
Distribution
United States Transmission Grid

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Transmission and
Distribution
North American Electric Reliability Corporation
(NERC)

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Load
Load Patterns

Daily
Weekly
Seasonal

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Power System Operation


Economic Dispatch/Unit Commitment

Optimal generation schedule meeting


the demand
Transmission constraints
Uncertainty in generation, load, and
transmission network

Electricity Market Deregulation

Market power and competition


Long term benefit
ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and
Protection

Power System Operation


Electricity Market Deregulation

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Power System Operation


Power System Stability
Power System Protection

System models: generators,


transformers, and transmission lines
Fault analysis
Protection devices

ECEN 459 Power System Fault Analysis and


Protection

Topics of ECEN 459


Power System Fault Analysis and
Protection

Chapter 2: Single-phase and threephase analysis


Chapter 3: Transmission line parameters
Chapter 4: Transmission line modeling
Chapter 5: Transformer modeling
Chapter 12: Unbalanced system
operation
ChapterECEN
13:
Faults and protection
459 Power System Fault Analysis and
Protection